Sendera-clandi (Xenostegia tridentata, Convolvulaceae): A medicinal creeper

Daniel Frank Austin

Abstract


In 1692 Rheede reported vines in India by the Malayalam name sendera-clandi. Soon afterward, the medicinal species was in London, imported from India and West Africa. Subsequent exploration of Africa and Asia revealed that these diminutive creepers were widespread and that they were considered medicinal throughout the Old World tropics. Now known scientifically as Xenostegia tridentata, people have long recognized two distinct morphotypes, one African and one Asian. Recent research confirms that these two represent subspecies of X. tridentata whose ranges overlap in southern India and Sri Lanka. Historical data indicate that the overlap was caused, or at least enhanced, by traders moving between Asia and Africa.

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