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Author Guidelines

Publication in Ethnobotany Research & Applications is open to anyone.

Ethnobotany Research & Applications is open access, and does not charge publication fees.

When a paper has two or more authors, the author submitting the manuscript is expected to be the primary author. A cover letter accompanying an electronic manuscript submission should state which author is responsible for revision and for reading digital proofs and that the manuscript is not under consideration by any other publication. Please also include all required data from the submission form including the number of text pages, the number of tables, figures, and appendices.

Ethnobotany Research and Applications publishes peer-reviewed scientific articles on interactions between people and plants. Primarily agronomic or horticultural papers and those concerned mainly with checklists of useful plants or analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants should be submitted elsewhere.
Articles are considered in the following categories as long as the focus is upon ethnobotany:

  • Research (applied or theoretical based on hypotheses or questions) 
  • Applications (case studies, implementation of ethnobotanical knowledge)
  • Databases and Inventories (articles presenting databases and ethnobiological inventories)
  • Education (research, curriculum development, and photo essays)
  • Essays and perspective editorials
  • Photo essays
  • Travel logs
  • Poetries
  • Methodology reviews
  • Theoretical discussions
  • Reviews

If particular plants are cited as part of primary field data/results, then the identification of species must be supported by voucher specimens that have been deposited in a herbarium. If interviews were conducted then it is also expected that the specific voucher specimen materials will have been positively identified by people who provided the information being discussed. 

Please follow these instructions when submitting a manuscript for review:

  • Format: The primary manuscript should be submitted as a OpenOffice (*.odt), Word (*.doc or *.docx), Word Perfect (*.wpd), or RTF (*.rtf) file using 8.5 x 11 inch paper size with 1 inch margins and single spacing throughout the document. Submit additional materials such as figures as separate files in their original, non-compressed format. Do not embed images and other figures within Word files or pdf documents.
  • Font: Any modern font may be used, but articles will be formatted in Arial for publication.
  • Length: Manuscripts of any length will be considered. Longer manuscripts may require more time for review and editing. Concise documents using references to summarize lengthy discussions are highly recommended.
  • Style: The Council of Science Editors Scientific Style and Format Manual, 7th Edition, is the primary reference used in setting the standards for the preparation of the manuscripts. The format style of manuscripts (especially Literature Cited entries), further, must conform to the practices followed in the most recent online publication of Ethnobotany Research and Applications. The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, may be consulted for additional guidance.
  • Numbers: In the text, spell out one-digit numbers unless they are used with units of measure (e.g., four oranges vs. 4 cm) and use numerals for larger numbers. Only use commas to denote thousands with numbers 10,000 or greater (e.g., 4500 vs. 45,000). Do not begin sentences with an abbreviation or numeral. Do not use footnotes except for title and within tables.


Abstract: An abstract must be submitted. The abstract should not exceed 250 words for English Language papers. Additional translations of the abstract in the language of the region / country where the research has been conducted may also be included and are encouraged. For papers in languages other than English an Extended Abstract in English, including sections covering the complete paper (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions) needs to be included. Table and figure captions of non-English language papers need to be given both in the original language and in English.

The abstract should include the following separate sections:

Background: the context and purpose of the study

Methods: how the study was performed and statistical tests used

Results: the main findings

Conclusions: brief summary and potential implications


Keywords: Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.


Background: The Background section should explain the background to the work, its aims, a summary of the existing literature.


Methods: The methods section should include:

  • the aim, design and setting of the work
  • the characteristics of participants or description of materials
  • a clear description of all processes, interventions and comparisons.
  • the type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate


Results: This section should include the findings of the work including, if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and figures.


Discussion: This section should discuss the implications of the findings in context of existing research and highlight

limitations of the study.


Conclusions: This should state clearly the main conclusions and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the work.



List of abbreviations: If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.

Ethics approval and consent to participate: All manuscripts must include a statement on ethics approval and consent (even where the need for approval was waived), including the name of the ethics committee that approved the study and the committee’s reference number if appropriate. Studies involving animals must include a statement on ethics approval. Any manuscript must include a statement referring to its compliance with the Protocol of Nagoya on Access and Benefit Sharing if appropriate.

Consent for publication: If a manuscript contains any individual person’s data in any form (including individual details, images or videos), consent to publish must be obtained from that person, or in the case of children, their parent or legal guardian. If a manuscript does not contain any individual person´s data, please state “Not applicable” in this section.

Availability of data and materials: Please indicate if any datasets have been deposited in public repositories.

Competing interests: All financial and non-financial competing interests must be declared in this section.

Funding: All sources of funding for the research reported should be declared. The role of the funding body in the esign of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript should be declared.

Authors' contributions: The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section.


Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials. Authors need to obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section. 

Literature Cited:

This journal has its own citation style, and this section should be carefully edited so that citation formatting follows journal standards. Poorly formatted Literature Cited sections (and in-text citations) can cause delays in the copyediting process, so it is in the interest of authors to carefully edit all entries. Authors should refer to recent articles for detailed examples, but a brief formatting overview is below:

  • EXAMPLE - Journal article citation: Mourão JS, Araujo HFP, Almeida FS. 2006. Ethnotaxonomy of mastofauna as practiced by hunters of the municipality of Paulista, state of Paraíba-Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2:19-21.
  • EXAMPLE - Book citiation: Martin GJ. 1995. Ethnobotany: A methods manual. Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (Be sure to list the country of publication, even if the city is well-known. No mention of page number is required.)
  • EXAMPLE - Book chapter citation: Taylor RSL, Shahi S, Chaudhary RP. 2002. Ethnobotanical research in the proposed Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale Rhododendron conservation area, Nepal. In Vegetation and Society: Their interaction in Himalayas. Edited by RP Chaudhary, BP Subedi, OR Vetaas & TH Aase. Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal, and University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, Pp. 26-37. (Notice order of page range, book title, editors, publisher, and place of publication.)
  • The authors cannot be listed as "Author et al."; all the authors need to be fully listed in this section.
  • Entries are listed in alphabetical order. If the last name of the first author is the same for multiple entries, alphabetize by the first author's first initial. If initials are the same, alphabetize by the last name of the second author, third author, etc.
  • There should be no spaces between the first and second initials of an author's name. See the examples above.
  • First Authors: The last name/surname of the Author1 (or the sole author) is listed first, followed by the initial(s) of the given name/forename(s). See the examples above.
  • Non-first authors: All subsequent authors for a citation are listed with initials of given name coming after the surname. See examples above.
  • Insert a period after the final author's name.
  • Publication year of the document is listed after the author(s). Insert a period after the publication year. Do not place the publication year in brackets.

In-text citations:

When citations are mentioned within the body of the text, please use the following guidelines:

  • The general in-text citation format is (AuthorSurname Year) with no punctuation between the name and year. Example: (Guralnick 1998)
  • If the citation has 2 authors, list both surnames separated by "&". Example: (Guralnick & Neill 1996)
  • If the citation has more than two authors, list the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and the publication year. Example: (Guralnick et al. 1997)
  • Note that “et al.” is always in italics, has a period after "al" and does NOT have a comma after the period
  • Use “&” to separate 2 author names when the citation is in parentheses but “and” when the citation is within the body of the sentence – “Prior work reported similar results (Bass & Smith 1980).” or “Prior work by Bass and Smith (1980) reported similar results.”
  • If citing more than one source at a time, list sources in alphabetical order, separate sources with a single comma after the year, and do not include “and” before the last source listed. Example: (Anderson 1997, Bass & Smith 1980, Butista 1964)
  • Check all the references in the document and match them with those listed in "Literature Cited" section. Make sure that every reference is cited with the same date, name, etc. Check both ways (from the references and from the text). There should be no entries in the Literature Cited section that are not referenced within the main text, and there should be no in-text citations that are not listed in the Literature Cited section.
Figures and tables:
Figures and tabkes can be included in the main text. However, IN ADDITION high resolution versions of all figure and table files need also to be provided as supplementary files.

Figure and table captions:
Please include a list of captions for all figures and tales.
Potential reviwers:
Please include the names and emails of at least three colleagues who might be contacted as potential reviewers of the manuscript.
Please also include the name of one member of the editorial board that you suggest as handling editor of the manuscript.

Recommendations for authors and more extensive manuscript guidelines may be found at:

All manuscripts are requested to be submitted electronically using the Online Manuscript Submission System. Figures should be submitted as separate files using original formats (e.g., images should be in image files not embedded within Word or pdf documents). This system is intended to be user friendly as a streamlined approach to submitting manuscripts electronically. It permits a subsequent process of peer-review process that is usually rapid. However, in order for this process to be effective, you must provide a valid email address for communication.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. Originality: The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor). This document is NOT similar in content or details to any other articles the author(s) has already published or have under consideration. This document is not a review article but represents original creative thought.

  2. Conflict of Interests: Ethnobotany Research & Applications policy requires you to state whether you or any of your co-authors have financial or other conflicts of interest that might be construed as influencing the results or interpretation of your study. One author may acknowledge on behalf of all co-authors acting as the duly authorized agent of the co-authors (having been appointed either orally or in writing by each of the authors of the paper.) By checking this box, the author declares to have no conflicts of interest, and if there are coauthors, they too have no conflicts of interest.

  3. Author's Warranty: By checking this box the author(s) represents that he/she is the sole proprietor of the materials in the manuscript; that it does not infringe upon any existing copyright; that it has not heretofore been published; and that to the best of his/her knowledge it contains no libelous or other unlawful matter. The author(s) will hold harmless the publisher against any claim, demand, or recovery finally sustained in any proceedings brought against the publisher by reason of any violation of any proprietary right or copyright, or any unlawful matter contained in the manuscript. If previously copyrighted material is included in the manuscript, the author(s) hereby confirms that unrestricted permission for its reuse has been received from the original copyright holder. A copy of each permission should be emailed directly to the Editor

  4. Ethics:By checking this box, the author(s) confirms that:

  5. The submission file is in Open Office, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.

  6. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.

  7. The authors have provided the names and emails of at least three potential reviewers, and suggested a member of the editorial boad who might handle the manuscript.

Copyright Notice

All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.


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