Ethnobotany Research and Applications 2023-09-11T00:03:09-07:00 Rainer W. Bussmann Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>ERA is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary phytochemical screening of Posa kumura: an uncharted ethnic food of Assam 2023-07-02T04:18:11-07:00 Mrinal Kalita Sushil K Middha Debadin Bose Arvind K Goyal <p><em>Background</em>: India is a land of diverse ethnicity with plethora of ethnic foods. One of the ethnic foods is Posa kumura (a form prepared from matured fruit of <em>Benincasa hispida</em>) which is consumed in Assam. However, being not so popular, till date there is no written document to provide an evidence of its origin.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The present ethnobotanical study consists of both online (Google form) and offline (field visits and interviews) survey with 918 informers of the state having different gender, age groups and occupation through semi- structured questionnaires along with the preliminary phytochemical analysis.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The findings revealed that of 918 respondents (559 male, 358 female and 01 transgender) from 35 districts of Assam, 372 consumes Posa kumura in various forms. Of the 372 people, 75.81% opined that the matured <em>Benincasa hispida </em>(Thunb.) Cogn. is placed in shade for varying periods of time for conversion to Posa kumura. Though the production process reported is similar, it is different in terms of how people intend to consume. Frying of Posa kumura (49%) was the most favoured mode of consumption followed by curry (27%), dry (6%) and <em>pitha </em>(6%). The age-old health benefits claimed by the consumer of Posa kumura includes improved digestion, anti-diabetic, promotes weight loss, etc. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, coumarins. However, phenolics, tannins, phlobatannins, triterpenoids, lignins, quinones, anthraquinones, resins, fixed oils and fats were absent. Besides, Posa kumura also enhances milk production and helps prevent foot and mouth disease of cows.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Thus, it can be inferred that the functional ingredients of this food lead to improvement in health in a holistic way.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ash gourd; <em>Benincasa hispida </em>(Thunb.) Cogn.; Cucurbitaceae; ethnic food; ethnobotany; phytochemical analysis; Posa kumura.</p> 2023-07-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mrinal Kalita, Sushil K Middha, Debadin Bose, Arvind Goyal Ethnogynecological study of traditional therapeutic plants used by the indigenous communities: A case study from District Gujrat Punjab, Pakistan 2023-04-02T22:08:23-07:00 Salihah Khadim Khafsa Malik Rahmatullah Qureshi Misbah Sabith Rehman <p><em>Background</em>: The present study aimed to evaluate the indigenous knowledge and use of medicinal plant species to treat different gynecological diseases by local people. Indigenous people use medicinal plants to treat various gynecological disorders.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnomedicinal data was collected from 110 randomly selected local informants through semi-structured questionnaires as well as face-to-face interviews. These data was quantitatively analyzed using various ethnobotanical indices such as family importance value, relative frequency of citation, use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (ICF), Jaccard index (JI), and ANOVA.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 59 plant species belonging to 24 families were recorded which were used to treat various 40 gynecological disorders. The informants documented the maximum number of plants used for irregular menstruation (15 spp.), followed by leucorrhea (11 spp.), gonorrhea (7 spp.), and abortion (5 spp.). The dominant family was Apiaceae (5 species). The dominant growth form was herbs (57.63%), while the common plant part used in remedies preparation was leaves (26%). Most people use medicinal plants in the form of extract (25 %), followed by decoction (17 %). The plant species with maximum use value was recorded for <em>Ricinus communis </em>(0.97), followed by <em>Mentha</em><em> viridis </em>(0.96), while the highest RFC value was reported for<em> Cuminum</em> <em>cyminum </em>(0.69). The maximum ICF value was reported for vomiting, emmenagogue, and sexual issues (0.99%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: This is the first-ever quantitative study focusing mainly on ethnoecological uses of medicinal plants from the district Gujrat, which emphasize the significance of traditional herbal plant remedies used for primary health care needs. The results of this study would serve as a baseline for advanced pharmacological and phytochemical screening pertaining to gynecological disorder.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Medicinal plants, gynecological disorders, Traditional knowledge, fidelity level; Gujrat, Pakistan</p> 2023-06-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Salihah Khadim, Khafsa Malik , Rahmatullah Qureshi, Misbah, Sabith Rehman Ethnobotany of plants used by indigenous communities in Birjand, a dry region with rich local traditional knowledge in eastern Iran 2023-07-22T05:16:46-07:00 Toktam Mohammadi Hamid Moazzeni Atefeh Pirani Jamil Vaezi Khadijeh Motahhari Mohammad Reza Joharchi Rainer W. Bussmann <p><em>Background</em>: Despite locating in a dry region with a mostly homogeneous ethnic group, South Khorassan province has a high diversity of medicinal plant uses and rich cultural background. The current study was conducted in Birjand (South Khorassan province) and its 18 adjacent villages to document information concerning the plants used and introduce important plant species using ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In total, 59 people were interviewed about local plants and their utilizations using a semi-structured questionnaire and personal observations between 2018 to 2020. All of the documented plants were collected and identified. The obtained data were analyzed using quantitative ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 119 plant species belonging to 93 families were identified. Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Lamiaceae were the most used plant families. The most frequently plant part used was the aerial part. Decoction was reported as the most common preparation method. The highest UV and RFC values were recorded for <em>Sclerorhachis leptoclada</em>, <em>Scrophularia leucoclada</em>, and <em>Nepeta saturejoides</em>. The highest ICF was reported for digestive system disorders. 35 species showed fidelity level value of 100%.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The present study reveals that the people in Birjand and the adjacent areas have a rich indigenous knowledge regarding the plants. Moreover, plants still maintain their place in people's lives, especially as medicine and food. Older people were more knowledgeable than young ones. The results of this study can be used for screening plant species for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The present study will facilitate the protection programs of the endangered plants in Birjand area.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Conservation, Food, Medicinal plants, Pharmacology, Traditional knowledge</p> 2023-08-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Toktam Mohammadi, Hamid Moazzeni, Atefeh Pirani, Jamil Vaezi, Khadijeh Motahhari, Mohammad Reza Joharchi, Rainer W. Bussmann Medicinal plant utilization among three linguistic groups in selected districts of Jammu and Kashmir 2023-08-09T00:52:44-07:00 Tawseef Ahmad Mir Muatasim Jan Tuybia Bilal Hammad Ahmad Jan Rainer W Bussmann Neha Saini <p><em>Introduction: </em>A number of indigenous communities reside in the Himalayan belt of Kashmir, where absence of modern health care facilities represents crucial problems to their survival. This study was conducted with the aim to document the use of medicinal plants by Gujjar, Bakerwal and Kashmiri communities of three different districts Jammu and Kashmir.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>A total of 167 participants were selected through snowball sampling to collect the data using a semi-structured questionnaire. Among these, 44 were Kashmiri, 67 Gujjar and 56 Bakerwal between 24 and 80 years of age.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>During the study, 80 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented. The most dominant family in terms of number of taxa was Asteraceae (11 species). Herbaceous taxa were the most used life form, and leaves were the most commonly used plant part. Infusion was the most preferred method used in extracts preparation. The highest number of sixteen species (20%) were uniquely used by Kashmiri, while the Gujjar use the lowest number of thirteen species (16%). A cross-cultural evaluation of plant resources indicated that the three cultures possessed 14% of the comparable plants.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The rural and inaccessible communities still lay a considerable emphasis on medicinal plants as a viable cure for a diverse spectrum of illnesses. But the disappearance of this vital information is imminent. To assess and retain this native knowledge for the invention of innovative new treatments, more phytochemical and pharmacological research should be done on the plants that are reportedly utilized by all of the groups.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, Traditional knowledge, Gujjar, Bakerwal, Kashmiri</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tawseef Ahmad Mir, Muatasim Jan, Tuybia Bilal, Hammad Ahmad Jan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Neha Saini Ethnoveterinary data in Britain and Ireland: can native herbal medicine promote animal health? 2023-07-17T07:10:56-07:00 William Milliken <p><em>Background:</em> The use of plants, and occasionally fungi, to treat and cure animals or to supplement their feeding for livestock was widespread, globally. In some parts of the world this remains a key practice, but there is increasing use of veterinary pharmaceuticals which can have a negative effect on the wider environment. Meanwhile, traditional knowledge is being lost at a great rate, before it has been properly recorded and analyzed.</p> <p><em>Objective:</em> This research analyses current and past ethnoveterinary use in Britain and Ireland and analyses the data within the context of medicinal uses, pharmacology, and other ethnoveterinary information collected in Europe.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Ethnoveterinary data, collected from citizen science and literature, was analyzed by regional distribution (counties), use records (UR), and ATCvet classification.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A broad survey of the plants and fungi traditionally used to treat animals in the Britain and Ireland revealed 198 medicinal plants, principally for farm animals. This was a preliminary investigation, and although requests for current information were sent out in several formats though citizen science, the responses were relatively limited compared with other <em>in situ</em> ethnoveterinary surveys in other European countries. This may be partly due to the methodology, but probably also due to increased availability of modern veterinary medicines, the loss of traditional knowledge transfer between the generations, and concerns about animal safety, toxicity, and effectiveness with phytotherapy. The information reported here was compared with data collected in other countries and their known pharmacology. Some of the plant species cited are used more broadly within Europe for the same medicinal purposes, but in other cases the use appears to be restricted to Britain and Ireland.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>The information on ethnoveterinary uses recorded in this paper could assist with the development of novel biodegradable drugs and feed supplements for future animal management in a changing climate. With the increasing use of herbal lays and biodiversity grazing, and serious concerns about the over-use of veterinary medicines such as antibiotics and anthelmintics, and associated negative impacts on the environment and biodiversity, developing novel plant-based remedies may help to address some of the challenges. Further research on traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge in Britain and Ireland is timely, before the information has disappeared.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: ethnoveterinary; plants; health; feed; livestock; anthelmintic; antimicrobial; traditional knowledge.</p> 2023-08-09T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 William Milliken Cross-cultural ethnomedicinal study of the wild species of the genus Berberis used by the ethnic communities living along both sides of the Indo-Pak border in Kashmir 2023-05-30T08:28:32-07:00 Hammad Ahmad Jan Tawseef Ahmad Mir Rainer W. Bussmann Muatasim Jan Uzma Hanif Sher Wali <p><em>Background: </em>Plants have been the basis of human medical systems for thousands of years in Pakistan and India. This study was conducted to compare the traditional medicinal knowledge and species diversity of the genus <em>Berberis</em> that are widely distributed in the study area.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The data was collected through group discussion and face-to-face interviews from 2,368 participants during 2020–2022, using a semi-structured questionnaire.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>We collected a total of five species of the genus <em>Berberis</em>. Four species (<em>Berberis aristata</em>, <em>Berberis lycium</em>, <em>Berberis pseudumbellata</em>, and <em>Berberis vulgaris</em>) were documented from Kashmir Pakistan and four species (<em>Berberis aristata</em>, <em>Berberis kashmirana</em>, <em>Berberis lycium</em>, and <em>Berberis pseudumbellata</em>) from Kashmir India. The most commonly reported species in both areas was <em>Berberis lycium</em>. The most common group of diseases treated in Kashmir, India, was digestive diseases, and in Kashmir, Pakistan, liver and endocrine system diseases. The root was found to be the most used plant part in both regions (33% of all uses). The decoction was found to be used predominantly for the preparation of herbal remedies (26%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The results of this study clearly show that ethnomedicinal knowledge is still alive in the study area, but due to political restrictions, the local people cannot share the knowledge easily.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnomedicine; Genus <em>Berberis</em>; Cross-cultural study; Kashmir Pakistan; Kashmir India</p> 2023-06-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hammad Ahmad Jan, Tawseef Ahmad Mir, Rainer W. Bussmann, Muatasim Jan, Uzma Hanif, Sher Wali The tale of Hawai‘i’s two scented laua‘e, Microsorum spectrum and Microsorum grossum: Solving the mystery of their history and restoring indigenous knowledge, using the synergism of Linnaean and Polynesian taxonomy. 2023-07-09T19:57:54-07:00 Puanani Anderson-Fung <p><em>Background:</em> This study quelled a fervent disagreement by restoring indigenous knowledge. The issue was—had the <strong>laua‘e</strong> fern, <em>Microsorum grossum,</em> been part of Hawaiian culture “since earliest times,” as asserted by certain cultural specialists, or was it introduced to Hawai‘i after 1900, as inferred from historical records? Assuming both expert opinions were correct, I surmised that there had been another plant species named <strong>laua‘e </strong>prior to 1900, the identity of which had become obscure.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> This hypothesis was tested by reconstructing the history of Hawaiian <strong>laua‘e </strong>using a dual-disciplinary approach—drawing on knowledge referenced by Linnaean and indigenous plant names—to answer three questions. Was there evidence that <em>M. grossum </em>grew in Hawai‘i before 1900? If not, was there evidence of another species named <strong>laua‘e</strong> before 1900? If so, what was it?</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Records of botanical surveys provided no evidence that <em>M. grossum </em>was present in Hawai‘i before 1919, and the distribution of Polynesian names for the species was consistent with this finding. English and Hawaiian literature of the 19<sup>th</sup> century evidenced an unidentified plant, named ”<strong>lauae</strong>,” that was herbaceous and very fragrant. Observations from field biologists led to the inference that this was <em>Microsorum spectrum, </em>and its Hawaiian name, <strong>laua‘e</strong>, was confirmed by handwritten notes on an herbarium specimen.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Awareness of the <strong>laua‘e</strong> <strong>maoli </strong>‘native <strong>laua‘e</strong>’, <em>M. spectrum, </em>faded as its populations shrank, and the introduced <strong>laua‘e</strong> <strong>hānai</strong> ‘adopted <strong>laua‘e</strong>’, <em>M. grossum, </em>eventually supplanted the cultural role of its predecessor.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, plant name, fern, historical reconstruction, cultural memory, comparative linguistics.</p> 2023-08-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Puanani Anderson-Fung A quantitative ethnobotanical approach to assess knowledge richness on the use of plants among the Santal Medicine Men of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India 2023-07-09T23:18:52-07:00 Bandana Pradhan Swarnendu Mondal <p><em>Background:</em> Documentation of folk tradition on the use of medicinal plants is being carried out by the ethnobotanist from different parts of the world. The present study aims to measure medicinal plant use-knowledge among the Santal tribal people of Birbhum district. In terms of quantitative ethnobotany, this study is the first attempt from the district of Birbhum, West Bengal. The quantitative analysis in this research work identifies potential medicinal plants and plants which demand priority for immediate conservation.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> This ethnomedicinal survey was done in the tribal pockets of Birbhum district from August 2019 to August 2021. In this study 31 tribal informants were selected employing purposive sampling method and interrogated by throwing semi-structured questionnaires. <em>In-situ</em> (Inventory interview, guided tour) and <em>ex-situ</em> (visual stimuli, photographic documentation of preserved herbal drugs along with questionnaire) methods were applied during data collection. Free and Prior Informed Consent (PIC) has been taken. Recorded data were analysed by conventional (qualitative) and quantitative ethnobotanical (Informants Consensus Factor, Relative Frequency of Citation and Fidelity Level) techniques. Finally, the IUCN Red List was scrutinized for the global status of the documented species and conservation aspects were highlighted based on quantitative techniques.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 40 ethnomedicinal plant species were recorded which belong to 33 families and 40 genera were recorded. These plants were formulated in curing about 34 different diseases and ailments of human and veterinary animals. Herbaceous plants (35%) were mostly used in remedy preparations. Decoction (N=22) is the preferred form of medication followed by poultice and ointment (N = 11), massage (N = 4), Chewing (N = 1), powder (N = 1). Commonly used plant parts were underground parts like roots, rhizome and pseudobulb (N=20) followed by leaf (N=10), stem bark (N=7), flower (N=2), whole plant (N=1). Fic value of 12 disease categories range from 0.31-0.764, among them respiratory disorders got the highest value. Quantitative analysis following Relative Frequency of Citation(RFC) and Fidelity Level(FL%) indices showed that some taxa were getting maximum Fidelity Level (100%) and RFC (1), namely <em>Euphorbia fusiformis</em>, <em>Madhuca longifolia </em>var. <em>latifolia</em>, <em>Cleistanthus collinus</em>, etc. The IUCN status of 40 reported medicinal plant species showed 5 % species are presently Vulnerable (<em>Jatropha nana</em>, <em>Cleistanthus collinus</em>),15 % Least Concern (<em>Eclipta prostrata, Hellinia speciosa, Litsea glutinosa, Pterospermum acerifolium, Rivea hypocrateriformis, Woodfordia fruticosa</em>), while the status is unknown for 80% of the documented species.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The study concluded that some important ethnomedicinal species like <em>Woodfordia fruticosa, Premna herbacea, Pterospermum acerifolium, Ruellia suffruticosa, Cleistanthus colliinus, Hellinia speciosa</em>, etc. are frequently used in tribal medicine of the Birbhum district as identified on basis of their high RFC and FL values. It caters for the scope of further study with these plants in the line of pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. There is also an urgent need to acknowledge Local Knowledge Holders and preservation of associated phytoresources of the study area which has not been addressed till date. Medicinal plant species such as <em>Jatropha nana</em> and <em>Cleistanthus collinus</em> are Vulnerable and many others could be included in the threatened category in near future due to overexploitation. So conservation priority and conservation measures should be set up through in-depth study of diversity and population of the medicinal plants which are unsustainably harvested.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal flora, Birbhum district, High Fidelity, crude drug, pharmacognosy, IUCN status, conservation</p> 2023-07-25T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Swarnendu Mondal, Bandana Pradhan Local perceptions and endogenous knowledge of Hoary Basil (Ocimum americanum L.) in Burkina Faso 2023-08-09T09:01:15-07:00 Hervé Kabore Mariam Kibere Kiswendsida Romaric Nanema <p><em>Background: Ocimum americanum</em> is an aromatic species from the family of<em> Lamiaceae</em>. It has significant socioeconomic potential and is used by the local population in Burkina Faso. Although the species makes a significant contribution to household well-being, the organizations in charge of natural resource management are unaware of and undervalue its socioeconomic value. This study was initiated to assess local communities’ perception of the uses and management techniques of <em>Ocimum americanum</em> to establish sustainable strategies for its better valorization.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in 21 villages covering three phytogeographical sectors of Burkina Faso. All, 160 farmers were interviewed. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) and use value (UV) were used to express the results.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The results showed that socio-cultural factors significantly affect the use value of the species at a threshold of 5%. The primary uses of wild basil are traditional medicine, food, conservation of seeds and foodstuffs, fodder, insect repellant, and tradimystics. The species is still found in the wild, although the majority of informants (54.9%) reported a decline in its population, making it threatened with extinction. However, for beneficial purposes, 24.5% of respondents keep the species in paraculture.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>This study demonstrates how important this species is to local communities. The endogenous knowledge collected among the local population could serve as a baseline for the valuation of the species.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><em>: Ocimum americanum</em>, ethnobotanical survey, endogenous knowledge, Burkina Faso</p> 2023-09-15T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hervé Kabore, Mariam Kibere, Kiswendsida Romaric Nanema Ethnomedicinal uses and conservation status of medicinal orchids from Western Himalayas of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan 2023-05-13T02:13:21-07:00 Karamit Hussain Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar Ansar Mehmood Shakeel Sabir Muhammad Shakeel Awan Khawaja Shafique Ahmad Rainer W. Bussmann <p><em>Background: </em>The medicinal orchid species of the Himalaya are of great importance due to their various medicinal properties. These orchids have been used for centuries by the local communities in the region for their medicinal benefits. The Himalayan orchids are particularly unique because they have adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of the high altitude and harsh weather. Unfortunately, due to habitat loss and overharvesting for commercial purposes, many orchid species are now threatened with extinction. The main objective of this research was to identify, document ethnomedicinal uses and find conservation status of medicinal orchids used by local inhabitants of western Himalayas, Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Interviews were conducted with 80 residents (30 women and 50 men) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), informant agreement ratio (IAR), plant parts value (PPV) and conservation status were used to express the results.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The research area is home of 18 orchids that are significant from an ethnobotanical perspective. The tuber (40%) and root (30%), followed by the rhizome (15%), were the most favored plant parts amongst the species that were recorded. The highest RFC was recorded for <em>Habenaria intermedia</em> (0.69) while <em>Gymnadenia orchidis </em>had the lowest 0.05. The UV was between 0.04 to 0.56. <em>Habenaria intermedia </em>was found to possess the highest UV (UV 0.56) whereas <em>Cypripedium cordigerum</em> had the loweest UV (0.04). The highest FL was found in <em>Dactylorhiza</em><em> hatagirea </em>(68.75%) and <em>Goodyera repens</em> had the lowest FL (6.25%). The highest IAR value is 1.00, which contributes to digestive disorders, liver diseases, gout, urinary tract infection, antibacterial, analgesic, skin diseases, tuberculosis, and diabetes. <em>The main plant parts used by the locals for ethnomedicine are tuber, root, rhizome, and leaves. The conservation status showed that 61 % species are vulnerable, 31% are endangered and 6% are near to threatened.</em></p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> According to ethnobotanical study, the native people of the researched area are knowledgeable about the practices of orchids, and both the plants and the native knowledge need to be protected.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal Plants, Western Himalayas, Conservation Status, Endangered Species</p> 2023-06-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Karamit Hussain, Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar, Ansar Mehmood, Shakeel Sabir, Muhammad Shakeel Awan, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad, Rainer W. Bussmann Documentation of ethnomedicinal plants used by the people living in reserved forests of semi-arid region Punjab Pakistan 2023-08-18T09:32:14-07:00 Muhammad Waheed Shiekh Marifatul Haq Muhammad Azhar Jameel Fahim Arshad Rainer W. Bussmann <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnobotanical investigations serve as a foundation for comprehending the intricate interplay between plants and people within specific geographical regions, while also informing conservation strategies and priorities. The present study was conducted within the marginalized communities in the reserved forests of Punjab, Pakistan's semi-arid region.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The study participants were selected using random sampling techniques, and they underwent semi-structured interviews involving open-ended questions to gather the required data.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> In total, 82 plant taxa were documented, representing 74 genera and 32 families. The predominant category was wild herbs (45 species), with whole plants (35 species) being commonly employed in drug preparations. These studied plants were noted for their efficacy in addressing 30 distinct ailments, with fever (33 species) and gastrointestinal disorders (28 species) being the primary conditions they were prominently used for.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>These findings validate the substantial plant-based knowledge held by the populations residing in the semi-arid region. Nonetheless, the rapid pace of urbanization, coupled with economic growth and evolving sociocultural dynamics, has posed challenges to the preservation of traditional wisdom. A notable decline has been observed in the count of herbal practitioners, with their successors displaying diminished interest in the field due to demanding work and limited profitability. As a result, the revitalization of existing traditional practices could potentially be achieved through initiatives such as organic product development, cultivating ethnospecies in home gardens, and establishing collaborations with herbal industries.</p> <p>Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Reserved Forest, local communities, semi-arid region, flora.</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Waheed, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Muhammad Azhar Jameel , Fahim Arshad, Rainer W. Bussmann Quantitative ethno-gynecological survey of traditional medicinal plants from Punjab province, Pakistan 2023-08-19T02:53:59-07:00 Huma Zareef Fazli Sarim Rahmatullah Qureshi <p><em>Background</em>: The purpose of the present study was to document quantitative indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used for treating various gynecological disorders by the herbalist (Hakeem) and traditional communities of selected rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Materials and Methods</em>: The study was conducted from February 2022 to January 2023. During the research work, the use of medicinal plants and their medicinal uses for curing gynecological disorders were recorded by interviewing 600 informants of different age groups (20-85 years) via semi-structured interviews.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In all, 60 therapeutic plants belonging to 15 families were recorded that were used by the <em>traditional communities</em> of study areas for the cure of various kinds of gynecological disorders. Among families, Asteraceae was the largest that contributed 17 species. The dominant life form was herbs (39 species) and the mostly used plant part was whole plant (14 species). The highest Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) was recorded for <em>Anethum graveolens </em>(0.96). Similarly, the highest Use Value (0.98) was recorded for <em>Amaranthus caudatu,s </em><em>Amaranthus angustifolius </em>and the lowest (0.33) for <em>Justicia adhatoda</em>. Likewise, the highest Fidelity Level (FL) was recorded for <em>Anaphalis nepalensis </em>(100%) which was used to treat leucorrhea, and the lowest FL was recorded for <em>Oxystelma esculentum </em>(41.94%) in treating gonorrhea. Family importance index (FIV) indicated that Asteraceae was the dominant (96.66) in the region for contributing medicinal plants, while Zingeberaceae was the lowest one (16.66).</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em><em>The selected sites being remote areas are devoid of basic health facilities, so the natives learnt about medicinal plants to treat human diseases including gynecological problems.</em> The current research work illustrated that the inhabitants have good knowledge about native plants for treating gynecological disorders. This research can be used as a benchmark for future pharmacological studies to discover novel herbal medicines.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Folk knowledge, Quantitative, Medicinal plants, Gynecological disorders, Punjab, Pakistan</p> 2023-09-14T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Huma Zareef, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Fazli Malik Sarim Afro-diasporic ethnobotany: Food plants and food sovereignty of Quilombos in Brazil 2023-07-09T23:18:09-07:00 Maiara Gonçalves Natalia Hanazaki <p><em>Background: </em>Traditional territories can safeguard a great diversity of food plants through local practices that can contribute to the food security of these traditional people. Urbanization can affect food biodiversity and agrobiodiversity by reducing cultivation areas, providing other labor and employment alternatives, and due to other combined effects. The remaining Quilombo populations are groups of traditional people with African ancestry in Brazil, and several Quilombolas groups have their food sovereignty dependent on local agrobiodiversity.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Through a bibliographic review, we described the richness of food plant resources reported by remaining Quilombo communities, verifying the importance and potential use of plants, both native and exotic, for Quilombola sovereignty from the north to the south of the country.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> We selected 24 publications from 1,189 articles, which covered 39 Quilombola communities, with a concentration of research efforts in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. A total of 234 plants were registered, and despite their similarities, these communities have specificities in their knowledge of food plants, especially the native ones.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The sovereignty of the Quilombola people goes through the recognition of their ways of life in different biomes and contexts of socio-biodiversity.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Afro-Brazilian territoriality; food security; biodiversity conservation.</p> 2023-09-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Maiara Gonçalves, Natalia Hanazaki Ethnobotanical study of Makra Hills district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan 2023-08-14T09:58:27-07:00 Zaafran Mirzaman Sadaf Kayani Muhammad Manzoor Muhammad Azhar Jameel Muhammad Waheed Syed Waseem Gillani Choudhary Muhammad Babar Rainer W. Bussmann <p><em>Background:</em> It is the first ethno-botanical study to preserve the ethno-flora of Makkra hills along with their different uses to document the indigenous knowledge. This study enumerated and highlighted the ethno-botanical significance of plants for different used categories by local people in unexplored and biodiversity rich region of Makkra hills AJ&amp;K, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A questionnaire method was adopted to conduct an ethno-medicinal study. A Questionnaire were filled by researcher during interviewing the local people in their native languages and data was analyzed by quantitative ethno-botanical indices such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Use Value (UV), and Relative Importance (RI).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Our findings revealed 68 plant species belonging to 64 genera of 36 families were used by the inhabitants of Makkra hills for various purposes. Angiosperms were leading in number with the contribution of 62 species of ethnoflora of study area. Herbaceous flora contributed 75% of ethnoflora of study area. Leading plant families were Poacceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. Classification of ethnoflora based on use categories revealed the most used category was medicinal with 57 plant species followed by food 26 species and 19 species with miscellaneous uses. Among plant parts usage leaves were most used parts with the representation of 26 plant species.</p> <p>Three quantitative matrices were used to calculate the important ethnobotanical species of study area with their versatility in uses. Based on Use Value index and Relative Frequency Citation, <em>Juglans regia </em>showed higher values of 2.62 and 0.84 respectively. <em>Berberis lycium</em> was the most versatile species of Makkra hills having a Relative Importance value of 1.80.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> We conclude that the people of Makkra hills are still harbouring a good knowledge due to their dependences on local flora. Conservation practices along with providence of basic facilities to the local inhabitants will be helpful to retain and recover the vegetation of Makkra hills in its original position.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> RFC<strong>=</strong>Relative Frequency Citation, UV=Used value, Mis= Miscellaneous, Traditonal knowledge, Ethnobotanical indices</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zaafran Mirzaman, Sadaf Kayani, Muhammad Manzoor , Muhammad Azhar Jameel , Muhammad Waheed, Syed Waseem Gillani , Choudhary Muhammad Babar, Rainer W. Bussmann Deep ethnobotanical survey of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) in Morocco: variation of therapeutic uses, sources of information, and efficacy 2023-06-11T21:41:35-07:00 Meriem Soussi Wissal El Yaagoubi wissalelya@gmail.Com Meryem benjelloun Lahsen El Ghadraoui <p><em>Background:</em> An extensive ethnomedicinal analysis of anise (<em>Pimpinella anisum</em> L.) in Morocco was conducted as part of this study. We aimed to compile information on its medicinal uses and the amounts consumed by locals.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Interviews were conducted in seven Moroccan sites during 2019 and 2020. To examine the gathered data, descriptive and multivariate statistics were employed. We sought participant agreement on the specified therapies for each disorder group.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> 85 herbalist males and 600 participants ranging from 20 to 60 years old were interviewed in the study zone that uses or sells it for therapeutic purposes. The plant was primarily utilized by herbalists for food (18.93%), digestive disorders (18.93%), and laxatives (18.93%), while users use it for Dysmenorrhea (34.85%), anti-constipation (33.02%), antitussive (21.31%), and to promote Milk flow (10.82%). Other users used anise as an antitussive (12.47%) and a treatment for Dysmenorrhea (15.81%), while 14.92% of participants used it to encourage milk flow. Participants used the plant in dried form alone, and the usage form was like a Tisane or infusion in all investigated sites. However, all studied parameters varied among the tested sites.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The new study could be of great use in expanding knowledge of the medicinal flora and conserving ancestors' knowledge in Morocco's Middle Atlas and the Saiss Plain.</p> 2023-08-11T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Meriem Soussi, Wissal El Yaagoubi, Meryem benjelloun, Lahsen El Ghadraoui Medicinal ethnobotanical knowledge across urban cultural groups: A case study in a South African township 2023-04-18T05:47:22-07:00 Kara - Lee Prinsloo Riana Kleynhans Ray Jansen <p><em>Background</em>: The use of medicinal plants for primary health care is still prevalent in southern Africa, but the decline in indigenous traditional knowledge is cause for concern as this could lead to a loss of valuable indigenous cultural knowledge. Many ethnobotanical studies have been conducted amongst rural communities, however limited information is available on the indigenous cultural knowledge amongst mixed tribal urban communities</p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods</em>: This study was conducted in the diverse urban township of Tembisa, located in the eastern parts of Gauteng Province in South Africa. Through the use of structured questionnaires (n=2724), the Zulu, Tsonga, and Pedi ethnic groups' knowledge of 17 regularly used medicinal herbs was assessed.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results</em>: Our findings indicated that indigenous traditional knowledge is still prevalent in this urban setting, although the extent of this knowledge was significantly influenced by cultural group, participant age, residency period and age of migration into this urban environment. Two plant species <em>Artemisia afra</em> and <em>Helichrysum odoratissimum</em>, were particularly well known amongst all cultural groups, but knowledge on other plants varied. Generally, the younger generation had less knowledge than the elders with the exception for the Tsonga people.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Conclusion</em>: Although it was refreshing to find that cultural knowledge about medicinal plants still exists in an urban environment, the perceived lack of knowledge among the younger generation can be viewed as a risk to the continued existence of this knowledge, especiaaly if the opportunities to relay this knowledge becomes less, as influenced by modern urban living.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Keywords:</em> ethnobotany<strong>, </strong>medicinal plants, cultural knowledge, urban environment</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kara - Lee Prinsloo, Riana Kleynhans, Ray Jansen Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in Surghar Range of Pakistan 2023-06-20T20:30:36-07:00 Sarvat Rahim Amin Shah Shahid Iqbal <p><em>Background:</em> This comprehensive ethnobotanical study was undertaken for the first time to explore and document the medicinal plants used by the indigenous ethnic communities of Surghar Range, Pakistan. The study area is situated adjacent to Salt Range, which lies on the most southern part of Himalayan Ranges in Pakistan. Despite occurrence of so many medicinal plants, culture history and herbal medicines used among the indigenous communities, no explicit ethnobotanical studies are available from this unique region because the field of ethnobotany is still getting mature day by day in Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Semi-structured questionnaires, open interviews and field surveys were used to collect data on medicinal plants and demography from March 2017 to September 2020 from 500 informants by using different quantitative indices viz. relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant census factor (ICF), Jaccard Index (JI) and family use value (FUV) to analyze the data.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results:</em> A total of 417 plants belonging to 89 families were documented that are ethnobotanically used by ethnic communities. Most herbal remedies were used in the form of decoction (33%). ICF values indicate that cardio-vascular complaints ranked (0.7) followed by ENT diseases (0.6). Species like <em>Berberis lyceum</em>, <em>Forsskaolea tenacissima, Kickxia ramosissima, Momordica balsamina, Monotheca buxifolia, Pseudogaillonia hymenostephana, Rumex vesicarius,</em><em> Ocimum americanum, Schweinfurthia papilionacea </em>and <em>Viola</em> <em>cinerea </em>would be interesting targets for drug discovery and are suggested for further investigations.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the aboriginal people. Their traditional knowledge about medicinal plants must be validated with phytochemical and pharmacological screening to determine bioactive compounds and needs to be preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants; Jaccard Index; Surghar Range; Cardio-vascular; Menyanthaceae</p> 2023-07-13T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sarvat Rahim, Amin Shah, Shahid Iqbal Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the population of Ain Chkef (North central Morocco) 2023-05-05T04:22:05-07:00 Khadija Benamar Saad Ibnsouda Koraichi Saad Benamar Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim <p><em>Background</em><em>: </em>Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) use in the folk medicine is widely spread in Morocco. This work aims to study their use in Ain Chkef; a rural area in North central Morocco. It also documents multiples data concerning the ethno-medico-botanical traits of the most cited species.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>An ethnobotanical survey was carried out through the interview of 183 individuals. The responses were analyzed using several plant citation indexes (RFC; FIV; PPV and FL). Correlations between plants and humans of different ages, genders, educational levels, and marital status, were investigated by multiple components analysis (MCA) performed using XLSTAT software.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>93.44% of the studied population use MAPs. Among the 48 used species, belonging to 27 botanical families, the most frequently cited were <em>Origanum compactum </em>Benth<em>.</em> <em>Chenopodium ambrosioides </em>L, <em>Cuminum cyminum</em> L., <em>Mentha pulegium </em>L. Leaves were the dominant part used. The infusion and decoction were the principal preparation methods. MCA showed that people not or low using MAPs (&lt; 3) are sharing common traits: Male, not married, high educational level, &lt; 40 years aged. People highly (&gt; 7) or moderately (4 to 7) using MAPs are mainly: Female, married, with low educational level, &gt;40 years aged.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The present study highlighted the spread use of MAPs among the interviewed population in Ain Chkef as traditional remedies. Thus, this work will provide researchers with an important ethnobotanical database which can be exploited in the development of pharmacognosy.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Ethnobotanical study; medicinal plants; Ain Chkef; Plant citation indexes; multiple component analysis.</p> 2023-06-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Khadija Benamar, Saad Ibnsouda Koraichi , Saad Benamar, Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used for treatment of urinary tract infections in Mara region, Tanzania 2023-07-30T04:46:06-07:00 David Sylvester Kacholi Mary Zacharia Charwi Neema Gideon Mogha <p><em>Background:</em> Medicinal plants (MPs) are a valuable inheritance for humanity, especially in most rural communities that rely on them for their primary healthcare needs. This study aims to document MPs used by Kuria Traditional Healers (KTH) in managing Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Mara region, Tanzania.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> This study was conducted in Tarime and Serengeti districts in Mara Region, Tanzania. Ethnobotanical information were collected using semi-structured interviews and field walks with 20 KTH from July 2021 to February 2022. The study focused on MPs' names, parts used, preparation, and administration of remedies. Descriptive statistics and inferential indices were performed to analyze the data, and conservation statuses of the recorded MPs were retrieved from IUCN RedList online database.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of twenty MPs belonging to 8 families were documented. The families with the higher number of MPs were Asteraceae (31.6%), followed by Lamiaceae (26.3%) and Fabaceae (15.8%). Most plants were shrubs (53%) and herbs (37%). Leaves (53%) and roots (29%) were the most preferred MPs parts for remedy formulation. Decoction (55%) and oral route (100%) were the most cited preparation and application of remedies, respectively. Among the recorded MPs, 35% fall within the least concern category in the IUCN database. Gender, age, education level, and experience significantly (p &lt; 0.05) affected traditional medicinal knowledge.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The study discloses that the KTHs have rich knowledge of MPs used to treat UTIs. Their expertise on MPs should be validated with phytochemical and pharmacological studies, and their knowledge and practices must be conserved for future generations.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicine, indigenous healers, infectious diseases, remedies, traditional medicines, UTIs</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 David Sylvester Kacholi, Mary Zacharia Charwi, Neema Gideon Mogha Ethnomedicinal and Traditional uses of the Flora of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2023-07-02T04:18:59-07:00 Muhammad Irfan Fazal Ullah Inzimam Ul Haq <p><em>Background: </em>The present study aimed to assess the traditional knowledge and uses of ethnomedicinal plants to cure different disorders. The local inhabitants of district Lower Dir, Pakistan was relied on medicinal plants for their fundamental medical requirements. </p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge was approached by using the questionnaire and random interviews. Mostly old people were approached for the collection of information regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plant. The data were analyzed with the help of various statistical indices such as fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), relative popularity level (RPL), relative order priority (ROP), relative frequency citation (RFC) and jaccard index (JI).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 147 taxa belonged to 106 genera and 57 families were reported. The dominant family was Lamiaceae with 18 taxa (12.24%), Asteraceae was the second largest family with 12 taxa (8.16%), Rosaceae was the third largest family with 9 taxa (6.12%), Solanaceae and Brassicaceae with 6 taxa each (8.16%), Amarantheaceae, Brassicaceae, Berberidaceae and Rutaceae with 5 taxa each (13.6%), Violaceae with 4 taxa (2.72%), Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceace, Plantaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Ranunculaceace with 3 taxa each (14.28%), followed by Acanthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Fagaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Pinnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariacea, Thymelaeaceae, and Verbrnaceae with 2 taxa each (16.32%), while the remaining families contained one taxon each (18.4%). Regarding the parts used mostly leaves of 67 taxa (45.57%), followed by fruits of 25 taxa (17%), roots of 20 taxa (13.60%), seeds of 11 taxa (7.48%), whole plant of 9 taxa (6.12%), bark of 7 taxa (4.76%), oils extracted from seeds and gums of 4 taxa each (5.44%) were used.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The current study provided useful knowledge about ancient using of therapeutic plants species that were utilized by the local inhabitants for curving of various disorders. The inhabitants of the area have diverse knowledge about the remedies of medication for effective work against ailments. </p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicine, Fidelity level, Jaccard index, Lower Dir, Pakistan, Use value.</p> 2023-07-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Irfan, Fazal Ullah, Inzimam Ul Haq Ethnobotanical Survey of the Chinese Tea Substitutes Consumed in Uíge Province, Angola: Part 1 2023-03-12T03:23:03-07:00 Monizi Mawunu Domingos António Pedro Vita Jean-Paul Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua Félicien Lukoki Luyeye Luyindula Ndiku Pélagie Mbandu Luzolawo Ngiambudulu M. Francisco <p><em>Background: </em>This ethnobotanical study is the first based on the herbal teas or tisanes consumed in Angola, specifically in Uíge province. The aims of this study were to document traditional knowledge related to the use of herbal teas and then assess their floristic diversity.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Field research was conducted between January to December 2022, in both rural and urban areas of Uíge province. Ethnobotanical methods included participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. These were used to obtain detailed information on plants used to brew herbal teas. A total of 150 informants (including 18 key informants) were interviewed.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 60 species of herbal teas distributed in 48 genera and 27 families are used by the local population in Uíge province. Of these 58.63% are indigenous and 41.37% are exotic species. The most frequently used part was the leaf (62.5%), and the most frequently used preparation methods were decoction (68.7%), and infusion (31.3%). In addition, these plants are mainly used for other purposes, such as phytomedicines (71.6%), and bioenergy (14.1%). Regarding the medicinal use of tisanes, most are used to treat or prevent coughs (23.3%), and anemia (20%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: It is important to implement the systematic protection of wild plant resources and the establishment of botanical gardens in order to provide a sustainable source of production of these herbal teas, which also contribute to the income of local farmers. This would benefit, the quality of the products, and support environmental and human well-being.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotanical survey, herbal teas, Uíge Province, Angola</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Résumé </strong></p> <p><em>Contexte</em>: Cette étude ethnobotanique est la première basée sur les tisanes consommées en Angola, plus précisément dans la province d'Uíge. Le but de cette étude était de documenter les connaissances traditionnelles liées à l'utilisation des tisanes, puis d’évaluer leur diversité floristique.</p> <p><em>Méthodes</em>: La recherche sur le terrain a été menée entre Janvier et Décembre 2022, dans les zones rurales et urbaines de la province d'Uíge. Des méthodes ethnobotaniques comprenaient l'observation participative, des entretiens semi-structurés, des entretiens avec des informateurs clés et des discussions de groupe. Ceux-ci ont été utilisés pour obtenir des informations détaillées sur les plantes utilisées pour faire la tisane. Au total, 150 informateurs (dont 18 informateurs clés) ont été interrogés.</p> <p><em>Résultats</em> : Un total de 60 espèces de tisanes réparties en 49 genres et 26 familles sont utilisées par la population locale de la province d'Uíge. Parmi celles-ci, 58,63% sont indigènes et 41,37% sont des espèces exotiques. La partie la plus utilisée fréquemment est la feuille (62,5%), et les méthodes de préparation les plus utilisées étaient la décoction (68,7%) et l'infusion (31,3%). De plus, ces plantes sont principalement utilisées à d'autres fins, comme les phytomédicaments (71,6 %) et la bioénergie (14,1 %). Concernant l'usage médicinal des tisanes, la pluspart est utilisée pour traiter ou prévenir la toux (23,3%) et l'anémie (20%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Il est important de mettre la protection systématique des ressources végétales et la création de jardins botaniques afin de fournir une source durable de production de ces tisanes, qui contribuent également aux revenus des agriculteurs locaux. Cela profiterait à la qualité des produits, et soutiendrait le bien-être environnemental et humain.</p> <p><em>Mots clés</em>: Enquête ethnobotanique, tisanes, Province de Uíge, Angola.</p> 2023-08-09T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jean-Paul Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Monizi Mawunu, Domingos António, Pedro Vita, Luyindula Ndiku, Ngiambudulu M. Francisco, Félicien Lukoki Luyeye, Pélagie Mbandu Luzolawo Novel medicinal plants uses for the treatment of respiratory disorders - An overview from Madyan Swat, Pakistan 2023-08-03T18:20:07-07:00 Shazia Dilbar Hassan Sher Ahmad Ali Zahid Ullah Muhammad Shuaib Muhammad Yaseen Saraj Bahadur <p><em>Background</em>: Rural people living in Madyan Valley, Swat, Pakistan, rely extensively on medicinal plants for treating respiratory chest infections, cough, cold, asthma and bronchitis. Therefore, the present aims to identify specific medicinal plants for the treatment of respiratory diseases and analysis of different types of preparation for relieving respiratory ailments.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Accordingly, men and women were interviewed using medicinal herb data sheets, supplemented with a transect walk. Uses, modes of preparation, storage and collection habitats of individual plants used for treating respiratory disorders were identified and recorded. Medicinal plants’ natural habitat provided a platform to further explore the active medicinal properties unknown to the community. Medicinal plant data were quantitatively measured using measurement models such as relative frequency citation (RFC); use value (UV) and fidelity level (FL).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study recorded fifty-one plant species belonging to 32 families used for relieving respiratory diseases. Lamiaceae was the largest family with six species followed by Asteraceae and Apiaceae. About 30% of women knew the active medicinal properties, compared to 53% of men. The elderly women who had a deeper knowledge of plant remedies dispensed the plants in infusions, decoctions, and syrups; however, the most common form of intake was sundried powder typically administered with water.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Herbal treatments in Northern Pakistan are reliable, inexpensive alternatives for treating respiratory conditions. We recommend appropriate management and the promotion of the cultivation and conservation of medicinal plants. In addition, raising awareness of the importance of medicinal plants for respiratory conditions must be established.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, herbal preparations, respiratory diseases, traditional medicine, Northern Pakistan</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Saraj Bahadur, Shazia Dilbar, Hassan Sher, Ahmad Ali, Zahid Ullah, Muhammad Shuaib, Muhammad Yaseen Wild and cultivated plant collections from marketplaces of Odisha, India and their role in livelihood support 2023-05-18T02:58:04-07:00 Taranisen Panda Nilamani Dikshit Nirlipta Mishra Shaik Rahimuddin Bikram Pradhan Raj Ballav Mohanty <p><em>Background</em>: Marketplaces serve as valuable sources of information regarding the interactions and relationships between people and plants. In India, the significance of marketplaces remains largely unexplored, despite the country's remarkable biocultural diversity. To address this research gap, we conducted a study focusing on the diversity of edible wild and cultivated fruits and vegetables available in both rural and urban markets within the Bhadrak district of Odisha, India.<em> </em></p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We conducted a comprehensive survey of rural and urban marketplaces in the Bhadrak district of Odisha, India, covering three seasons. Data were collected from 91 informants through semi-structured interviews, key informant discussions, and direct observations. During field visits, voucher specimens were collected and photographs of marketplaces as well as the fruits and vegetables being traded were taken.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 93 species, including one species of Pteridophyte, belonging to 37 families and 74 genera, were documented from the markets in the district. Among these species, 53% were native and 47% were non-native. The families Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae were particularly well-represented. Out of the recorded species, 22 (23.7%) were wild species. Habit analysis revealed that herbs constituted the highest proportion 41.9%, followed by trees 35.5%, Climbers 18.3%, and shrubs 4.3%. According to the majority of informants, wild fruits and vegetables were valued for both their food and medicinal properties. Commonly reported species used for both dietary and medicinal purposes included <em>Glinus oppositifolius</em> (L.) A. DC., <em>Ipomoea aquatica</em> Forrsk., <em>Marsilea minuta</em> L., <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam., <em>Syzygium cumini</em> (L.) Skeels, and <em>Tamarindus indica</em> L. When it came to vegetables, leaves, and stems were commonly consumed, while fruits were typically eaten raw.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The markets in the Bhadrak district offer a variety of plants, including a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Through analysis of the collected data, it has been revealed that wild fruits and vegetables play a crucial role in generating income and have the potential to become a significant supplementary livelihood option for local farming communities. It is worth noting the dual role of many plant species, serving as dietary components while also contributing to preventive healthcare practices. Market surveys serve as valuable tools for assessing food environments, and the documented food heritage holds great importance in promoting bio-conservation, environmental sustainability, and food security.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Fruits, Vegetables, Crop biodiversity, Local economy, Wild and cultivated Plants, Medicinal use</p> 2023-07-10T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Taranisen Panda, Nilamani Dikshit, Nirlipta Mishra, Shaik Rahimuddin, Bikram Pradhan, Raj Ballav Mohanty Exploring the traditional knowledge and medicinal flora of the communities residing along North Eastern India-Pakistan borders 2023-04-29T06:10:46-07:00 Fahim Arshad Waqas Ahmad Ahmad Muhammad Shoaib Nidaa Harun Kaneez Fatima Zaheer Abbas Sadia Jabeen Muhammad Waheed <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnobotanical studies underpin the understanding of plant-people interaction in any geographical area along with the conservation strategies and priorities. The current study was carried out in the marginalized communities residing along the North Eastern Indo-Pak border of Depalpur and its adjoining areas of the Punjab Province, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Snow-ball and random sampling techniques were employed for study participants. They were semi-structurally interviewed with open ended questions for the collection of desired data.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Altogether, 75 plant taxa were recorded in 68 genera and 32 families. The majority of them were wild herbs (86%), and whole plants (82%) were utilized frequently for drug preparations. Studied plants were reported to treat 40 ailments, however significantly used for fever (43 spp.) and gastrointestinal disorders (40 spp.).</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> These findings endorsed the significant plant based knowledge of the border area populations. However, unprecedented rapid urbanization, economic development, and sociocultural dynamics challenged the retention of traditional knowledge. Profound decline was observed in the number of herbal practitioners, and their successors seem less interested in this field because of laborious jobs with low profit. Therefore, organic product development and the establishment of ethno species in home gardens and liaisoning with herbal industries may revitalize the existing traditional practices.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> folk knowledge, border area, bio-cultural diversity, ethnoflora</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fahim Arshad , Waqas Ahmad Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib , Nidaa Harun, Kaneez Fatima, Zaheer Abbas, Sadia Jabeen, Muhammad Waheed Ethnobotanical knowledge of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkman (Rosaceae) by people living in community forests in North Kivu, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo 2023-07-02T04:16:33-07:00 Eloge Kambale Muhesi Jean Lagarde Betti Ndongo Din Moïse Musubao Kapiri Harmelle Natacha Nana Afiong Pascal Billong Fils <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Prunus africana</em> (Hook. f) Kalkman (<em>Rosaceae</em>) is a multi-purpose species with important utility value for the populations that depend on it. Indeed, local populations living in community forests use <em>P. africana</em>. The objective of this study is to document the different uses of <em>P. africana</em> by local populations in traditional medicine for a better vulgarization for a sustainable management of the resource.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in four <em>P. africana</em> distribution areas in North Kivu. Data were collected on the basis of a survey from 221 informants. Statistical analysis and calculation of ethnobotanical indices were performed using R 4.1.2 software.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Results of the investigations show that <em>P. africana</em> is by far used in medical practices (96.83%). It is also used as wood energy (60.18 %), charcoal (40.27 %), in handicrafts (7.24 %), construction (6.79 %), food (2.26 %) and traditional rites (0.45 %). In traditional pharmacopoeia, the characterization of the uses allowed us to identify 23 diseases for which <em>P. africana</em> extracts are used to treat them. The bark and leaves are the most used organs in the recipes. The decoction (99.5%), the macerated (10.41%) and the powders (7.69%) are the galenic or pharmaceutical forms in which the local populations prepare the remedies. The potions prepared are mainly administered orally (99.5%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The multiple forms of use of <em>P. africana</em> by the populations of North Kivu, both in medicine and in other categories of use, constitute a threat to its survival. For a sustainable management, the results of this study reveal that it is possible to substitute the species <em>P. africana</em> with other plant species with similar potential in order to limit its overexploitation.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: <em>Prunus africana</em>, community forests, multiple uses, traditional medicine, sustainable management, DR Congo</p> 2023-07-25T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Eloge Kambale Muhesi, Jean Lagarde Betti, Ndongo Din, Moïse Musubao Kapiri, Harmelle Natacha Nana Afiong, Pascal Billong Fils Medicinal plant use and integration of traditional healers into health care system: A case study at Ankasa Forest Reserve and catchment communities in Ghana 2023-07-15T08:11:41-07:00 Paul Kwame Essandoh Gertrude Lucky Aku Dali Isaac Mbir Bryant <p><em>Background</em>: The study documented the medicinal plants used to treat diseases and assessed the level of integration of traditional medicine practice (TMP) into the health care delivery system in the study area.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: A structured questionnaire was purposively used to select informants from Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Association. The ethnographic method using a semi-structured questionnaire, interviews and group discussions was employed to collect data for assessing level of integration. The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Used Value (UV) of the species were determined.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 132 medicinal plant species was recorded. The most dominant family was the Fabaceae (19 species), growth form was the tree (76 % of species), the commonly used plant part was the bark (81 species), a disease commonly treated was malaria (34 species), and most common method of drug preparation was decoction (46.1 %). The medicinal plants with the highest RFC (0.90) and UV (1.72) values were <em>Morinda lucida</em> Benth. and <em>Nauclea latifolia</em> Sm. respectively. The low level of integration of TMP into the care health system was mainly due to poor collaboration between TMPs and biomedical staff.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Traditional communities rely on medicinal plants for primary healthcare but poor conservation practices put the knowledge and practice of traditional healing at a risk. The integration of TMP into the health care system needs Ghana government`s attention in the study area.</p> <p><em>Key words</em><strong>: </strong>Medicinal plants, Ankasa Forest Reserve, Traditional medicine practice</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Paul Kwame Essandoh, Gertrude Lucky Aku Dali, Isaac Mbir Bryant Ethnomedicinal utilization and conservation status of highland flora from Western Himalayas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan 2023-08-11T22:25:55-07:00 Muhammad Shakeel Awan Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar Karamit Hussain Shakeel Sabir Taskeen Iqbal Ansar Mehmood Tariq Habib <p><em>Background</em>: Ethnobotany is an interdisciplinary field that investigates the intricate relationship between plants and humans. The study was aimed to investigate the ethnomedicinal utilization and assessment of the conservation status of highland flora in the western Himalayan region of Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Pakistan. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The study was conducted from May to September during the years 2018 to 2020 in the blooming season of subalpine and alpine lacustrine wetlands-associated flora. Information was collected from local farmers, herb vendor and herbalist/ hakims for various usage and remedies. During the fieldwork, 80 respondents (50 male and 30 female) of different age groups were selected and personal observations were also recorded. Plants that have been recorded are given together with their indication, portion used, preparation method, and use value (UV). The informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) of the plants based on their utilization in relation to different disease categories were also determined through analysis of the results.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The current study has documented 47 medicinal plant species from 25 families used for the treatment of 25 different major and minor illnesses and conditions. The rhizome (22%), roots (18%) followed by leaves and whole plants (17%) were the most favored plants parts amongst the species. The highest RFC was recorded for <em>Aconitum chasmanthum </em>(0.61%) while <em>Iris hookeriana </em>and <em>Persicaria alpina </em>has the lowest (0.03%). The maximum used value was reported for <em>Thymus linearis </em>(0.63) and minimum for <em>Iris hookeriana </em>that is (0.01). The highest FL value was found in <em>Thymus linearis </em>(73.75%) and lowest was observed for <em>Lindelofia longiflora </em>(1.25%). The highest IAR value (1.00) against gout, tuberculosis and tonic while lowest value is 0.20 for kidney diseases. The most frequently used plant component was rhizome, and powder was found to be the primary method of preparation. Preparations are often either ingested or used topically. The conservation status showed that 57% species are vulnerable, 19% endangered, 13% critically endangered and 11% are threatened. </p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: This study contributes to the understanding of plant resource utilization patterns and the conservation status of high land flora in the western Himalaya region. The findings underscore the importance of implanting effective conservation measures to ensure the sustainable use of plant resources and the preservation of biodiversity in Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Medicinal plants, Highland flora, Western Himalayas, Conservation status</p> 2023-09-02T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Shakeel Awan, Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar, Karamit Hussain, Shakeel Sabir, Taskeen Iqbal, Ansar Mehmood, Tariq Habib Diachronic approach to practices associated with the use of firewood in Parque Costero del Sur and its surroundings (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) 2023-05-13T02:03:33-07:00 María Belén Doumecq Naiquen Ghiani Echenique María Soledad García Lerena María Celeste Valencia <p>of the Biosphere Reserve Parque Costero del Sur (PCS -acronym in Spanish) and its surroundings are analysed diachronically.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Anthracological, ethnobotany historical and ethnobotanical methodology have been used.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In the pre-hispanic period, hunter-gatherer groups used the native species of the talar (<strong>coronillo</strong>, <strong>molle</strong>, <strong>tala</strong> and <strong>sombra de toro</strong>) and the coast (<strong>ceibo</strong> and <strong>willow</strong>), possibly as a source of light, heat, protection, in pottery production and food preparation. Subsequently, the native societies on the frontier continued to use the native species of the talar (<strong>tala</strong>, <strong>molle</strong> and <strong>sombra de toro</strong>) as firewood, with no recorded use of coastal species. Historical documentation reflects the continued use of talar trees as firewood since the colonial period, and even their overexploitation, in addition to the early introduction of exotic species for this purpose. Today, firewood continues to be a key resource in the daily lives of the inhabitants of the PCS for heating and cooking. The use of 28 species was recorded, of which six are native (<strong>tala</strong>, <strong>coronillo</strong>, <strong>molle</strong>, <strong>willow</strong>, <strong>espinillo</strong> and <strong>brusquilla)</strong>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The results presented demonstrate the temporal continuity in the use of some native species as firewood with varying degrees of intensity and the incorporation of exotic species since the colonial period. This reflects the flexibility of the settlers in the face of socio-environmental changes, with innovations and transfers of uses from one plant to another that have enriched local practices.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Interdisciplinary, Magdalena, Punta Indio, Local knowledge, Local fuel plants</p> 2023-07-12T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 María Belén Doumecq, Naiquen Ghiani Echenique , María Soledad García Lerena , María Celeste Valencia Ethnomedicinal Study of the Flora of Sellay Pattay Valley, District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2023-08-11T22:14:17-07:00 Muhammad Ayub Ghulam Mujtaba Shah Muhammad Irfan Fazal Ullah Asad Ullah <p><em>Background: </em>Plants are the basic source of medicines to treat and remediate different health concerns. The current study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge of folk medicinal Flora in Sellay Pattay valley, district Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnomedicinal study was carried out to document the indigenous knowledge about the use of medicinal plants. The data was gathered through interviews with randomly chosen informants in the field. The obtained data from informants were analyzed through various statistical indices such as Frequency citation (RFC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use relative (UR), Use value (UV), Fidelity level (FL), and Informant consensus factor (ICF).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 111 plant species belonged to 58 families were documented, amongst them Lamiaceae was the leading family with 12 species. The highest use value (Uv) was recorded for <em>Justicia adhatoda </em>L. (0.98), while the lowest value (0.24) was recorded for<em> Myosotis alpestris </em>F.W.Schmidt. The highest frequency citation was reported for <em>Morus alba </em>L. with a value of 150 and the lowest was depicted for <em>Calotropis procera </em>(Aiton) Dryand. with a value of 28. The highest relative frequency citation was recorded for <em>Morus alba </em>L. 0.50, and lowest value for <em>Malvastrum coromandelianum </em>(L.) Garcke with 0.08. The plants including<em> Amaranthus viridis </em><em>L</em><em>.</em>, <em>Rumex hastatus </em>D. Don<em>, </em><em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em> Dehnh., <em>Justicia adhatoda </em>L., and <em>Ajuga bracteosa </em>Wall. ex Benth. had the highest FL with 98.88% against specific disorders and<em> Acacia modesta </em><em>Wall</em><em>., </em><em>Olea ferruginea</em> Wall. ex Aitch.,<em> Ziziphus oxyphylla</em> Edgew.,<em> Morus nigra </em>L., and <em>Dysphania botrys </em>(L.) Mosyakin &amp; Clemants were having more than 80% FL. Diabetes was the top ranked disease with a relatively higher Informant consensus factor (ICF) of 0.91, followed by muscular and sexual diseases with ICF of 0.88. It was observed that leaves of the plants play an important role in the treatment of various disorders and their percentage contribution was recorded as 66%.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Sellay Pattay valley has a huge diversity of medicinal plants. The maximum number of therapeutic taxa were used in the mode of decoction for effective work against specific disorders accounts for 54% percent of all medicinal plants. The dependency of people were relied on therapeutic plants due to easy availability and low prices. However, the use of these taxa showed no side effects with proper recipes.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal, Flora, Malakand, Pakistan, Traditional</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Ayub, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Muhammad Irfan, Fazal Ullah, Asad Ullah Traditional knowledge and use of plants as agricultural insecticides from a gender perspective in three rural communities of the Ecuadorian Andes 2023-07-09T23:17:42-07:00 Daysi Pila Rafael Hernández Maqueda <p><em>Background. </em>In Ecuador, plants have traditionally been used to control crop pests as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, we evaluate the state of knowledge surrounding these plants among farmers in three rural communities of the Ecuadorian Andean region and analyze, in turn, whether this knowledge is conditioned by gender.</p> <p><em>Methods. </em>Semi-structured surveys were designed with demographic information, as well as information related to the use of plants to control pests in crops. A total of 240 surveys were administered to farmers in the three selected sectors (120 men and 120 women), followed by on-site visits to contrast the information collected. To determine the importance of the species, the use value (UV) of each species was analyzed, and the Fidelity Level (FL) and informant consensus factor (ICF) indices were established to quantitatively analyze the consensus among the responses collected. The number of species used was also analyzed, as well as the possible differences in the way in which these species were prepared and handled, depending on the genus.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>Thirty-four percent of respondents use plant-based insecticides as the main source of pest control. A total of 21 species were identified for this purpose. The species with the highest use values were <em>Ruta graveolens</em> L. (<strong>ruda</strong>) (UV=0.62), <em>Capsicum annuum</em> L. (<strong>ají)</strong> (UV=0.58), and <em>Allium sativum</em> L. (<strong>ajo)</strong> (UV=0.35). The majority of respondents (60 %) use them to treat the pest caused by <em>Bemisia tabaci</em> Gennadius (<strong>white fly</strong>). The main form of preparation consists of the maceration of 2-3 species, which is applied preventively every 15-30 days. From the surveys, there are slight differences in usage between men and women. There is a higher percentage (55 vs. 40 %) of usage in women, while the average number of species and total number of species are both similar (between 2 and 3 species used in combination and 18 vs. 17 species, respectively). The main differences are of a qualitative nature and refer to the different use values of some species compared to others.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>The results of this work show a worrying erosion of knowledge concerning the use of plant species as insecticides for agriculture. Only 34 % of the respondents use them and only two species have a UV &gt; 0.5 (<em>R.graveolens</em> and <em>C. annuum</em>). Although there are slight differences in usage between men and women, most of these differences refer to the preference of some species over others and, therefore, knowledge of these species does not seem to be significantly influenced by gender.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Traditional Knowledge, Insecticide plants, Pest Control, Gender lens, Andean Region, Ecuador</p> 2023-08-09T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Daysi Pila, Rafael Hernández Maqueda Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used by the population of Taunsa Sharif, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan 2023-07-15T23:43:58-07:00 Adeel Mustafa Umza Hanif Andleeb Anwar Sardar Hammad Ahmad Jan <p><em>Background</em>: Many human illnesses are treated by plant-based medicines because medicinal plants are rich sources of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to document the traditional uses of medicinal plants used by the indigenous communities of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif, District DG Khan, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The ethnobotanical data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire as a tool for face-to-face interviews, and group discussions during the year 2021 to 2022. Fidelity level (FL), usage value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF) indices were used to calculate the relevance of described species in terms of culture.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 130 (75 male and 55 female) local residents of different villages were interviewed about 104 plant species belonging to 42 families. Poaceae and Fabaceae were dominant families with 14 species each. The highest percentage of fidelity level calculated for <em>Calotropis procera,</em> <em>Psidium guajava</em> and <em>Salvadora oleoides</em>. Similarly, the highest use value was calculated for <em>Calotropis procera</em> (0.75). The highest value of ICF was obtained for digestive disorders (0.80).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: It was concluded that the indigenous population still use medicinal plants in their daily life for the treatment of various diseases. Furthermore, this research will be helpful for local government agencies to protect the natural resources.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants; Indigenous knowledge; Traditional medicines; Taunsa Sharif, Punjab Pakistan</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Adeel Mustafa, Umza Hanif, Andleeb Anwar Sardar, Hammad Ahmad Jan Fading but still existing: some new observations on Santals’ Ethnoveterinary medicinal practices from the Purba and Paschim Bardhaman districts of West Bengal (India) 2023-07-09T23:15:58-07:00 Sathi Saha Suman Kalyan Mandal <p><em>Background:</em> The <em>Santals</em> have innate expertise in managing their livestock’s health and it is still actively practiced in the districts of rural West Bengal, India. Perusal of literature indicates that no research work exclusively on ethnoveterinary medicine has been carried out till date from Purba and Paschim Bardhaman districts of West Bengal. In this regard, indigenous therapeutic knowledge (ITK) for livestock health care is being studied among the <em>Santal</em> ethnic group inhabited in the various corners of these districts.</p> <p><em>Materials and Methods:</em> In the current study, data were gathered using both <em>in situ</em> and <em>ex situ </em>techniques after taking prior informed consent (PIC) from each of the 57 participants. Group discussion and semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was used to conduct the interviews. To identify the important folk-medicinal species, three quantitative indices like factor of informant consensus (F<sub>ic</sub>), use-mentions factor (UM) and relative frequency of citation (RFC) have been employed here.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Altogether 62 plant species have been documented here for 12 types of disease categories. In most of the cases, roots and underground parts (30%) were used. In 69.49% cases, remedies were applied orally. F<sub>ic</sub> value ranges from 0.6 to 0.94, RFC value ranges from 0.79 to 8.7 and <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> L. has been identified as mostly exploited species. Impact of plants like <em>Aristolochia indica</em> L., <em>Pueraria tuberosa</em> (Willd.) DC. and <em>Strychnos nux-vomica</em> L. has also been found deep in the <em>Santal</em> people’s culture of the studied area.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The collected ethnoveterinary medicinal datasets and the statistically analyzed information can contribute a lot to build up bioprospecting objectives, conservation strategies, and socioeconomic agendas.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> ITK, ethnoveterinary phytomedicine, quantitative ethnobotany, <em>Santals</em>, Purba and Paschim Bardhaman, West Bengal</p> 2023-07-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sathi Saha, Suman Kalyan Mandal Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of the Flora of district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2023-09-11T00:03:09-07:00 Fazal Ullah Muhammad Irfan Muhammad Saeed <p><em>Background:</em> The current study was based on ethnomedicinal uses of the plants of district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Different statistical indices were quantitatively used to evaluate the new knowledge of the inhabitants.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Methods: </em>Frequent field visits were carried out from 2019 to 2022 in different seasons of the year. A questionnaire was used to collect all the information regarding taxa's traditional uses. The questionnaire was made to identify the knowledge of rural men, women, and their immediate families regarding the collection of medicinal plants along with their use in a community. Women were seldom interviewed, and this was a unique opportunity to investigate their plant knowledge.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Results: </em>A total of 154 plant taxa with 130 genera distributed in 58 families were used for the treatment of different ailments. Amongst them, the leading family was Poaceae with 14 taxa (9.09%), the second leading family was Fabaceae having 13 taxa (8.44%), followed by Amranthaceae with 11 taxa (7.14%). Habit wise 87 taxa (56.49%) were herbs, 38 taxa (24.67%) were shrubs, and 29 taxa (18.83%) were trees. Habitat wise 90 taxa (58.44%) were mesophytes, 16 taxa (10.38%) were sciophytes, and 48 taxa (31.16%) were xerophytes. Abundance wise 92 taxa were common (59.74%), 62 taxa were rare (40.25%); 142 taxa (92.2%) were wild, and 12 taxa (7.79%) were cultivated. Different parts of the taxa were utilized for the treatment of various ailments viz. leaves of 78 taxa (50.6%), roots of 19 taxa (12.3%), and Fruits of 17 taxa (11%) were used.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The valuable information about the primeval use of medicinal taxa by the residents for the treatment of various disorders. The inhabitants of the area have diverse knowledge about the remedies of medication for effective work against them. </p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnomedicinal, Flora, Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. </p> 2023-09-14T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fazal Ullah, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Saeed Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of dog bites by herbalists in Eastern, Western, and Central Uganda 2023-08-09T08:56:45-07:00 Paul Mukasa Patrick Ogwang Richard Oriko Julius Lejju Eunice Olet Hannington Gumisiriza Christopher Adaku <p><em>Background:</em> Dog bites arise due to man’s casual and tactical association with dogs, and it is a global health challenge. Rural and semi-urban communities are the most affected since accessing conventional post-exposure prophylaxis is nearly a myth. As an alternative, readily available and affordable medicinal plants are used. Indigenous knowledge about such plants is limited to specialized herbalists, and with the continuous modernization of African societies, loss of such knowledge is anticipated if not documented. Therefore, the medicinal plants used to manage dog bites in Eastern, Western, and Central Uganda were documented. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Snowball sampling was used to identify the specialized herbalists. An interview guide was used to collect ethnobotanical data from June 2021 to December 2022. The information collected included; names of plants used, plant parts, methods of preparation, and mode of administration. Descriptive data was analyzed using the relative frequency of citation (RFC) index and informant consensus factor (F<sub>IC</sub>).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 31 medicinal plants, belonging to 20 families and 30 genera were documented, with the majority from family Solanaceae. The most commonly used plants were: <em>Baccharoides lasiopus </em>(O.Hoffm.) H.Rob., <em>Gymnanthemum thomsonianum </em>(Oliv. &amp; Hiern ex Oliv.) H.Rob., <em>Rhoicissus tridentata </em>(L.f.) Wild &amp; R.B.Drumm, <em>Phytolacca dodecandra </em>L'Hér<em>.,</em> and <em>Nicotiana tabacum </em>L<em>. </em>Leaves were the most used plant parts. The main mode of preparation was infusion. Oral and topical were the major modes of administration. Herbs obtained from the wild were the most used and the conservation strategy was planting around home compounds and in gardens. RFC was ≤ 0.27, and F<sub>IC</sub> was ≤ 0.19.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Specialized herbalists possess vast indigenous knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plants to manage dog bites in Uganda. However, there is a need for scientific justification of the traditional therapeutic claim, in a bid to find novel bioactive compounds which can act as drug leads for the development of drugs for the treatment of dog bite-related infections.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Dog bites, Medicinal plants, Traditional management, Uganda</p> 2023-09-12T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Paul Mukasa, Patrick Engeu Ogwang, Richard Oriko Owor, Julius B Lejju, Eunice Apio Olet, Hannington Gumisiriza, Christopher Adaku The prevalence and cultural perceptions of hysteria among rural communities in India: An ethnobotanical study in Balangir and Bargarh Districts of Odisha, India 2023-08-30T01:13:11-07:00 Biswajeet Acharya Durga Prasad Mishra Swarnajeet Tripathy Binapani Barik Kanhu Charan Pradhan Sasthimayee Singhgartia Debashish Parida Prafulla Sahu <p><em>Background: </em>Anomalist psychology bases supernatural explanations on psychological and physical traits. Maladaptive psychopathological behaviors disturb life. Religious healers, help many patients and caregivers. On this basis, the current study explores the prevalence and cultural perceptions of hysteria among rural communities in Odisha's Balangir and Bargarh districts, India. Traditional therapies for psychopathological illnesses are commonly used in these communities, and we investigate the usage of medicinal plants by traditional healers.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Through a six-month study involving various research methods, we identified 40 plant species across 25 families that are frequently used for treating hysteria and other psychiatric disorders. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the credit score of traditional herbs, and we found that plant leaf powder was frequently employed orally for most treatments.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The study found that traditional healers in the Balangir and Bargarh ethnic communities frequently use plant leaf powder, including species such as <em>Chromolaena odorata </em>(L.) R.M.King &amp; H.Rob. and <em>Murraya paniculata </em>(L.) Jack, for the treatment of hysteria and other psychiatric disorders.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The pharmacological research of these plants could provide useful insights for the treatment of mental health disorders. This study highlights the importance of traditional therapies in managing psychopathological illnesses in rural India.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Hysteria, Ethnobotanical survey, Traditional Plant Knowledge, Wild Useful Plants, Ethnomedicine, Cultural Practices, Mental Disorders, Neurological Disorders</p> 2023-09-13T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Biswajeet Acharya, Durga Prasad Mishra, Swarnajeet Tripathy, Binapani Barik, Kanhu Charan Pradhan, Sasthimayee Singhgartia, Debashish Parida, Prafulla Sahu Quantitative ethnobotany and vulnerability of woody plant species in Nyé’été forest, South Region of Cameroon 2023-06-18T05:50:54-07:00 Gilbert Todou Komo Mbarga Yves Tchobsala Ibrahima Adamou <p><em>Background</em>: Despite the importance of the wild plants, the degradation of ecosystems and plant populations increase noticeably due to climate change and anthropogenic pressure. Wrong methods of harvesting do not optimize foliar and fruit productions of the trees and even can kill them. This study focused on local usefulness and the vulnerability of wild woody plant species in Nyé’été forest in South-Cameroon.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The methods of ethnobotanical inventories so called “walk-in-the-woods method” and "show and tell method" were applied to collect data. Main collected information concerned local names of useful plants, the harvested parts of the plants, the methods of harvesting and the different categories of use.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In total, 75 useful species divided into 66 genera and 31 families were reported. The richest families were Fabaceae (9 species in 9 genera), Apocynaceae (6 species in 6 genera), Annonaceae (6 species in 5 genera), Malvaceae (5 species in 3 genera) and Meliaceae (5 species in 4 genera). Seven main categories of use were recognized. Traditional medicine was the most important category (76% of inventoried species and VUT = 1329.96). Wood, bark, leaves and fruits were the most useful parts of plants because the response rate of each organ was Fki &gt; 50 %. About 31 species were very vulnerable and 20 species were moderately vulnerable (Iv ≥ 2.5 and Iv 2 ≤ Iv &lt; 2.5). According to IUCN status, 27 species were threatened of which <em>Erythrophleum suaveolens</em> was endangered species (EN).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Obtained results would contribute effectively to appreciate the potentiality of useful plants of Cameroonian forests and the anthropogenic pressures to the plant resources in order to conserve them.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotanical inventories, ethnobotanical potentialities, anthropogenic pressure, vulnerability, Cameroon</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Gilbert Todou, Komo Mbarga Yves, Tchobsala, Ibrahima Adamou Ethnobotanical survey and In vivo study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Malva sylvestris L. 2023-04-16T05:24:23-07:00 Chafik Mhamdıa Narimane Seguenı Benif Hamdi Ahmed Reda Belmamoun Hamdi Afaf Bakı Mohamed Djamel Mıara Hamdi <p><em>Background</em>: The mallow is a perennial, herbaceous biennial plant of the Malvaceae family occupying an important place in the Algerian flora. Several investigations demonstrated that this plant is very rich in bioactive compounds and possesses a large plethora of therapeutic properties, making it an interesting material deserving to be studied and developed to emphasize its curative power. Within the framework of the conservation and valorization of the consumable plants cultivated in Algeria, we aimed in the present work to investigate <em>Malva sylvestris</em> cultivated in the region of <em>Sidi Bel Abbes</em> (West of Algeria) as a consumable and a medicinal plant and to evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In this context, an ethnobotanical survey was carried out highlighting the popular knowledge regarding the medicinal uses of this plant. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assessed <em>in-vivo</em> using carrageenan-induced paw edema test.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Our survey demonstrated that the great mallow is used as a consumable plant and as a treatment against: inflammation, anti-cholesterol and anti-diabetes. For the anti-inflammatory activity, the studied extract proved its effective effect, and was able to inhibit the inflammation induced by carrageenan in a significant way (P≤0.05), after two hours of its administration, and at a dose of 550 mg/Kg PC.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: <em>Malva sylvestris</em> appears to be an interesting plant that could be used judiciously in the treatment of inflammation.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><em>:</em> <em>Malva sylvestris</em>, Ethnobotanical survey, Anti-inflammatory Activity, <em>İn vivo</em></p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Benif Hamdi, Chafik Mhamdıa, Narimane Seguenı, Ahmed Reda Belmamoun Hamdi, Afaf Bakı, Mohamed Djamel Mıara Hamdi Ethnomedicinal relevance of selected monocot taxa from different geographical regions of Pakistan 2023-08-24T00:12:24-07:00 Saraj Bahadur Mushtaq Ahmad Muhammad Zafar Najla Begum Maroof Ali Tanweer Kumar Muhammad Yaseen <p><em>Background</em>: Pakistan has a unique biodiversity of monocotyledon flora and due to its unique climatic condition a huge number of medicinal plants are distributed in the area. Ethnobotany plays a crucial role in understanding the dynamic relationships between biological diversity and social and cultural systems. However, studies about the ethnomedicinal significance of monocot taxa in Pakistan are very limited.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This study documented the indigenous uses of selected medicinal monocot taxa. The ethnomedicinal data was obtained through semi-structured interviews with the local men, women and herbalists of the area. The ethnomedicinal data were analyzed by different quantitative indices i.e. Use value (UV), frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and information consent factor (ICF).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In the present study, selected medicinal monocots belonging to seven families were collected from different geographical regions of Pakistan. Family Amaryllidaceae was reported as higher number of used species. Most often used parts were noted as bulbs followed by leaves and roots. The most frequent mode of preparation method was found as a decoction and raw form. Nine different disease categories were reported including respiratory diseases, antidote, gynecological problems, urogenital problems, digestive disorders, glandular disorders, blood circularity system disorders, dermatological problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Among them, the respiratory disorders show the high value of ICF.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The study document showed that selected monocot taxa were used as folk medicine against various diseases. Medicinal monocots having high used value help to identify a phytochemical compound that is bioactive and indispensable for the synthesis of novel drugs for various diseases.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Monocotyledons taxa, medicinal value, medicinal usage; local communities; ethnobotanical indices.</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Saraj Bahadur, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Najla Begum, Maroof Ali, Tanweer Kumar Ethnobotany, medicinal utilization and analysis of biogenic elements and flavonoids of Apium graveolens and Tussilago farfara from Uzbekistan 2023-08-20T00:19:03-07:00 Saidaxon Islomova Ibrahimjon Asqarov Rainer W Bussmann Olim K. Khojimatov Muhammad Zafar Trobjon Makhkamov <p><em>Background: </em>Plants are a rich source of both organic and inorganic substances that play a crucial role in determining their therapeutic effects. Within each medicinal plant, a diverse array of chemical compounds and trace elements can be found, contributing to its wide spectrum of healing properties. It is important to highlight that certain chemical element found in medicinal plants are essential for sustaining life processes. Elements such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), iron (Fe), silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) are involved in nearly all biochemical processes within the body. They play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism, primary and secondary metabolism, as well as hormonal regulation occurring within cells. This article examines the ethnobotany, medicinal utilization and analysis of biogenic elements and flavonoids of <em>Apium graveolens </em>and<em> Tussilago farfara </em>from Uzbekistan.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The determination of biogenic elements in food products has been carried out using the plasma inductively coupled mass spectrometry method (ICP-MS). The reagents employed in the process included Standard No. 3, which contains multiple elements (29 elements for mass spectrometry). Additionally, the standards encompassed mercury, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, bi-distilled water, and argon gas (with a purity of 99.995%). The samples were subjected to analysis using the Agilent-1200 HPLC method with a diode detector, operating in the isocratic elution mode. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer solution in a ratio of 70:30. The eluent flowed at a volumetric flow rate of -1.0 ml/min, and 10 µl of the sample was injected. Detection was performed at a wavelength of 254 nm. The chromatographic column used was the Eclipse XDB-C18, with dimensions of 5.0 microns and 4.6×250 mm. The thermostat temperature was maintained at 300°C.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results: </em>Analyzing the study results we observed that all samples contained more than 18 elements: Highest concentration of Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Iron, Copper, Zinc in the seeds of <em>Apium graveolens</em>, followed by <em>Tussilago farfara</em> and <em>A. graveolens</em> leaves. As a result of the analysis conducted on extracts of Tussilago farfara and Apium graveolens, six phenolic flavonoid compounds were successfully isolated. One particular flavonoid, apigenin, exhibits a retention time shift during analysis, indicating its presence. The relatively high concentrations of flavonoids such as rutin, quercetin, and dihydroquercetin further contribute to the significance of studying these plants.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The conducted studies focused on the analysis of nutrients and flavonoids present in plants such as <em>Tussilago farfara</em> and <em>Apium graveolens</em>. Additionally, these medicinal plants were found to be rich in essential elements such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron. Building upon these findings, the proposal was made to develop novel dietary supplements aimed at providing relief in the treatment of bone-related disorders, cardiovascular issues, and anemia.</p> <p><em> Key words</em>: celery<strong>, </strong>coltsfoot, ethnobotany, medicinal utilization, biogenic elements, flavonoids.</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Saidaxon Islomova, Trobjon Makhkamov, Ibrahimjon Asqarov, Rainer W Bussmann, Olim K. Khojimatov, Muhammad Zafar, Trobjon Makhkamov Vegetable ivory - the Beja Botanical Museum photo collection 2023-08-01T07:25:12-07:00 Luis Carvalho Francisca Fernandes Paula Nozes Sara Albquerque Fátima Nunes <p>Vegetable ivory is a raw material used to make small objects, such as buttons, adorns for personal use or home decorations. It comes mainly from the seed endosperm of species belonging to the genus <em>Phytelephas</em> Ruiz &amp; Pav.. The collection of Beja Botanical Museum includes a set of historical photos that show all the stages of vegetable ivory processing from seed to buttons, allowing us to have a more complete understanding of the raw materials and technologies used by this industry in the early 1930’s.</p> 2023-08-10T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Luis Mendonça de Carvalho, Francisca Maria Fernandes, Paula Nozes, Sara Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Nunes Straw embroideries in Azores (Portugal) 2023-08-16T10:21:21-07:00 Luis Carvalho Francisca Maria Fernandes Paula Nozes Sara Albquerque Maria de Fátima Nunes <p>Wheat or rye straw embroideries, typical of the island of Faial (Azores), are the ultimate representatives of a European craft very popular in the XIX century. Our investigation into the cultural use of plants in the Azores presents some examples of straw embroideries and information on the raw materials of plant origin used by the last embroideresses who keep this tradition alive.</p> 2023-09-02T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Luis Carvalho, Francisca Maria Fernandes, Paula Nozes, Sara Albquerque, Maria de Fátima Nunes Floral diversity expedition in Ladakh: An insight into the exploration, distribution pattern, ethnobotanical, phytochemical studies and conservation strategies 2023-07-29T08:22:03-07:00 Sabir Hussain Sheenu Sharma Ram Chand Bhatti Anand Narain Singh <p><em>Background:</em> Ladakh, located in the Trans-Himalayan region, is characterized by a sparse distribution of plant and animal life that has adapted to the arid and high-altitude environment. Ladakh's unique vegetation provides various benefits to the local population, including medicine, phytochemicals, food, fodder, fuelwood, and many other vital services. Over the years, there have been significant developments and changes in the ethnobotanical knowledge in Ladakh. One of the most notable changes is the extensive documentation and research carried out by researchers to systematically record the traditional knowledge held by local communities. The present study aims to report the expedition of wild floral diversity in Ladakh for their exploration, distribution, ecosystem services, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical extraction, conservation strategies, challenges, and knowledge gaps in research.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> To compile the review paper, a comprehensive search was conducted on various web-based platforms, including Web of Science, Scopus, Mendeley, and Google Scholar, to gather relevant literature on the wild vegetation of Ladakh. Different combination of keywords pertaining to floral expedition in Ladakh were used as search string for literature survey on various internet databases. For instance, the search strings used for literature survey on Scopus comprises of keywords such as "Ladakh AND vegetation OR plant," "Phytochemical AND Ladakh," "Ethnobotanical* AND Ladakh," "Ladakh AND Flora AND Diversity," "Plant AND Distribution AND Ladakh," and "Medicinal AND Plants AND Ladakh."</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Researchers, both from India and abroad, have conducted extensive explorations of the floral diversity in the Ladakh region over the years. They have meticulously documented numerous plant species and conducted in-depth studies covering ethnobotanical significance, phytochemical analysis, distribution patterns, and conservation efforts. Much of this research has been dedicated to understanding the practical benefits of wild plants, including their roles as sources of food, medicine, animal fodder, and fuelwood. The Ladakh region hosts a remarkable diversity of plant species, with more than 150 plant species identified for their medicinal use. Similarly, over 30 species were analyzed for their phytochemical properties and extracted a variety of crucial phytochemicals such as terpenes, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and steroids. Plant distribution and diversity in Ladakh are strongly influenced by altitude, with harsh climatic conditions and high altitudes leading to reduced vegetation cover and species richness.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>Ladakh possesses a unique plant diversity in challenging terrains. Despite topographical and climatic hurdles, researchers from India and abroad have explored its rich flora. Plant distribution shifts with elevation and climate change, peaking at 4000 to 5800 meters and diminishing higher up. The extensive documentation and research conducted by scientists and researchers on the plant’s ethnobotanical significance, has led to the identification of a large number of plant species with medicinal and other significance. Unfortunately, threats to species survival, such as over-collection of underground parts, overgrazing, and exploitation of resources for fuelwood and fodder have been observed, but protective measures and preservation strategies are lacking.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>: </strong>Floral diversity, Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemicals, Ecosystem services, Conservation, Ladakh</p> 2023-09-12T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Anand Narain Singh, Sabir Hussain, Sheenu Sharma, Ram Chand Bhatti Global research progress on reproductive behavior and ethnobotany of the Saussurea genus: Literature review-based-bibliometric analysis 2023-07-09T23:19:14-07:00 Pooja Singh Babi Gargi Vijaylaxmi Trivedi Ashish Thapliyal Prabhakar Semwal <p><em>Background: Saussurea </em>is the most diverse genus of the Asteraceae family generally found in temperate areas of Eurasian countries. This genus comprises approximately 27 ethnologically important species such as <em>Saussurea </em><em>laniceps, S. costus, S. medusa, S. obvallata, S. involucrata</em>, etc. which are traditionally used for treatment of various ailments and also have aesthetic and religious importance.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>This study integrated two separate approaches for the literature review, first we reviewed research work conducted on ethnobotany, morphology, pollinators, breeding systems, and the development of fruits of the genus <em>Saussurea</em>. Second, bibliometric analysis for quantitative analysis of published documents on the Scopus database to identify research status and publication trends emerging in the field of reproductive biology and ethnobotany of the<em> Saussurea</em> genus.</p> <p><em>Results and Conclusion: </em>According to our findings, all <em>Saussurea </em>species use entomophily as their primary method of pollination. In this genus, outcrossing is typically observed, and this breeding system appears to have been responsible for the success in terms of ecology and evolution of this genus. India is one among the top nations having the most published literature on the reproductive biology of the <em>Saussurea </em>genus and its ethnobotanical uses. The top three journals where the manuscripts have been published are the “<em>Journal of Ethnopharmacology</em>”<em>, </em>“<em>Plos One</em>”<em>, </em>“<em>Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine</em>”. Research topics such as conservation, ethnopharmacology and <em>Saussurea lappa</em> are highly cited topics, indicating the usage of <em>Saussurea </em>species especially in the pharmaceutical industries. This study provides a snapshot of the research progress in the field of reproductive biology and ethnobotanical studies on the <em>Saussurea </em>genus at the global level and opens doors to future research.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <em>Saussurea, </em>pollen, breeding system, entomophily, phenology, pollinators.</p> 2023-08-09T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prabhakar Semwal, Pooja Singh, Babi Gargi, Vijaylaxmi Trivedi, Ashish Thapliyal Traditional use of Polypores in Georgia (the Caucasus) 2023-08-20T00:12:59-07:00 Angelina Jorjadze Rainer W Bussmann Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana Ketevan Batsatsashvili Eter Svanidze <p><em>Background</em>: This paper describes traditional uses of polypore fungi in Georgia (the South Caucasus).</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We used ethnomycological interviews collected in 2014–2017 in various regions of the country and available literature data.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The research revealed eight polypore species traditionally used Georgia: <em>Cerioporus squamosus, Daedalea quercina,</em> <em>Fistulina hepatica</em><em>,</em><em> Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis betulina, Laetiporus sulphureus, Panus rudis, Sparassis crispa</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Knowledge on medicinal uses of the species is lost in the population at present and can only be found in ethnographic/linguistic literature. The paper presents vernacular names of the polypore species with their Latin identifications and various uses (for food, medicine, decorations and tinder) with respective sources cited. </p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Ethnomycology, Polypores, Traditional knowledge, Georgia, the Caucasus</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Angelina Jorjadze, Rainer W Bussmann, Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana, Ketevan Batsatsashvili, Eter Svanidze Three models to illustrate plant-people relationships in the medicinal plant hotspots of North East India 2023-06-28T04:08:30-07:00 Kaushalendra Jha Carsten Smith-Hall <p><em>Background:</em> Many indigenous communities inhabit the forests on which they rely. In India, there are many tribe-level plant use records for health treatments but no systematic assessment of the species-level frequency of use or purposes of use across indigenous groups. This paper makes such assessments for North East India.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> We did a systematic review of published literature resulting in the identification of a final set of 255 publications for analysis and synthesis.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Medicinal plants used by the North East Indian communities in the Himalayan and Indo-Burma hotspots are often used to cure more than one ailment, with phytochemical analysis and clinical tests documenting the efficacy of many species. High-frequency used plant species across indigenous groups were <em>Ageratum conyzoides, Centella asiatica, Clerodendron colebrookianum,</em> <em>Houttuynia cordata, Oroxylum indicum, Spilanthes paniculata, Paederia foetida, Psidium guajava, </em>and<em> Zingiber officinale</em>. We also identified 51 lesser-used species common to more than one indigenous group. Delving into the relationships between plants, tribes, ailments, and locality allowed the identification of three models of people-plant relationships: Plant-Ailment-Tribe; Ailment-Plant-Tribe; and Plant-Locality-Tribe.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> A large number of indigenous groups using a large number of medicinal plants are found in North East India: uses across groups can be described in three models of people-plant relationships relevant to studying and understanding ethnobotanical realities in other locations.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal plants, frequency use classification, intercultural use, multi-therapeutic attributes</p> 2023-07-11T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kaushalendra Jha, Carsten Smith-Hall Quantitative Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by the mountain population of the Kitab Region, Uzbekistan 2023-08-20T00:23:08-07:00 Zokir Z. Kosimov Olim K. Khojimatov Rainer W Bussmann <p><em>Background:</em> This article examines the therapeutic use and quantitative ethnobotany</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Data were collected during the 2021 and 2022 surveys as a result of interviews, rapid assessments, and the collection of field materials. Interviews with the local population were conducted in the form of a questionnaire, with the consent of the informants.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: One hundred and seventeen species of 73 genera in 20 families, were used by the population of the Kitab district of Kashkadarya region for the treatment of various diseases.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The results of this study showed that the lack of sufficient knowledge of the local population on some diseases led to the lack of recognition of ethnobotanical analysis of plants. The main reason for this is the difficulty of recognizing such diseases in rural areas and the lack of ethnobotanical knowledge. It should be noted that in the remote villages of Kitab district, traditional treatment systems using medicinal plants are preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Kashkadarya, Kitab, ethnobotany, diseases, decoction, WHO, JASP, ArcGIS.</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zokir Z. Kosimov, Olim K. Khojimatov, Rainer W Bussmann