Ethnobotany Research and Applications <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia in cooperation with Saving Knowledge / Ethnomont. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>ERA is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> Saving Knowledge, Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia en-US Ethnobotany Research and Applications 1547-3465 <p>All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.</p> Medicinal plants of Lesotho: A review of ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and conservation studies <p><em>Background:</em> Of the approximately 2,076 plant species occurring in Lesotho, about 355 are used for medicinal purposes. Many communities in the country, mainly in rural areas with limited access to health facilities, rely on traditional medicine as primary healthcare. Several publications provide helpful information on plants used for medicinal purposes in Lesotho. These include documentation of the plants, investigation of their therapeutic potential to provide scientific validation for their use, and conservation status. However, a synthesis of all the studies conducted so far has hitherto not been undertaken. The current study aimed to provide a systematic review of ethnomedicinal, pharmacological, and conservation studies undertaken on medicinal plants of Lesotho. The synthesis brings together published and unpublished literature sources, thus providing a comprehensive database for studies conducted on Lesotho medicinal plants. Furthermore, it identifies existing knowledge gaps on research that has been carried out on the species and thus provides opportunities for further research, especially in the search for new natural products.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Information was gathered from published and unpublished literature sources, with the earliest publication dating back to 1917. Information was gathered through keyword search using accessible literature sources from Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus and PubMed. Books, dissertations, theses, technical reports were also searched. Keywords used for the search were Lesotho, in conjunction with medicinal plant and traditional medicine. To be eligible for inclusion in the current review, a literature source was expected to have assessed ethnomedicinal use, biological/pharmacological activity (e.g., antimicrobial activity), phytochemistry, toxicology) or conservation status of any Lesotho plant species used in traditional medicine.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 116 records were identified, of which 76 were included in the review. Thirty-one ethnomedicinal, 14 pharmacological (nine antioxidant, three anti-inflammatory, five antimicrobial activities), six phytochemical, and 15 conservation studies on medicinal plants of Lesotho were scrutinized. It is important to note that some studies evaluated more than one pharmacological activity. Ethnomedicinal studies show that numerous plants are used for medicinal purposes in Lesotho, however studies to scientifically validate their traditional use has remained far behind.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Many of Lesotho’s important medicinal plants have been assessed for pharmacological activity, providing scientific proof for their use. However, there are numerous gaps in the number and type of pharmacological and phytochemical studies that have been conducted. These gaps offer endless opportunities for researchers working in these fields. In addition, the conservation status for most of these plants is unknown., therefore, a detailed red data listing of Lesotho plants, particularly those used in traditional medicine, is recommended.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> ailments; ethnomedicine; safety; traditional medicine, treatment <a name="_Toc30339112"></a>toxicology </p> Lisebo Motjotji Annah Moteetee Lerato Seleteng-Kose Copyright (c) 2023 Lisebo Motjotji, Annah Moteetee, Lerato Seleteng-Kose 2023-03-01 2023-03-01 25 1 19 A review of traditional uses and current applications of Cordia spp. (Boraginaceae) in the development of food and pharmaceutical products <p><em>Background: </em>The growing demand for natural polymers useful for food and drug production has prompted the search for new plant sources to replace synthetic polymers. Unlike synthetic polymers, natural ones have advantages such as low toxicity, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity to the environment. Among the plant sources investigated as biopolymers, we find gums and mucilage, which have achieved a remarkable position in the additive market due to their applications in the paper, cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries, to name a few. The genus <em>Cordia </em>L. is traditionally known for its medicinal use, however, in recent years the fruit mucilage has been studied as a biopolymer. This review aims to compile and analyze the research conducted with species of the genus <em>Cordia </em>L., especially the ones that studied the mucilage of its fruits, including the methods applied to obtain, identify, and characterize it. Besides, talking about its application in new groundbreaking fields.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Relevant information was selected from articles, books, theses, and patents published in databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Patents, Patentscope, Patent Inspiration, and Espacenet.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The research data showed that the biopolymer obtained from fruit mucilage of the genus has attractive physical and chemical properties, and may be suitable for the design of drugs, nanoparticles, coatings, and food products. In addition, specific studies revealed the presence of some flavonoids and terpenes as active ingredients of the genus <em>Cordia </em>L., which are associated with their ancestral medicinal use.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The possible use of mucilage of the genus Cordia L. is evidenced by its addition, substitution, or combination with other biopolymers to improve and design new products. Likewise, study alternatives are presented for countries where species of this genus are found and have not yet been considered for experimentation.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>mucilage, gum, biomaterials, pharmaceutical industry, food industry, medicinal use.</p> Stephany Loor Constantine Katherine Pazmiño Viteri Karla Vizuete Alexis Debut Copyright (c) 2023 Stephany Loor Constantine, Katherine Pazmiño Viteri, Karla Vizuete, Ph.D. 2023-02-20 2023-02-20 25 1 32 Mitigation of various ailments via a bioactive component of Tribulus terrestris: A medicinally important herb <p><em>Background:</em> <em>Tribulus terrestris </em>L. is an important traditional therapeutic plant that has been utilized for multiple purposes since the Vedic period and belong to Zygophyllaceae family. It is distributed in sub-tropical regions including India, China, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. It is used in the Chinese medicine system for eye problems, sexual dysfunction, piles, and vesical calculi. It contains steroids, antioxidants, saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, alkaloids, proteins, and amino acids.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The review was performed to gain detailed knowledge of this plant. The literature search was carried out by using various platforms like the online database PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Ayush, e-Charaka, SpringerLink, and books.</p> <p><em>Results: T. terrestris</em> often referred to as Gokshur or Gokharu, has utilised in Indian, Unani and Chinese medicine to cure various illnesses from long time. The plant is known to have diuretic, aphrodisiac, anti-urolithic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, cardiotonic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hepatoprotective activities. It includes flavonol glycosides, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. Phytochemicals present in plant include protodioscin, terrestrosins A, gitonin, tigogenin, β-sitosterol, and terrestrosins E, spirosta-3,5-diene, stigmasterol, diosgenin, hecogenin, kaempferol. It also possesses anti-cariogenic, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticancer activities. The aim of this study is to offer an outline of the pharmacological, medicinal and therapeutic potential of <em>T. terrestris</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> From an extensive review of this plant, it is found that the plant is a rich source of phytochemicals and has high pharmacological values. Thus, it is concluded that this plant is highly medicinal and can be used as a potent source of drugs that are useful for mankind. The information documented in this paper will be helpful for industrial, medicinal, and commercial use.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <em>Tribulus </em><em>terrestris, </em>Gokhru, Ayurveda, Pharmacological activities, Aphrodisiac, Larvicidal</p> Ashun Chaudhary Ruchika Kumari Manisha Palak Thakur Copyright (c) 2023 Ashun Chaudhary, Ruchika Kumari, Manisha, Palak Thakur 2023-03-28 2023-03-28 25 1 17 Distribution status and ethnomedicinal importance of genus Rosa L. (Rosaceae) in India <p><em>Background:</em> The knowledge of geographical distribution and ethnobotanical uses is critical for the effective conservation and utilization of native plant genetic resources. No attempt has been made to amalgamate and analyze all of the available information on the ethnobotany, and distribution of <em>Rosa</em> in India. Therefore, this work aimed to provide a comprehensive review on the geographical distribution, and ethnobotany of the genus <em>Rosa</em>, as well as to give insights into possible future research opportunities.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Information on geographical distributions was compiled using regional floras, books, eFloras, regional herbaria, research articles related to distribution, and ethnobotanical studies of <em>Rosa </em>in India and online databases were also searched for the distribution records at global level.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The data revealed a total of 38 species of roses in India with 26 wild, 10 cultivated and 2 wild as well as cultivated species. The highest number of <em>Rosa </em>species were found in Jammu and Kashmir (20 taxa), followed by Himachal Pradesh (17 taxa), Uttar Pradesh (11 taxa), Ladakh and Assam (9 taxa each), Uttarakhand, and West Bengal (8 taxa each), Tamil Nadu (5), Karnataka, Meghalaya, Sikkim (4 taxa each), Delhi, Manipur, and Odisha (3 taxa each), Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Kerala, and Punjab (2 taxa each), Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan (1 taxon each). <em>Rosa webbiana</em>, <em>R. moschata</em>, <em>R. macrophylla </em>and <em>R. sericea </em>were the most widely distributed in the Western Himalayan region. Besides, ten species were used to treat several health ailments including cough, eye infection, skin ailments, epilepsy, respiratory trouble, jaundice, inflammation, and leucorrhea, hepatitis, sexual dysfunction, fever, flu, diarrhea, stomachache, cancer. These wide spectrum ethnobotanical applications of the genus reflect their long association with prevailing ethnic communities across regions.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The species of <em>Rosa</em> have economic as well as medicinal value. Therefore, future research is required on phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of the less investigated species of <em>Rosa </em>to explore their economic and medicinal potential from India.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Rosa </em>species<em>, </em>Ethnobotany, Ecogeographical distribution, India</p> Kanwaljeet Singh Yash Pal Sharma Sumeet Gairola Copyright (c) 2023 Kanwaljeet Singh, Yash Pal Sharma, Sumeet Gairola 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 25 1 22 Ferns and lycophytes: an ethnobotany review for Brazil <p><em>Background: </em>Ferns and lycophytes comprise all vascular plants with no flowers, fruits, or seeds, grouped under the artificial name Pteridophytes. This group presents a broad range of ethnobotanical uses, being those medicinal, ornamental, ritual, edible, or others, but there are few studies that register the uses of this specific group and no comprehensive gathering of this data under one study in Brazil. This review aimed to gather, analyze, and organize existing data on the historical and present ethnobotany of Pteridophytes in Brazil.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>This study was conducted through a literature review, regarding historical and current data in order to understand how the human populations in Brazil utilize these plants. Species were also updated when necessary to generate a taxonomic correct listing.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>We gathered data regarding 367 species, within 702 valid citations in 124 different sources, dating from the 16th century until today. Another 118 imprecise citations were registered, making up to a total of 820 species’ citations. The most reported uses were medicinal and ornamental, followed by those of ritual and food uses. Almost all Pteridophyte families have recorded uses, and the species are used in all regions of the country, by diverse human groups.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This survey brings to surface the broad use of Pteridophyte species in the country, compiling this information in an unprecedented way for Brazil, and highlighting their importance for human groups.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> brazilian flora; brazilian biodiversity; useful plants; traditional knowledge.</p> Caroline Modena de Medeiros Mara Rejane Ritter Felipe Gonzatti Copyright (c) 2023 Caroline Modena de Medeiros, Mara Rejane Ritter, Felipe Gonzatti 2023-02-18 2023-02-18 25 1 27 Medicinal uses of the Asteraceae family in Zimbabwe: A historical and ecological perspective <p><em>Background:</em> Several plant species belonging to the Asteraceae family are widely used as sources of traditional medicines. The current study was aimed at providing a systematic review of ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Asteraceae species used as sources of traditional medicines in Zimbabwe.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Information related to the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Asteraceae species was systematically collected using relevant keywords from online databases such as BioMed Central, Web of Science, Springerlink, Google Scholar, Scielo, PubMed, Science Direct, ACS Publications, Scopus and JSTOR, books, dissertations, theses, scientific reports and herbarium specimens.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> This study showed that 50 species are traditionally used to manage human and animal diseases in Zimbabwe. These species are used as traditional medicines against 51 medical conditions, mainly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal problems (34 use reports) and respiratory problems (28 use reports). <em>Aspilia pluriseta</em>, <em>Baccharoides adoensis</em>, <em>Bidens pilosa, Brachylaena discolor</em> var. <em>rotundata</em>, <em>Dicoma anomala</em>, <em>Erythrocephalum zambesianum</em>, <em>Gymnanthemum amygdalinum</em>, <em>G. coloratum</em>, <em>Helichrysum caespititium</em>, <em>Inula glomerata</em>, <em>Laggera crispata</em>, <em>Linzia glabra</em>, <em>Lopholaena coriifolia</em>, <em>Schkuhria pinnata, Senecio coronatus</em>, <em>S. latifolius</em> and <em>Tagetes minuta</em> have the highest number of medicinal uses. Majority of the documented species are characterized by flavonoids (46.0%), terpenoids (44.0%), tannins (40.0%), alkaloids (34.0%), saponins (26.0%), essential oils (24.0%) and glycosides (20.0%).</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies would be of great interest for assessment of ethnopharmacological properties of Asteraceae species used as sources of traditional medicines.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Asteraceae, Compositae, herbal medicine, indigenous knowledge, natural compounds, Zimbabwe</p> Alfred Maroyi Copyright (c) 2023 Alfred Maroyi 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 25 1 30 A panoramic review on ethnomedicinal, therapeutic, phytochemical, and advance attributes, of the genus Ziziphus Mill., native to Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> Medicinal plants have gained prime importance in treating several fatal diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and eczema, because they are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals and a safer alternative to synthesized chemical compounds. Genus <em>Ziziphus </em>Mill. belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, which comprises 100 accepted plant species and is well known for multipurpose applications such as food, fodder, fuels, medicine, timber, alcohol, cosmetics, poison, etc. Six species of the genus <em>Ziziphus </em>are indigenous to Pakistan, famous as <em>Ziziphus nummularia </em>(Burm.f.) Wight &amp; Arn., <em>Ziziphus mauritiana </em>Lam., <em>Ziziphus jujuba </em>Mill., <em>Ziziphus spina-christi </em>(L.) Desf., <em>Ziziphus rugosa</em> Lam., <em>Ziziphus oxyphylla </em>Edgew.</p> <p><em>Method:</em> Several search engines and online databases, including Sci-hub, PubMed, Google Scholar, Flora of Pakistan, research gate, and Science Direct, were used to perform an exhaustive literature survey for this review. Both original research studies and relevant review articles done till 2022 were included.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Result:</em> These species have been used in traditional and Ayurveda medicine to treat diseases like fever, skin infections, urinary problems, diabetes, etc. Numerous components of <em>Ziziphus </em>species have been found, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, and organic acids, to exhibit a variety of biological properties, including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-hair fall, antinociceptive, antipyretic, larvicidal, and anti-diabetic actions.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This review demonstrates the phytochemical composition, traditional uses, pharmacological properties, and nanoparticle-based activity of the genus <em>Ziziphus </em>and lays down a scientific foundation for further investigation on the usage of <em>Ziziphus</em>. Moreover, this review indicates that jujube has a hair growth effect because of its high nutritional value and pharmacological activities.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Cancer; Ethnobotany; Nanoparticles; Pharmacology; Phytochemical; <em>Ziziphus.</em></p> Sehrish Imran Yamin Bibi Tayyaba Munawar Abdul Manan Yousaf Muhammad Hasnain Zia ur Rehman Mashwani Copyright (c) 2023 Sehrish Imran, Yamin Bibi, Tayyaba Munawar, Abdul Manan Yousaf, Muhammad Hasnain, Zia ur Rehman Mashwani 2023-05-29 2023-05-29 25 1 32 Ethnomedicinal plant use value in Lower Swat, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> Plant-based traditional or folk medicines hold a great deal of promise as the foundation for medications for different diseases. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to document and preserve traditional knowledge among the people of Lower Swat.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The field survey was conducted in 2018–2021, and 90 participants were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Information was collected predominantly from traditional practitioners, who are thought to have comparatively more knowledge and experience of using herbal medicine. During the discussions, notes were taken on the participants' demographics, plant names, plant parts used, and methods of herbal preparation. The collected data were analyzed through statistical indices in Microsoft Excel (2016).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> It was found that 118 species represented by 107 genera and 62 different families were used for various medicinal purposes. Our findings depicted that herbs (57.5%) were the most commonly used as compared to trees and shrubs, while leaves (37.06%) were commonly used plant part for therapeutic purposes. Lamiaceae (16 species) was the most important family, followed by Rosaceae and Asteraceae (7 species each). Among the modes of preparation, decoction, drying, heating, and infusion were the applied approaches. The data was also analyzed by using qualitative indices such as relative frequency of citation (RFC), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL) and use value (UV). The highest RFC (0.96) was recorded for <em>Mentha spicata</em> and <em>Foeniculum vulgare</em> while the highest FL for <em>Berberis lycium </em>(78%) and, <em>Ajuga bracteosa </em>(70%). The highest UR (4) was recorded for <em>Ajuga parviflora, Pinus roxburghii</em> and <em>Pinus wallichiana.</em> The highest UV (0.50) was recorded for <em>Ziziphus oxyphylla</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The results of the present study reflect that medicinal plants are the most important source of health care in lower Swat. But in the absence of understanding and intuitive collective approaches, mainly therapeutic plants are overexploited in the area. There is a dire need for awareness about sustainable use of medicinal plants and threatened species in particular.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Lower Swat, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge, mode of preparation, aliments.</p> Shujat Ali Afzal Shah Sayed Rida Fatima Saeed Javed Iqbal Shumaila Ijaz Mehmooda Munazir Copyright (c) 2023 Shujat Ali, Afzal Shah, Rida Fatima Saeed, Javed Iqbal, Shumaila Ijaz, Mehmooda Munazir 2023-02-16 2023-02-16 25 1 22 The Ethnobotanical and therapeutic application of plants with the altitudinal description of Lar Sadin and Bar Amadak, Tehsil Salarzai, Bajaur, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies of an area provide the best possible pathway to conventional modern medicine and other conventional. This study was conducted to collect the traditional knowledge about plants from local people and then convey this knowledge to people of world.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The ethnobotanical information was collected through questionnaires, observations and interviews during 2018-2019. The main focus of interviews was to collect information about plants, local names, ethnobotanical uses, plant part uses, diseases treatment, mode of usage and administration. Collected plant specimens with informants were submitted to the Herbarium of University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Quantitative data of the result were analyzed through ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The study reported a total of 209 plants of 180 genera and 64 families were utilized by the local people for various indigenous uses. The highest species belonged to Asteraceae with 21 genera and 25 species followed by Poaceae with 16 genera and 18 species. Out of these 209 plants, 152 species were used as medicinal, 48 as fodder species, 32 as fuel species, 25 species as ornamental, 18 species as vegetables, 13 species as fruits and 6 species as food. The selected area plants were medicinally important for stomachic, vermifuge, fevers, cholera, anthelmintic, diabetes, cancer, laxative, antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidants.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The study area has been extensively occupied by medicinal and non-medicinal plants that are being used for significant purposes. This study uncovered the traditional and ethnobotanical knowledge of study area. The unwritten ethnobotanical knowledge of local people about medicinal plants and altitudinal details must be preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany, Bajaur Salarzai, Afghan border, Medicinal plants, and Informants consensus.</p> Sajjad Ahmad Ghulam Dastagir Copyright (c) 2023 Sajjad Ahmad, Ghulam Dastagir 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 25 1 25 Ethnobotanical inventory and medicinal applications of plants used by the local people of Cholistan desert, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The Cholistan desert has been inhabited by people who have a long tradition of utilizing medicinal plants to heal human diseases. The current study includes a detailed ethnobotanical inventory and the traditional therapeutic applications of medicinal plants in the Cholistan desert.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The primary data was obtained through field observations, interviews, and questionnaires between December 2021 and March 2022. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Relative frequency citation (RFCs), and fidelity level (FL) were used to access the relevance of medicinal plants. Pearson’s chi-square test, One-way ANOVA and multiple logistic regression were performed to compare indigenous knowledge among respondents of various socio-demographic groups.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> 93 plants from 31 families were recorded. The Fic was calculated for sixteen different disease categories value range (0.82 to 0.50). <em>Heliotropium strigosum</em>, <em>Grewia villosa, </em>and <em>Capparis decidua </em>exhibited high RFCs value (0.49). The FL of <em>Chenopodium album </em>and <em>Farsetia hamiltonii</em> were 92.9 and 91.4%. Gender, age, educational status, and source of livelihood showed a significant positive impact (p-value &lt; 0.001) on the respondents' indigenous knowledge about medicinal plants. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that gender and education significantly affect (p-value &lt; 0.001) the level of respondents’ indigenous knowledge followed by age and source of livelihood.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This investigation revealed that traditional medicine based on ancient indigenous knowledge is still practiced as the first line of health care in the study area. Women are having vast ethnobotanical knowledge as compared to men and there is a significant gap in transmission of information from elder to younger generations.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, Indigenous Knowledge, Ethnobotanical indices, Socio-demographic factors, Regression analysis</p> Ehsan Ali Muhammad Farooq Azhar Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Ehsan Ali, Muhammad Farooq Azhar, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-02-21 2023-02-21 25 Medicinal plants used against anxiety and hypertension by the indigenous people of Sargodha division and allied areas, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> Anxiety and hypertension are the most severe forms of human psychiatric conditions. Many plants are blessed with medicinal properties to treat anxiety and hypertension, but very little knowledge is available about such plants used by various ethnic communities of Pakistan. This study presents the first report of on plants used to treat anxiety and hypertension among the local communities of Sargodha division and allied areas, using quantitative ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Ethno-medicinal data was collected from aboriginal households who still practice their aboriginal system of medicine. Information of each potential plant and its mode of use to treat anxiety and hypertension were documented using indices frequency citation (FR), preference ranking (PR), percentage of respondents having knowledge (PRK) about the use of species and relative frequency citation (RFC).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 57 taxa belonging to 36 families were reported. The highest percentage of life form was herbs (80%). The dominant plant parts were leaves and highest percentage of mode of utilization was paste and decoction. Highest relative frequency citation (RFC) values were <em>Matricaria chamomilla</em> (0.23) while high proportion of respondents (PRK) was reported for <em>Matricaria chamomilla</em> (23.75%). Highest frequency of citation was noted in <em>Matricaria chamomilla </em>(19%).</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Our study has revealed an intimate relationship between the indigenous flora and livelihood of the people. We hope that information presented in this paper could be used as a baseline data to scientifically verify therapeutic properties and associated bioactive compounds present in the enlisted plants to treat anxiety and hypertension.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, decoction, aboriginal communities</p> Amin Shah Sarvat Rahim Sahrish Nosheen Gulfam Shahzad Copyright (c) 2023 Amin Shah, Sarvat Rahim, Sahrish Nosheen, Gulfam Shahzad 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 25 1 15 Potential of wild edible fruits for nutrition in indigenous communities of Northwest Himalaya, India <p><em>Background: </em>In the rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, poor and tribal people depend on a variety of wild plants, animals, and fungi for their own consumption and for income generation. Despite their role in bridging periods of food shortages and providing dietary variety, most of wild edible plants are not accessed for nutritional potential. This is particularly true for the district of Kinnaur (a predominantly tribal area) of Himachal Pradesh. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the nutrient content of ten wild edible fruit species growing in the district of Kinnaur. The species included <em>Berberis aristata</em>, <em>Elaeagnus umbellata</em>, <em>Hippophae salicifolia</em>, <em>Malus baccata</em>, <em>Prunus cornuta</em>, <em>Prunus persica</em>, <em>Pyrus pashia</em>, <em>Ramaria botrytis</em>, <em>Rosa webbiana</em> and <em>Viburnum cotinifolium</em>.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The samples collected from the identified plants were cleaned, dried, powdered and stored in airtight containers for laboratory analysis. Fresh fruit pulp was used for measurement of pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid. Fresh weight of fruit pulp was recorded by using a digital balance and the samples were later oven dried (60<sup>°</sup>C) for moisture content determination (AOAC, 2006). All the dried samples were pulverized in pestle and mortar into fine powder separately and stored in airtight containers, free from contamination till other parameters were determined. All the parameters were evaluated in triplicates, results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and reported as mean ± standard error.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The moisture content of the fruits varied from 58.76% to 89.75% while pH values ranged from 2.91 to 3.86. The crude protein of species varied between 0.38% - 4.58%. <em>Prunus cornuta </em>contained high amount of total soluble solids, TSS (18.53<sup>o </sup>Brix). The acidity in the fruits ranged between 0.47<strong>-</strong>2.73%. The total carbohydrate content varied between 19.52% and 78.40%. The highest sugars (7.60%) were observed in the fruits of <em>Viburnum cotinifolium</em>. Total phenols ranged in between 0.26-1.47%. The maximum ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity was recorded in fruits of <em>Hippophae </em><em>salicifolia</em>. These wild edible plants had also significant amounts of minerals.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The study shows that these wild edible plant species are good sources of nutrition for rural population. Keeping in view the nutritional values and commercial potential, these important species need to be conserved in their natural habitats and should be included in traditional agricultural systems. Domestication of these species will not only improve the economic condition of the local people but also aid in the conservation of biodiversity.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Key words:</em> Wild edible plants, nutritive values, domestication, conservation.</p> Joginder Singh A. Rajasekaran A. K. Negi Nazir A. Pala Vijender P. Panwar Rainer W. Bussmann Zubair A. Malik Copyright (c) 2023 Zubair A. Malik, Joginder Singh, A. Rajasekaran, A. K. Negi, Nazir A. Pala, Vijender P. Panwar, Rainew W. Bussmann 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 15 Ethnobotanical applications of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (African tulip tree) in Ghana <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Spathodea campanulata </em>P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) is documented to have ethnobotanical potential worldwide, but knowledge about this useful tree to local communities is limited in Ghana. This study was aimed at evaluation of ethnobotanical knowledge of the utilization of <em>S. campanulata</em> among the local population in Ghana.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Data was collected through a semi-structured interviews with 193 participants in the Adaklu District of the Volta Region of Ghana. Ethnobotanical indices were used to quantitatively determine the most culturally important <em>S. campanulata </em>plant parts using the ethnobotanyR package.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 25 applications grouped into six use categories from seven <em>S. campanulata</em> parts were observed in this study. The primary use category was material, followed by fuel, medicine, environmental, food additive, and food. Anemia had the highest frequency of mentions, followed by firewood and dyeing of cloth, construction, furniture, and charcoal. The wood had the highest use reports (UR) and cultural importance (CI), while stem bark had the highest number of uses (NU) and cultural value index (CVe).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The study showed that the applications and use categories were influenced by the rural nature of communities and lack of availability of services. This study revealed a high-fidelity level for the <em>S. campanulata</em> stem bark to treat anemia, a common ailment in the study region. The study suggests increasing awareness for better promotion and valorization of <em>S. campanulata</em> in Ghana as a source of fuel wood and medicinal purposes.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: ethnobotany, Volta region, anemia, dyeing, construction, furniture, cultural importance</p> Maxwell Kwame Boakye Alfred Ofori Agyemang Richard Selase Gbadegbe Mawuli Quashie Bernard Kofi Turkson Kekeli Kodjo Adanu Edward Debrah Wiafe Copyright (c) 2023 Maxwell Kwame Boakye, Alfred Ofori Agyemang, Richard Selase Gbadegbe, Mawuli Quashie, Bernard Kofi Turkson, Kekeli Kodjo Adanu, Edward Debrah Wiafe 2023-04-14 2023-04-14 25 1 12 Ethno-pharmacological Evaluation of Plants Resources of District Malakand, Pakistan <p><em>Background.</em> The present study was conducted to assess the ethno-pharmacological practices of medicinal plants by the local tribes of District Malakand, Pakistan. The people of the area are mostly poor and rely on local medicinal plants for their basic primary health care needs. During the survey it was perceived that the area is under extreme threat of overgrazing, deforestation and agricultural land expansion and needs urgent and proper ecological management to protect the important medicinal flora for future generations.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>. The current Ethno-pharmacological study consists of frequent field visits and interviews with 200 local informers of the study area having different socio-economic and educational backgrounds. The information was collected from the indigenous people through interviews and semi- structured questionnaires .The data collected were analyzed with the help of quantitative indices such as Informant consensus factor (Fic) and Fidelity Level (FL%). The plants collected were identified with the help of flora of Pakistan and online plant databases.</p> <p><em>Results</em>. A total of 130 medicinal plants belonging to 112 genera and 55 families were documented during this survey. The results showed that the plants collected during the survey were predominantly herbs (51%) followed by trees (27%), shrubs (19%) and climbers only (03%). The plants collected were mostly from Ruderal habitat (40%), followed by arable (36%), woodland (18%) and wetland (06%). On the basis of habit the plants collected were mostly Perennials (58%), followed by Annuals (39%) and Biennials only (03%). The majority of the plants used in the preparation of crude drugs were whole plant (33%), followed by leaves (25%), fruits (08%), roots (06%), shoots, flowers, barks, seeds (05%), gum and latex (03%) and bulb (02%) respectively.</p> <p>The highest Fic. values were recorded for cardiovascular and hypertensive diseases (1.0) followed by sore throat and narcotic diseases (0.80). The most important and extensively used species were <em>Allium sativum </em>L<em>.</em>, <em>Caralluma tuberculata </em>N.E. Brown<em> and Mentha spicata </em>L. each with 100% FL value. This study showed that the area is gorgeous and rich in medicinal flora. The botanical name, local name, family name, flowering season, part used, and ethno-pharmacological uses of local medicinal plants were documented.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: During this survey it was observed that the research area District Malakand, Pakistan is rich in medicinal flora and most of the indigenous people are poor and depend on medicinal plants for their basic primary health care needs. The survey showed that medicinal plants were mostly used by the local people to cure of gastrointestinal, skin, mouth, genital, urinary, cold, cough and joint diseases. The study will provide a baseline for further ethno-botanical, ethno-medicinal, phytochemical and antimicrobial studies.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, Ethno-pharmacological uses, Gastrointestinal diseases, Malakand, Pakistan. </p> Muhammad Ibrahim Naveed Akhtar Sara Khan Haji Bahadar Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Ibrahim, Naveed Akhtar, Sara Khan, Haji Bahadar 2023-04-07 2023-04-07 25 1 15 Medicinal plants and their use by an ethnic minority Jirel in Dolakha district, Central Nepal <p><em>Background</em>: Plants are important source of traditional medicine and are used widely in the primary healthcare of indigenous peoples and local communities. Despite a considerable number of ethnobotanical studies in Nepal, there are still several regions to be explored and scientifically document the traditional uses of medicinal plants. This study was conducted in one of such areas in the Dolakha district of central Nepal with the indigenous Jirel community.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnobotanical information was collected using guided field walks, semi-structured interviews, and key informant interviews with traditional herbalists and elderly men and women of the Jirel community. The data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using use value (UV), informant consensus factor (FIC), and preference ranking.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: This study recorded 111 medicinal plant species belonging to 103 genera that were used to treat 11 health disorders. Families such as Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Rosaceae have contributed a higher number of species of the total species recorded. Gastrointestinal disorders, skeleton-muscular disorders, fever, headache and cut and wounds were the common health problems among the Jirel people. Roots were mostly used for the preparation of remedies, followed by leaves and fruits. The informant consensus factor (FIC) ranges from 0.74 to 0.93 with an average of 0.87. <em>Paris</em> <em>polyphylla, </em><em>Cirsium verutum,</em> and<em> Astilbe rivularis</em> have the highest use values of 0.98, 0.96 and 0.92 respectively. This research finds that traditional knowledge about the use of medicinal plants is more centered on Jirel herbal healers (<em>Lama</em>/<em>Jhakris</em>) and elderly people than youths. Similarly, knowledge transmission routes are mainly from parents to their eldest child. Over-harvesting, premature harvesting, and deforestation were found as major threats to medicinal plants. Furthermore, the abandonment of traditional herbal practices, the loss of traditional healers, and the youth’s unwillingness to traditional healing systems were threats to the ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants in the Jirel community.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The diversity of medicinal plants in the area and the associated indigenous knowledge of use among Jirel people have contributed significantly to their healthcare system. The medicinal uses of the documented species provide the primary information for further ethnopharmacological studies and conservation of most useful species in the study area.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany, Traditional knowledge, Informant consensus factor, Knowledge transmission, Preference ranking, Use value</p> Sangram Karki Ashis Prakriti Dhital Yadav Uprety Suresh Kumar Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Sangram Karki, Ashis Prakriti Dhital, Yadav Uprety, Suresh Kumar Ghimire 2023-02-16 2023-02-16 25 1 29 New evidence regarding the role of previous disease experiences on people’s knowledge and learning of medicinal plants and biomedical drugs <p><em>Background:</em> What factors influence the knowledge and learning of medicinal plants and biomedical drugs? We investigated this question in a context of intermedicality, exploring previous experiences and the duration of diseases at the individual, family, and community levels.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> We conducted our study in a rural community in Northeast Brazil. We use individual semi-structured interviews to gather information on people’s knowledge and learning of medicinal plants and biomedical medications, as well as their prior experiences perceived with diseases at different levels (individual, family, community) and their duration perceived.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The knowledge of medicinal plants can be explained mainly by the previous experience of the disease in the community and the family. For medicinal plant learning in one year, only the previous experience in the community is relevant, but it had a negative influence. Regarding the knowledge of biomedical drugs, we observed positive influence of previous experiences in the family and community and negative influence of the diseases’ duration. Finally, none of the predictor variables explained the learning of knowledge of drugs of biomedical origin.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The present study suggests important mechanisms that regulate the knowledge and learning of new treatments (medicinal plants and medicines of biomedical origin) in medical systems.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Evolutionary Ethnobiology, previous experience, risk perception, local medical systems, biomedical system.</p> Sâmara da Silva Santos Flávia Rosa Santoro Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior Copyright (c) 2023 Sâmara da Silva Santos, Flávia Rosa Santoro, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior 2023-03-12 2023-03-12 25 1 23 Quantitative analysis of ethnomedicinal plants of Tehsil Khuiratta, AJK, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> This study was aimed at documenting quantitative ethnobotanical information of important medicinal plants which are being used by the local communities of Khuiratta, District Kotli, Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Using semi-structured questionnaires, 80 local residents of the study area were interviewed. The collected data was examined by using quantitative indices of ethnobotany such as Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Informant Consensus Facto (ICF), and Jaccard Similarity Index (JI).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 65 useful species of plants belonging to 36 families were collected from the study area. Off them, 13 plants were not reported in previous studies; while some plant species showed new uses which were not mentioned in previous investigations. The Asteraceae was the most dominant family that contributed 8 medicinal plants in the research area. Major life form of plants inhabiting in the area was herb (61%); while leaves (35%) were highly used in preparing recipes and most common mode of preparations were decoction and powder form (12% each). RFC was ranged from 0.11 to 0.78; while UV was ranged from 0.10 to 0.82. Higher ICF was recorded for kidney and urinary tract infection (0.86). The JI was ranged from 2.28 to 19.56.</p> <p><em>Conclusion.:</em>The primary objective of this research was to provide and conserve useful information about the therapeutic use of the native plant species of Khuiratta, AJK. This research appraisal provides some additional and novel uses along with higher RFCs and UVs which may serve as benchmark for phytochemical analysis and novel therapeutic properties.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Khuiratta, Quantitative ethnobotany, Ethnomedicinal plants, Therapeutic properties.</p> Faran Aftab Rahmatullah Qureshi Tayyaba Munawar Abdul Waheed Copyright (c) 2023 Faran Aftab, Tayyaba Munawar, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Abdul Waheed 2023-03-14 2023-03-14 25 1 28 Molecular and morphological analyses of plants with ethnomedicinal uses in northeastern Peru <p><em>Background</em>: In Peru, ethnomedicinal plants have not been extensively assessed in the current context of DNA-based techniques. In the Amazonas region, medicinal plants use for diarrhea and fever treatment are mainly known by local or traditional names, while their phenotypic plasticity limits their proper morphological identification.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In this regard, selected plants with ethnomedicinal uses in the Amazonas region were confirmed and characterized using morphology and multilocus phylogenies based on three molecular markers (ITS, <em>mat</em>K, and <em>rbc</em>L).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: This study reported four species with ethnomedicinal uses [<em>Disciphania ernstii</em> (Menispermaceae), <em>Psidium fulvum</em> (Myrtaceae), <em>Styloceras penninervium </em>(Buxaceae), <em>Ugni myricoides </em>(Myrtaceae)] distributed in humid forest, at 1,000–3,800 masl in the Amazonas region. The genetic markers that showed better resolution to distinguish species of the genera were ITS (<em>Disciphania</em>) and <em>mat</em>K (<em>Psidium</em>, <em>Ugni</em>, and<em> Styloceras</em>).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: An initial screening regarding the diversity of plants with ethnomedicinal uses in the Amazonas region was needed and should include DNA-based techniques using these molecular markers to correctly identify them. This approach will facilitate further evaluation of the ancestral knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in Peru.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Amazonas, Buxaceae, DNA barcoding, ethnomedicine, Myrtaceae, Ranunculaceae</p> Daniel Tineo Martha S. Calderon Danilo E. Bustamante Manuel Oliva Copyright (c) 2023 Daniel Tineo, Dr. Martha S. Calderon, Dr. Danilo E. Bustamante, Dr. Manuel Oliva 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 25 1 21 Diversity of wild edible plants and fungi consumed by semi-nomadic Gaddi and Sippi tribes in Doda district of Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir <p><em>Background:</em> Consumption of Wild edible plants (WEPs) is a cultural heritage of tribal and other rural communities. WEPs have a vital role to play not only in ensuring nutritional security and combating malnutrition but also in meeting medicinal requirements, income generation for these communities, and crop improvement through plant breeding programmes. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting traditional knowledge and practices of utilizing WEPs by <em>Gaddi</em> and <em>Sippi</em> tribes of Doda district of Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir (JKUT).</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in five villages of Doda district (JKUT) inhabited by <em>Gaddi</em> and <em>Sippi </em>tribes. The random sampling method was used for the selection of informants. The data was collected through interviews and focused group discussion with the informants as per semi-structured schedules. The uses of WEPs were recorded as use-reports, and culture importance value (CI) and factor informant consensus (F<sub>ic</sub>) were calculated from these values.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 77 species spread across 58 genera and 39 families were reported by 203 informants (148 males and 55 females). Angiosperms represented by 63 species were the major source of forest foods followed by 9 fungal species. WEPs with the highest number of species were vegetables (34 species), and fruits and nutraceuticals (27 species each). The most important species on the basis of CI were <em>Geopora arenicola </em>(Lev.) Kers. (CI = 0.66), <em>Geopora sumneriana </em>(Cooke) M. Torre. (0.60), <em>Diplazium esculentum </em>(Retz.) Sw. (0.56), <em>Diplazium frondosum </em>C. Chr. (0.54), and <em>Mentha arvensis </em>C. Presl. (0.52). Values of F­<sub>ic</sub> ranged between 0.91 (nutraceuticals) and 0.99 (cooked WEPs). The knowledge of WEPs significantly increased with age and decreased with education level of the informants.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The <em>Gaddi</em> and <em>Sippi</em> tribes are utilizing a good number of WEPs, and more importantly they exchange this information among themselves. As far as future prospects of this study are concerned, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of species like <em>Anethum sowa</em>, <em>Arisaema propinquum</em>, <em>Diplazium frondosum</em>, <em>Dipsacus inermis</em>, <em>Elaeagnus umbellate</em>, <em>Elwendia persica</em>, <em>Geopora sumneriana</em>, <em>Impatiens glandulifera</em>, <em>Morchella crassipes</em>, <em>Morchella conica</em>, <em>Prinsepia utilis</em>, <em>Sageretia thea</em>, <em>Solanum villosum</em>, <em>Thymus mongolicus</em>, and <em>Ziziphus oxyphylla </em>may be studied to make them popular amongst masses.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany; Fungi; <em>Gaddi</em> and <em>Sippi</em> tribes; wild edible plants.</p> B.P. Singh Yumnam Devashree Vikas Sharna R.K. Manhas Copyright (c) 2023 R.K. Manhas, Bikam, Yumnam 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 25 1 33 Microscopic evaluation, ethnobotanical and phytochemical profiling of a traditional drug Viola odorata L. from Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The present study encompassed a highly traded medicinal plant <em>Viola odorata</em> L. (Violaceae) for detailed Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy, ethnobotany and phytochemical evaluation. Phytochemical evaluation included ascorbic acid, nutritional, and phytochemical profile, and essential and fixed oil study. Even though each feature has its own limited taxonomic value but collectively these characteristics may be systematically important especially for the discrimination and identification of complex and problematic taxa.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The aim was to study microscopy, histology and phytochemical composition of <em>Viola odorata</em> on the basis of ethnobotanical information cited in the literature. Methods: The microscopy, and phytochemical composition of <em>V. odorata</em> was studied using standard methods.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Anatomy of the plant parts depicted dicot histology. Stomatal study under LM and SEM, revealed the presence of diacytic and anisocytic type of stomata. Stomata were numerous on the lower epidermis of the leaf. SEM of the powder drug showed the presence of trichomes, calcium-oxalate crystals, pitted vessels, fibers, trichomes, pollen grains, parenchyma cells, pith cells and root hair, but some unknown tissues were also seen. Ascorbic acid, nutritional, and phytochemical profile was investigated according to the standard methods. Different parts of the plant contained various chemical constituents such as alkaloids, mucilage, anthraquninone, saponins, tannins, fats and oil, protein and starch. Quantification of phytochemicals revealed mucilage and tannins to be the highest as compared to saponins and alkaloids. Leaves had 0.00143 % essential oil and 0.396 % fixed oil. Ascorbic acid, nutritional, and phytochemical profile, and oil study revealed vitamin C, proximate and phytochemical composition of <em>V. odorata</em>. Conclusion: Overall, this study can be helpful for plant taxonomists to further analyze the species for phytochemical isolation. This will improve the regulatory process and reduce the risk of a quality breach.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>: </strong>Ethnobotany, Histology, Morphology, Phytochemical evaluation, SEM, <em>Viola odorata</em> L.</p> Ghulam Dastagir Samra Bibi Noor Ul Uza Rainer W. Bussmann Imran Ahmad Samiullah Copyright (c) 2023 Ghulam Dastagir, Samra Bibi, Noor Ul Uza, Rainer W. Bussmann, Imran Ahmad, Samiullah 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 24 Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in treating some liver diseases in the Al-Haouz Rehamna region (Morocco). <p><em>Background:</em> Medicinal plants have always been important in therapeutic and preventive folk medical remedies for humans and cattle. Plants are also quite important in today's global economy.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Objectives:</em> This study is part of the development of plant resources in the Al-Haouz Rehamna region. Its general objective was to inventory the medicinal plants used in traditional pharmacopeia against certain liver diseases.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical field surveys were conducted using 1700 questionnaire forms. Ethnobotanical indices such as the informant agreement ratio (IAR), the family use value (FUV), the use-value (UV), and the Plant Part Value (PPV) were employed in the data analysis rate.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The findings enabled us to classify 86 medicinal plants into 79 genera and 37 families, among which four predominate: Asteraceae (17), Lamiaceae (9), and Fabaceae (8 species), and Apiaceae (7). Among the reported species, 21 are toxic, and the population of the said region widely uses ten: <em>Ridolfia segetum</em> (Guss.) Moris, <em>Curcuma longa</em> L., <em>Ononis natrix</em> L., <em>Rhamnus alaternus</em> L., <em>Cladanthus arabicus</em> (L.) Cass, <em>Rhaponcticum acaule</em> (L.) DC, <em>Corrigiola telephiifolia</em> Pourr, <em>Cynara cardunculus</em> L., <em>Cicer arietinum</em> L. and <em>Aframomum melegueta</em> K. Schum. The main parts used are leaves (PPV=0.183) and seeds (PPV= 0.165). A decoction is the most used method (34.88%). The recipes are mainly administered orally and rarely by the cutaneous route as a poultice on the abdomen. The diversity of therapies identified in the study area is a cultural richness.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Thus, the data reported by this study could be a precious reference of data for this region and could be a basis for further study in the field of phytochemistry to produce and identify new natural drugs that could be endowed with interesting hepatoprotective properties in the treatment or prevention of certain liver diseases.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, traditional medicine, liver disease, hepatoprotective, toxicity, Al-Haouz Rehamna, Morocco.</p> Ouafae Benkhnigue Hamid Khamar Rainer W Bussmann Noureddine Chaachouay Lahcen Zidane Copyright (c) 2023 Ouafae Benkhnigue, Hamid Khamar, Rainer W Bussmann, Noureddine Chaachouay, Lahcen Zidane 2023-03-02 2023-03-02 25 1 32 Cross-cultural studies of important ethno-medicinal plants among four ethnic groups of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India <p><em>Background:</em> This study was carried out to measure cross-cultural variability of plant use knowledge and to understand the human-nature interface among Monpa, Miji, Aka and Bugun communities of district West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh, India. We compared ethnomedical knowledge, diversity of medicinal plants, use values and informant consensus in the selected ethnic societies.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>A total of 94 informants (53 men and 41 women) from 02 villages of each community agreed to participate in this cross-cultural ethnomedicinal study. They were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire and asked about the medicinal plants used for the management of prevalent ailments, mode of preparation and administration of traditionally prepared medicine.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Total 59 plant species from 52 genera and 43 families were recorded for their ethnomedicinal use by the selected communities. Zingiberaceae was the most common family with 03 genera and 05 spp., having high recommended use across the ethnic communities. <em>Curcuma amada </em>(1.85), <em>Curcuma longa </em>(1.60), <em>Zingiber officinalis </em>(1.48) of this family showed high cross-cultural use value as compared to other medicinal plants. The informant consensus factor for use of medicinal plants for management of cancer was high (0.99) indicating high prevalence of this ailment in this study area, availability and use of similar plants for its management.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The high consensus for plants used in management of most of the prevalent ailments indicate good cross-cultural interaction among Monpa, Miji, Aka and Bugun communities of district West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh, India<strong><em>.</em></strong> The medicinal plants with high use value and consensus need to be conserved and propagated for their sustained availability to the future generations. </p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Monpa, Miji, Aka, Bugun, Medicinal plants, Intercultural</p> Jopi Siram Nagaraj Hedge Rambir Singh Uttam Kumar Sahoo Copyright (c) 2023 Jopi Siram, Nagaraj Hedge, Rambir Singh, Uttam Kumar Sahoo 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 23 Perception of medical health care practitioners and health care consumers towards traditional health care systems in western Ladakh, India <p><em>Background:</em> This study focussed on the perception of Medical Health Care Professionals (MHCPs) and Local Health Care Consumers (LHCCs) on traditional health-care systems (THCS) and collaboration of both traditional and modern health-care system in western Ladakh, India.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The study area was based on the distribution of three different socio-cultural groups in three valleys (Lower Indus, Suru and Wakha Chu) in western Ladakh. A detailed field investigation was undertaken for the perception, which involved semi-structured questionnaire survey of 30 MHCPs and 540 LHCCs, to document their opinion regarding integration of traditional and modern medicine.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Although local communities comprehend health problems and solutions within their cultural frame of reference but now it has changed over the years. The majority of MHCPs and LHCCs were agreed on the collaboration of both the health care systems.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Of all the THCS the <em>Amchi</em> system seems to be the most scientific and therefore the most logical one to be integrated into the modern medicine system.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Age class, <em>Amchi</em> system, <em>Akhons</em>, <em>Shamans</em> Lower Indus valley, Sowa-rigpa, Suru-valley</p> Kunzes Angmo Lotos Gailson Bhupendra S Adhikari Rainer W. Bussmann Gopal S Rawat Copyright (c) 2023 Kunzes Angmo, Lotos Gailson, Bhupendra S Adhikari, Rainer W. Bussmann, Gopal S Rawat 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 25 1 9 Quantitative ethnobotanical appraisal of plants used by inhabitants of Jelar Valley, Dir Upper, Northern Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: Due to the lack of primary health facilities and poor economic situation, the traditional use of plants for curing diseases is very common in rural areas of developing countries across the globe. The present study aimed to explore people-plant interaction and the conservation status of Jelar Valley, during 2014-2017.</p> <p><em>Objectives</em>: The main goals of this research were; to enlist the medicinal flora; to gather indigenous knowledge concerning the medicinal plants; to assess the conservation status of the medicinal flora area.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: To collect information on ethno-botanical uses of plant species, a semi- structure questionnaire was prepared, and information was collected from local knowledgeable peoples of the area including male and female as well from local people. A total of 135 informants were interviewed regarding ethno-medicinal uses of the plants found in the area. The collected plants were classified into various used categories on the basis of information on their ethno-botanical uses. The relative frequency of citation, family importance values and conservation status were also calculated.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In the present study, checklist of 83 plants was prepared and also determined its conservation status. The results revealed that of the 83 medicinal species (62.7%) were herbs, (21.7%) were trees and the remaining (15.7%) species belonged to shrubs. The results showed that mostly the species were used as a whole plant (21.7%), followed by leaves (25.3%), leaves and fruit (9.6%), Based on Family Importance Value (FIV) the best represented used family was Lamiaceae (91.11 %), followed by Asteraceae, while the highest Relative Frequency Citations was recorded for <em>Mentha longifolia </em>(0.266) followed by <em>Olea ferruginea</em> (0.259). The conservation status of medicinal flora revealed that <em>Melia azedarach</em> was found endangered, 35 (42%) species were rare, 15 (18%) species infrequent and 32 (39%) species were recorded as vulnerable in the area. Following the International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria 2001 for conservation none of the population was declared in the dominant category.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The study showed that the area has a great diversity of plants used for different ailments. The plants' utilization and unsustainable use of plants increase day by day for different purposes. The diseases are increasing day by day; they may cause a great threat to the flora of the Valley. The survey aims to make people aware of valuable plants and to protect them from extinction. The old people are aware of the accurate knowledge of medicinal plants and are needed to preserve this knowledge for the next generation.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Ethno-botanical, conservation, Jelar, Dir Upper, Pakistan</p> Shariat Ullah Lal Badshah Wahid Hussain Iqtidar Hussain Asghar Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Shariat Ullah, Lal Badshah, Wahid Hussain, Iqtidar Hussain, Asghar Ali 2023-05-29 2023-05-29 25 1 21 Ethnobotany of fruit species native to paramos and cloud forests of Northern Peru <p><em>Background</em>: This study was carried out in the paramos and cloud forests of the Andes of the department of Piura of Northern Peru, and aimed to document the native fruit species known and culturally used by the communities around these ecosystems.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The Use Value and Importance indices were applied. An intercultural communication approach was used to achieve the consensus of participation of community organizations in the registration of interviews and field collections based on the timing established by the communities to collect the species.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: For a total of 49 fruit species ecological zone, phenology, nutritional and ethnomedicinal use were described. Of these 39 (80%) were not traditionally commercialized in the markets and only used by the communities in their nutrition and/or treatment of diseases. Overall, 27 species (55%) had nutritional and medicinal use; and among the 39 non-traditional species, 22 had dual use.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The traditional knowledge of the communities around the paramos and cloud forests indicated the presence of 39 fruit species not known in the market, but with traditional consumption, which makes them promising native species for science, innovation, and ecologically sustainable profitable reforestation.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany, Andean fruit trees, paramos, cloud forests, reforestation, functional foods, nutraceuticals.</p> Fidel Ángel Torres-Guevara Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui Elena Mantilla-Rodriguez Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Fidel Ángel Torres-Guevara, Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui, Elena Mantilla-Rodriguez, Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 25 1 15 Ethnomedicinal plants uses for the treatment of respiratory disorders in tribal District North Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The current survey aimed to assess the traditional knowledge and use of therapeutic plants to treat various respiratory disorders by traditional healers. The local communities of District North Waziristan are reliant on therapeutic plant species for their primary health care needs.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews. A sum of 130 informants (107 male and 23 female) selected randomly. Ethnobotanical data was quantitatively analyzed by using Use Value (UV), Relative Citation of Frequency (RFC), and Fidelity Level (FL).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 56 plants related to 32 plant families were recorded which were used to cure 24 various respiratory disorders. Lamiaceae (7 species) was the most prevalent plant family, followed by Asteraceae (5 species), Moraceae and solanaceae (4 species) each, 8 families have (2 species each), while the remaining 20 families has only (1 species each).The dominant growth form was herbs (53.57%), while leaves (28.57%) were the leading plant part used in remedies preparation for respiratory disorders. The dominant method of medications preparation was decoctions (42.86%), which were all administered orally. The plant species with highest use values were <em>Ephedra procera</em> (0.87)<em>, </em>followed by<em> Morus nigra </em>(0.86), while the highest RFC values were recorded for <em>Ephedra procera </em>(0.36), followed <em>Cydonia oblonga</em> (0.35), <em>Morus nigra</em> (0.34). The therapeutic plant species with maximum use values reported in the survey may indicate the possible presence of important bioactive compounds which need a search for potential new drugs to treat various respiratory disorders.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The study accomplishes that indigenous communities yet prefer therapeutic plants species over allopathic drug for curing different disorders. However this valuable traditional information is limited to elder people. So, attention is required to conserve this traditional knowledge.</p> Sabith Rehman Zafar Iqbal Rahmatullah Qureshi Ghulam Mujtaba Shah Muhammad Irfan Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Irfan, Sabith Rehman, Zafar Iqbal, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 16 Indigenous knowledge and conservation status of wild plants collected in Garyaum, North Waziristan, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> People still use plant-based medicine for their basic healthcare requirements despite having easy access to contemporary medications. Individuals are more dependent on natural remedies, especially in rural areas. In Garyaum, North Waziristan, Pakistan, this study intends to investigate the key native plants utilized in medicine and their applications for treating various illnesses.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Objectives:</em> The objectives of this study was to: (1) conduct a systematic examination of the wild plants utilized by the inhabitants of the study area; (2) collect indigenous knowledge concerning wild plants; (3) assess species with considerable cultural importance to the Garyaum inhabitants; and (4) document the conservation status of the collected plants in study area.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical data based on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using the protocol of (Martin 1995). Techniques included direct led field walks, focus groups, and semi-structured interviews. 95 participants including 81 men and 14 women were interviewed. Quantitative approaches, such as relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), and fidelity level (FL) were also conducted.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The participants reported a total of 66 plant species, belonging to 49 genera and 28 families. Of the total reported plants, 47 were fodder species, 35 were medicinal species, 14 were timber species, 20 were fuel species, 11 were fruits species, 7 was vegetable species, 2 were condiment species, 9 were thatching species, 3 were ornamental species while 3 were poisonous in nature. The current findings revealed 45 species (68.18 %) as vulnerable, 9 species (13.63 %) as rare, 8 species (12.12 %) as endangered and 4 species (6.06 %) was found infrequent. None of the species was ranked in the dominant category (IUCN 2001) which clearly described the unpleasant situation of the local flora.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> It is concluded that local people still rely on plant-based medication for their basic medical requirements. The vast majority of the species are utilized as fuel, wood, and fodder. In addition, plant diversity is diminishing as a result of many anthropogenic influences, infrastructural expansion, and climate change as well. Hence, proper identification and cultivation of significant medicinal and aromatic plants, as well as appropriate conservation and management techniques, are urgently needed in the research region. And the value of floral diversity and conservation must be entrenched in local inhabitants' children.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Conservation status, Endangered species, Garyaum, Indigenous knowledge, Quantitative ethnobotany.</p> Irfan Ali Shah Tanvir Burni Lal Badshah Noor Ul Uza Copyright (c) 2023 Irfan Ali Shah, Tanvir Burni, Lal Badshah, Noor Ul Uza 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 25 1 17 Quantitative ethnobotanical exploration of wild medicinal plants of Arang Valley, District Bajaur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: a mountainous region of the Hindu Kush Range <p><em>Background</em>. Globally, humans traditionally use plants for the treatment of a variety of diseases. To document ethnomedical knowledge and practices, the remote Arange Valley of district Bajaur is still unexplored. The current study is a contemporary assessment that established the local knowledge of medicinal plants in the area.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>. The area has diverse natural flora, and the local people rely on it for a variety of things, including traditional medicine. Semi-structured questionnaires were used in conjunction with direct interviews with 166 experienced persons to elicit ethnomedical information. The collected data were analyzed quantitatively for relative frequency citation (RFC), fidelity level (FL) and use value (UV).</p> <p><em>Results</em>. It was recorded that 77 plant species from 46 families were being used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. Lamiaceae with 11 species, was the most frequently utilized family, followed by Fabaceae with 5 species, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae, and Rosaceae, each with 4 species, one, two, or three species were contributed by the rest of the families. The distribution of habits included herbs (62.3%), shrubs (22.1%), and trees (13%) while lianas and parasites each made up 1.3%. Among the plant parts used in the production of remedies are leaves (39%), fruits, and roots (16% each), seeds, and the entire plant (8%) as well as rhizomes and areal stems with branches (4% each). Most medications are being used orally (68.97%) and topically (24.14 %) to treat chronic illnesses such as gastrointestinal problems, pulmonary infections, diabetes, kidney stones, urogenital tract infections and nerve stimulation. The quantitative analysis showed that the <em>Berberis lycium</em> and <em>Sideroxylon mascatense</em> have maximum RFC values i.e., 0.24 and 0.19, respectively used as a tonic, while <em>Decaspermum blancoi </em>exhibits an RFC value of 0.17 which is used for digestive disorders. The highest use values were recorded (1.0) for <em>Sideroxylon mascatense</em> and (0.78) for <em>Berberis lycium</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: This study demonstrates that the area has a rich flora of medicinal plants and could be contributed to ethnobotanical knowledge. The data collected will serve as a basis for the comprehensive investigation of active molecular constituents of the medicinal flora of the area. Novel herbal medications in the field of pharmacology may soon be discovered via the investigation of these medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>:</strong> Ethnomedicinal uses, Indigenous knowledge, Natural compounds, Bajaur</p> Aminul Haq Lal Badshah Wahid Hussain Irshad Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Aminul Haq, Lal Badshah, Wahid Hussain, Irshad Ullah 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 25 1 29 Antimalarial and mosquito repellent plants: insights from Burundi <p><em>Background:</em> The present ethnobotanical study was conducted to identify plant species used by Burundians to treat malaria and to repel mosquitoes, to compare this with available literature, to identify species which could be further investigated and to discuss potential future promotion or cultivation.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Surveys were conducted between April and October 2018 in 7 provinces representing the 5 ecological zones of Burundi. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 341 respondents randomly selected (between 25 and 50 household heads in each province).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 44 plant species were reported in this study: 32 as antimalarial, 2 as mosquito repellents and 10 for both purposes. Leaves were the most used plant part for antimalarial plants (84%) and for mosquito repellent plants (88%). According to the respondents, 28 plant species were being cultivated and 16 were mostly collected from the wild. An overview of literature on some plant species cited in this study showed that 8 plant species were not reported in previous studies.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> This study highlighted the use of antimalarial and mosquito repellent plants in Burundi. Its interest is to be a database of antimalarial and mosquito repellent plants. It will help in decision-making regarding traditional medicine development and medicinal plants conservation.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany; antimalarial activity; mosquito repellents; plants cultivation; Eco-climatic zones.</p> Célestin Havyarimana Jacques Nkengurutse Jérémie Ngezahayo Cuni-Sanchez Aida Tatien Masharabu Copyright (c) 2023 Célestin Havyarimana, Jacques Nkengurutse , Jérémie Ngezahayo , Cuni-Sanchez Aida , Tatien Masharabu 2023-02-27 2023-02-27 25 1 28 The diversity and traditional knowledge of wild edible fruits in Bengkulu, Indonesia <p><em>Background:</em> Wild edible fruit plant species (WEFs) contribute significantly to human well-being. These plants have a high nutritional value and are a source of novel alleles/genes that are important in developing new and improved crop cultivars to promote sustainable food security. However, most WEFs are less well-known and underutilized. This study aimed to investigate wild edible fruit species diversity and their potential in the Bengkulu region, Indonesia.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight villages from four districts of Bengkulu province, Indonesia, i.e. Mukomuko, Lebong, Rejang Lebong, and Bengkulu Selatan. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out from July to September 2022 and included 383 randomly selected respondents. The ethnobotanical investigation uses semi-structured questionnaires to gather information on the traditional knowledge of WEFs. Plant specimens were collected and identified in herbarium ANDA, Universitas Andalas.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 73 wild edible fruit plant species belonging to 37 genera and 26 families were recorded in the study area. Most of the plant species were trees (87.7%), followed by shrubs (5.5%), climbers (4.1%), and herbs (2.7%). Forty-eight (79.5%) species were discovered in the forest, 7 (9.6%) in the farmlands, and 8 (11%) in both the forest and the farmlands. WEFs are mostly consumed as food. <em>Artocarpus integer, Mangifera odorata, Pometia pinnata, Flacourtia rukam, Durio oxleyanus, Baccaurea racemosa, Bellucia pentamera, Baccaurea macrocarpa, Baccaurea polyneura</em>, and <em>Mangifera foetida</em>. <em>Artocarpus integer </em>are the most preferred WEFs by their taste quality. Besides foods, WEFs have multi purposes including as traditional medicine, construction, agricultural tools, fuelwood, and fodder. Indigenous knowledge of WEFs was significantly associated with districts, age groups, and educational levels.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Bengkulu has a diverse range of WEFs, but only a small proportion has been used by local people, particularly as food. Promotion and domestication of WEFs should be a primary concern in Bengkulu in order to take advantage of their nutritional value and potential economic value. Moreover, integrating knowledge related to WEFs into the educational curriculum is critical for educating the next generation regarding the potential of WEFs in the future.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Bengkulu, biodiversity, local knowledge, wild fruits, underutilized plants</p> Adi Bejo Suwardi Syamsuardi Erizal Mukhtar Nurainas Copyright (c) 2023 Adi Bejo Suwardi, Syamsuardi, Erizal Mukhtar, Nurainas 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 25 1 17 Quantitative Ethnomedicinal study of the Flora of Tehsil Lahor, District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p><em>Introduction:</em> The current study expresses the folk knowledge of medicinal plants of the Flora of tehsil Lahor, District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The presenting study for the first time provides a deep sight into folk medicinal knowledge of the study area through quantitative analysis.</p> <p><em>Materials and Methods: </em>The native knowledge of the medicinal plant has been documented with the help of the local people of the area through the interviews of the experts of the area and also used the questionnaire methods from January to December 2018.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 100 plants taxa belonging to 87 genera and 50 families were documented. In our findings, the Poaceae was the leading family with 8 taxa each (16%), while the Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae were considered as the second leading families with 7 taxa each (28%) followed by third Solanaceae having 6 taxa with (12%). Amongst them 2 taxa were Pteridophytes, and 98 taxa were Angiosperms. Habit wise 76 taxa were herbs, while 13 taxa were shrubs, and 11 taxa were trees. Regarding the parts used whole plants were utilized with 43% dominantly. Regarding the quantitative analysis, the RFC ranged from 0.80 for <em>Peganum harmala</em> to 0.05 for <em>Cannabis sativa</em>, UV ranged from 0.21 for <em>Mentha longifolia</em> to 0.03 for Ricinus communis, ICF ranged from 0.66 for whooping cough to 0.77 for diabetes, while the highest FL was found for <em>Oxalis corniculata</em> (91.8), followed by <em>Fumaria indica</em> (91), and <em>Datura innoxia</em> (90). The highest rank order priority (ROP) was reported for <em>Otostegia limbata</em> (212.8), followed by <em>Lindenbergia indica</em> (205.2).</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The diversity of medicinal plant taxa and their association with traditional knowledge has huge importance in primary healthcare systems. Most of the people in the study area were dependent on therapeutic taxa for the treatment of many disorders such as curing whooping cough, snake bite, anemia, psoriasis, and tooth decay.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal, Traditional, Lahor, Swabi, Pakistan.</p> Arshad Ali Gul Jan Muhammad Irfan Farzana Gul Jan Fazal Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Arshad Ali, Gul Jan, Muhammad Irfan, Farzana Gul Jan, Fazal Ullah 2023-05-21 2023-05-21 25 1 21 Comparative assessment of ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Nepal <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. (Miracle tree) is traditionally used as food, vegetable and medicine in different parts of Nepal, to be precise in lowland Tarai. This study aimed at documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge regarding the use of <em>M. oleifera</em>, screening and testing the phytochemicals obtained from different parts (root, bark, leaves, and seeds) of the species and comparing the traditional and lab-based information for advancement in bioprospecting.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Assessment of ethnobotanical use of <em>M. oleifera</em> was carried out using questionnaire survey and informal meetings while the laboratory experiments were performed to appraise the chemical constituents and their activities. The crude methanolic extract of different plant parts of <em>M. oleifera</em> was prepared by cold percolation method and then qualitative phytochemical screening was done following standard protocols. The antibacterial activities of different plant parts were tested using agar-well diffusion method against five different human pathogenic bacteria namely <em>Bacillus subtilis,</em> <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and<em> Staphylococcus aureus.</em></p> <p><em>Results:</em> The plant is being used in 16 districts of lowland Tarai of Nepal for the treatment of 22 ailments including six potentially bacterial ailments: inflammation, tuberculosis, hysteria, diabetes, piles and tumors. Of the five useful plant parts, leaf, root, fruit/seed and bark were frequently harvested while the flower was least used. Analogous to the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical compounds of the plant, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and glycosides exhibited the strong antibacterial activities. The extract from bark showed the higher zone of inhibition followed by leaf and seed, revealing their high potentials for pharmacology. Bark showed the high antibacterial activity against <em>B. subtilis</em> followed by leaf, whereas seed shows its best against <em>S. aureus</em> and root against <em>E. coli</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> <em>M. oleifera</em> is a promising medicinal plant based on our ethnobotanical survey and laboratory assessment. More research on its ethnomedicinal and biochemical capabilities is needed. Documentation and comparative assessment of traditional knowledge and phytochemical findings might lead a consented and conscientious avenue for bio-prospecting and novel drug discovery.</p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong><em>Keywords:</em> Miracle tree, crude extracts, agar-well diffusion method<em>, </em>phytochemicals, ethnomedicine<strong>,</strong> bioprospecting.</p> Manisha Awasthi Chandra Pokhrel Young-Han You Sujan Balami Ripu Kunwar Santosh Thapa Eui-Joo Kim Ji-Won Park Jae-Hoon Park Jung-Min Lee Yoon-Seo Kim Copyright (c) 2023 Manisha Awasthi, Chandra Prasad Pokhrel, Young-Han You, Sujan Balami, Ripu Mardhan Kunwar, Santosh Thapa, Eui-Joo Kim, Ji-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Park, Jung-Min Lee, Yoon-Seo Kim 2023-01-19 2023-01-19 25 1 13 The singularity of the medicinal knowledge of the Huni Kuĩ people from the western Brazilian Amazon <p><em>Background</em>: Studies that aim to analyze the transcultural traditional knowledge from different countries still in their infancy but are essential to favor an equal and fair division of the benefits resulting from the exploration of genetic resources and to develop sustainable strategies for conservation. The goal of this research is to compare the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants by the Huni Kuĩ people with the knowledge from other cultures, in order to assess the singularity of the Huni Kuĩ knowledge and to identify the convergence in medicinal plants use with other cultures.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We did a literature review for 83 plant species and compiled all traditional knowledge available on the Scielo PubMed and Google Scholar. We searched for the scientific name of each species and its synonyms (382) plus the words “ethnobotany”, “ethnobotanical” or “medicinal” as inclusion criteria.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: We found 625 papers for 54 plants. About 73% of the medicinal services found for these species were considered, and 90% of all medicinal services cited were from the Huni Kuĩ people. The other 10% (20 species) were shared with other communities. Most of the research was conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, but also in the other countries.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Our results show the singularity of the Huni Kuĩ knowledge and the complexity in the distribution of traditional knowledge, which highlights the importance of projects that document the traditional knowledge, in order to create new conservation strategies and public policies.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: traditional knowledge, indigenous people, indigenous language, medicinal services, ethnobotany</p> Thiago Serrano de Almeida Penedo Penedo Alexandre Quinet Moacir Haverroth Ariane Luna Peixoto Copyright (c) 2023 Thiago Serrano de Almeida Penedo Penedo, Alexandre Quinet, Moacir Haverroth, Ariane Peixoto 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 25 1 107 Quantitative ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the indigenous communities of Shawal Valley, District North Waziristan, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The inhabitants of distant regions typically depend on traditional information of therapeutic plants to treat various disorders. The current survey was conducted to record and explore the indigenous utilization of the therapeutic plants among people dwelling in Shawal Valley, North Waziristan, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and data was analyzed by using different quantitative indices viz. use value (UV), use reports (UR), relative frequency of citation (RFC), fidelity level (FL), and family importance value (FIV). Plant specimens were submitted to the Department of Botany Herbarium, Hazara University Mansehra for future records.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of108 medicinal plants belonging to 54 families were reported which were used to cure various 119 disorders. The informants documented the highest number of plants used for digestive disorders (16 spp.), followed by diarrhea (11 spp.) and cough (10 spp.). The maximum RFC value was recorded for <em>Bergenia ciliate</em> (0.36), followed by <em>Berberis lycium</em> and <em>Ephedra gerardiana</em> (0.35) each. The highest UV was recorded for <em>Bergenia ciliate</em> (0.89), followed by <em>Ephedra gerardiana</em> (0.87), and<em> Punica granatum</em> (0.85). The maximum fidelity levels values were recorded for <em>Bergenia ciliate</em> and <em>Ephedra gerardiana</em> (100%) each.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The present study revealed that Shawal valley has an important diversity of therapeutic plants, and the use of therapeutic plant remedies is still familiar in the study area. A total of 108 therapeutic plants, related to 54 families were recorded for the treatment of 119 disorders. Thus, the study provides baseline information for further pharmacological and phytochemical screening in order to study their bioactive compounds.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Folk Knowledge, Quantitative study, Shawal valley, North Waziristan.</p> Sabith Rehman Zafar Iqbal Rahmatullah Qureshi Ghulam Mujtaba Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Sabith Rehman, Zafar Iqbal, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 25 1 24 Quantitative ethnobotanical appraisal of Shawal Valley, South Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><strong>: </strong>This study's primary goal was to collect and document uses of plants by local residents of Shawal Valley, South Waziristan, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong><strong>: </strong>A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 65 residents (24 women and 41 males). The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), and Jaccard Index (JI).</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>: </strong>The research region is abode of 60 plant species belonged to 32 families of ethnobotanical significance. Lamiaceae family contributed maximum number of species (7), followed by Pinaceae (6 species). The most preferred plant parts among the reported species were the leaves (60%), followed by the stem (28.3%).&nbsp;<em>Thymus mongolicus</em>&nbsp;was found to have the highest RFC (0.86), while&nbsp;<em>Adiantum capillus-veneris</em>&nbsp;had the lowest (i.e. 0.02).&nbsp;The UV was between 0.02 and 1.&nbsp;<em>Thymus mongolicus</em>&nbsp;was found to have the greatest UV (UV=1); whereas,&nbsp;<em>Adiantum capillus-veneris</em>&nbsp;had the lowest UV (0.02). Twelve plants had a fidelity level of 100% while&nbsp;<em>Quercus dilatata</em>&nbsp;had the lowest (33.3%). Plants' ICF values varied from 0.87 to 0.96. The Average Direct Matrix Ranking revealed that&nbsp;<em>Quercus dilatata</em>&nbsp;received the highest rating (1<sup>st</sup>) for its many uses, followed by&nbsp;<em>Pinuswallichiana</em>&nbsp;(2<sup>nd</sup>),&nbsp;<em>and Rumex dentatus</em>&nbsp;(3<sup>rd</sup>),&nbsp;<em>Pinus gerardiana</em>&nbsp;(4<sup>th</sup>),&nbsp;<em>and Zingiberofficinale</em>&nbsp;(5<sup>th</sup>).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><strong>:</strong>Ethnomedicinal research indicates that indigenous people in the studied area are knowledgeable on the use of plants. These plants and indigenous knowledge must be preserved.</p> Hekmat Ullah Rahmatullah Qureshi Mehmooda Munazir Yamin Bibi Abdul Saboor Muhammad Imran Muhammad Maqsood Copyright (c) 2023 Hekmat Ullah, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Mehmooda Munazir, Yamin Bibi, Abdul Saboor, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Maqsood 2023-02-17 2023-02-17 25 1 17 Ethno-medicinal plants of indigenous people: A case study in Khatling valley of Western Himalaya, India <p><em>Background:</em> Khatling valley is an unexplored and remote region located in the Uttarakhand state of Indian Himalaya, the area possesses rich medicinal flora, and local inhabitants using these plants since generations. The majority of primary health care depends upon traditional medicine due to the unavailability of a modern medicinal facility, however, the identity of medicinal plants is limited to traditional healers or elder people in the region thus the documentation of such important medicinal knowledge is a dire need for sustainable use. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in this region from 2018 to 2020. <em> </em>Ethnomedicinal data were collected from 82 informants through semi-structured questionnaires and group conversations. To check the popular and frequently used species URs and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated for the collected data.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The present study recorded 68 plants from 63 genera and 35 families utilized for treating various disorders. The dominant families were Asteraceae (7) and Rosaceae (6) followed by Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Polygonaceae, Zingiberiaceae (4 species each). The majority of the useful plants were herbaceous (78%) followed by trees (12%), shrubs (9%), and climbers were the least in number (1%). Most of the plant parts used were leaves and roots 25% each, followed by rhizome, aerial part and tuber (9% each), seeds, fruits, and whole plant (5% each), bark (4%) while, stem, flower, resin, and the bulb has less proportion (1% each). Five drug formulations were used by the local inhabitants of which paste was the most common (32%) followed by powder (31%), decoction (19%), raw (12%), and juice (6%). Some important medicinal plants based on use reports (URs) were <em>Valeriana jatamansi </em>Jones (300 URs and 5 uses), <em>Aconitum lethale </em>Griff. (275 URs and 5 uses), <em>Nardostachys jatamansi </em>(D. Don) DC (250 URs and 4 uses), <em>Solanum nigrum </em>(L.) (234 URs and 5 uses), <em>Paeonia emodi </em>Royle (230 URs and 4 uses). ICF values ranged between 0.96 and 1. The highest ICF value (1) was recorded for mental disorders (ICD code F) and epilepsy (ICD code G) while a minimum of 0.96 was recorded for blood problems (ICD code I).</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Ethnomedicinal plants having high URs and ICF can be a good source for novel phytoconstituents and novel drug discoveries, apart from this documentation of traditional knowledge will be helpful for the new generation, researchers, and policymakers for sustainable use of the species.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicine; Indigenous knowledge; Medicinal plants<strong>;</strong> Remote region</p> Jaffer Hussain J.P. Mehta Ankit Singh Ajendra Singh Bagria Hardeep Singh M.C. Nautiyal Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Ankit Singh, Jaffer Hussain, J.P. Mehta, Ajendra Singh Bagria, Hardeep Singh, M.C. Nautiyal, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 19 Ethnomedicinal Plant Resources of Tamang Community in the Konjyosom Rural Municipility, Central Nepal <p><em>Background</em>: In Nepal, plant resources play an important role in the health of local communities. However, in many parts of the country, this role and its patterns are understudied. The purpose of this study was to document medicinal plant species and assess their use among the Tamang community in Lalitpur district, Central Nepal.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnomedicinal information was collected through focus group discussions, semi structured interviews with local peoples and key informants from the Tamang community using rapid rural appraisal tools (RRA) across the five wards vz. Nallu, Chaughare, Bhardew, Dalchoki and Sankhu of the Konjyosom rural municipality. Botanical voucher samples were collected for scientific identification. The quantitative data were analyzed for informants consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL) and relative frequency of citation (RFC).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 176 plant species were recorded under 82 families and 158 genera as medicinal to treat different ailments. Among them, 169 species were angiosperms, one gymnosperm and six pteridophytes. Herbs (78 spp.) occurred most frequently in the study area, and the leaves (38 spp.) were commonly foraged. The most common route of consumption was oral (98 spp.) and the paste (36 spp.) was frequently administered. The majority of the species (58%) were collected from the forest. The ICF value ranged from 0.26 (digestive) to 0.97 (respiratory). The RFC value ranged from 0.01 to 0.87.<em> Curcuma longa</em> had the highest frequency of citation index of 0.87. is this RFC? Merge these 2 sentences The FL index ranged from 42.86% to 100%. The most preferred medicinal plant species was <em>Curcuma longa</em> which was used to treat cuts and wounds and common cold (51%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Medicinal plants have played a significant role in the health care of local people. This study provides a comprehensive documentation of ethnomedicinal plant species using among the Tamang community of Konjyosom rural municipality, Lalitpur district. This study concluded that it is necessary to document and preserve biodiversity and its associated knowledge, which may lead to additional research activities.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnic people; Ethnobotanical, Informants, Interview</p> Ratna Silwal Gautam Sudha Joshi Shrestha Ila Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Ratna Silwal Gautam, Sudha Joshi Shrestha, Ila Shrestha 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 25 1 29 Medicinal plants used in treatment of various diseases in the Rwenzori Region, Western Uganda <p><em>Background:</em> The Rwenzori region is endowed with a rich diversity of medicinal plants, which are utilized by communities to treat various diseases because they are easy to access, prepare and is part of a wealth of indigenous knowledge. Despite the utilization of these plants, there is a need to systematically document plants used in the Rwenzori region, which will help in preserving indigenous knowledge and aid the process of discovering new drugs that act as agents for health promotion and disease prevention.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the western districts of Kabarole, Kasese, Bundibugyo, and Bunyangabu with the help of semi-structured questionnaires for data collection and 24 key informants’ interviews with native herbal medicine men/women in the region.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Overall, seventy-seven medicinal plant species distributed in 40 families were found to be used by communities for treating over 67 diseases. The most commonly used medicinal plants included <em>Prunus africana</em> (Hook. f.). Kalkman (12), <em>Hoslundia opposita</em> Vahl (11), <em>Bidens pilosa</em> Linn. (11),<em> Conyza sumatrensis</em> (Retz.) E. Walker (9) and <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> Linn. (9). The family of Asteraceae and Fabaceae made up most of the medicinal plant species used by the natives. The most used plant parts are the leaves, and boiling water is the main solvent used in the preparation of these herbal remedies, which are taken mainly orally.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The communities of the Rwenzori region depend a lot on herbal medicine to treat various diseases irrespective of the availability of modern health care.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany; Asteraceae, Indigenous communities; Human diseases, Herbal medicine</p> Casim Umba Tolo Ivan Kahwa Upton Nuwagira Anke Weisheit Hilda Ikiriza Copyright (c) 2023 Casim Umba Tolo, Ivan Kahwa, Upton Nuwagira, Anke Weisheit, Hilda Ikiriza 2023-05-22 2023-05-22 25 1 16 Resilience processes and positioning of agroecological farmers in an urban horticultural fair in northwest Patagonia <p><em>Background:</em> Horticultural fairs are spaces that promote regional agrobiodiversity, transmitting and recreating multiple knowledge and emotions between horticulturists and customers. The adaptive processes by which fairs are sustained over time in the face of socio-economic, climatic, and sanitary changes are still little known. Considering the principles of socio-environmental resilience, the aims of this research were: 1) to analyze the positionings of horticulturists that favor the process of resilience in the Free Fair of Family Farmers from Nahuel Huapi, San Carlos de Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina) and 2) to reflect on the vulnerabilities and challenges faced by this fair for its sustainability over time.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A qualitative study was carried out that included interviews, participant observation, and virtual ethnography.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> One hundred and eighty-six ethnospecies, mostly of exotic origin (99%) are part of the agrobiodiversity of the fair. The main principles that foster the resilience of the fair are: high agrobiodiversity and functional redundancy that reflect and promote local food customs; learning and connectivity for innovation and information exchange; and cooperation and adaptive systemic thinking based on experiences, attachment to the land, and reciprocity. The affective dimension crosses each of these principles, strengthening the cultural fabric of horticulturists and customers. However, the economic and cultural viability of the fair is uncertain, mainly due to the drastic socio-environmental changes that the region is experiencing.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> To reduce the vulnerabilities of the fair, it will be necessary to strengthen the principles mentioned above and to increase the participation of the broader levels of governance (technical and governmental sectors).</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Agrobiodiversity, urban contexts, food sovereignty, socio-environmental resilience, vulnerability.</p> Ana H Ladio Melisa Longo Soledad Molares Copyright (c) 2023 Ana H Ladio, Melisa Longo, Soledad Molares 2023-04-29 2023-04-29 25 1 35 Digestive plants of the Patagonian steppe: multidimensional variables that affect their knowledge and use <p><em>Background: </em>In a rural Mapuche community of the Patagonian steppe (Chubut, Argentina), we analyzed how the use and popularity of digestive plants are affected by their aroma, the presence of dual medicinal-edible uses, their digestive versatility, biogeographical origin and accessibility.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Free listing and in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 collaborators, complemented with participant observation and walks in the field. Quantitative indices, non-parametric methods (Binomial and Chi-square tests, <em>p</em> &lt; 0, 05) and generalized linear models (GLM, Omnibus test, <em>p</em> &lt; 0, 05) were performed.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Local collaborators use 61 digestive plants, including a similar number of native and exotic species. Most are used for only one type of digestive use, are very accessible and have aroma. There are as many species with dual use as without dual use. Exotic species generally have more aroma than native ones. Only exotic species are highly accessible. Species with dual uses are mainly used as condiments. Digestive-only species could or could not have aroma. The popularity of species is only affected by their digestive versatility and aroma, mainly for exotic ones.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>Local pharmacopoeia reflects aspects that account for its cultural resilience, including a high richness of native and exotic digestive plants, many of which are used for specific ailments. The species have been selected from the joint evaluation of biophysical and sociocultural variables that influence their knowledge and forms of use. These variables and perceptions would also allow diversification in response to changes, forming part of a bio-cultural legacy unique to Patagonia.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Mapuche medicinal flora, Patagonia, popularity, cultural resilience.</p> Soledad Molares María Laura Ciampagna Ana Ladio Copyright (c) 2023 Soledad Molares, María Laura Ciampagna, Ana Ladio 2023-02-22 2023-02-22 25 1 19 Ethnoveterinary use of medicinal plants among the tribal populations of District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The current study expresses that most of the peoples were dependent on the natural resources as compared to cultivated. Domestic animals play a vital role in the development of human civilization that why plants are utilized as a remedy for a variety of domestic animals, in addition to humans. The people of District Malakand were extremely correlated with the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as ethnoveterinary medicine.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The present study was conducted from January 2015 to December 2017 for observing the area and also to collect the medicinal plants. The assessment was observed deeply the knowledge concerned with the traditional uses of medicinal plant to cure the animal diseases. Animal diseases are a major constraint for the livestock owners; therefore, some strategies and measures should be adopted in near future. During the study stratified sampling were carried using the questioner and interviewed the people and followed by group discussion was employed to achieve the goals.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The represented study has 76 plant species belonged to 45 families. Amongst them one species was Pteridophyte belonged to family Pteridaceae, and one was Gymnosperm belonged to Pinaceae, while the rest of 74 species of 43 families were Angiosperms. The herbs were dominant with 40 species (52.6 %), followed by trees with 22 species (29.0 %), and shrubs with 14 species (18.4 %). The largest families were Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae and Solanaceae with 5 species each, while the second largest family was Rosaceae with 4 species. The third largest families were Apocynaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, and Malvaceae with 3 species each. A total of thirty-three ailments were treated with different plants species. The most common ailments treated of the animals were constipation, intestinal worms, paralysis, broken bone, diuretic, diarrhea, indigestion, tympany, itching, and jaundice.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The presented study revealed that production of animals played an important role in the inhabitants of Malakand district. Their people have abundant traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary plant remedies and practical experience of animal care and production. The traditional knowledge is near to extinction in near future, due to the extensively usage of modern veterinary medicine.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Fidelity level, District Malakand, Medicinal plants, Pakistan, Traditional knowledge.</p> Khalid Khan Gul Jan Muhammad Irfan Farzana Gul Jan Muhammad Hamayun Fazal Ullah Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Khalid Khan, Gul Jan, Muhammad Irfan, Farzana Gul Jan, Muhammad Hamayun, Fazal Ullah, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-03-25 2023-03-25 25 1 24 Ethnomedicinal and conservation evaluation of the traditional medicinal plant species employed by the Van Gujjar Tribe in the Dehradun Shivalik Hills, Uttarakhand, India <p><em>Background</em>: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative and conservation ethnomedicinal evaluation of the Van Gujjar Tribe inhabited in the Delhi-Dehradun Highway Shivalik hills Belt (DHSB). The study area is situated adjacent to biodiversity hotspot Rajaji National Park, Uttarakhand, which is an important part of Himalayan systems. The area is ecologically sensitive, increasing anthropogenic disturbance and overexploitation of medicinal herbs is also major concern. So, along with conventional ethnobotanical studies, conservation analysis of the area is important.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This ethnomedicinal study comprised extensive field surveys and repetitive interviews of 120 informants of the Van Gujjar tribe with different social and educational backgrounds. Procured data were analyzed using three different quantitative indices, i.e. the relative frequency of citations (RFC), informant consensus factor (ICF), and the fidelity level (FL%). Collected plant samples were identified by relevant flora literature and online plant databases. Identified species conservation status was derived from The IUCN online database.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 71 medicinal plant species from 67 genera and 41 families were documented from the study area. The most frequently used species, <em>Zingiber officinale Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss, and <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> L. were employed for multiple health issues, mainly for digestive and respiratory disorders. The highest RFC values are <em>Z. officinale </em>(RFC = 1.0), <em>A. indica</em> A. Juss. (0.99) and <em>A. conyzoides</em> L. (0.92. FL% of these species were 96%, 90% and 83 % viz. The highest ICF value is 0.98, which shares dental &amp; gum problems, digestive disorders and wounds categories. The IUCN status of 71 reported medicinal plant species indicated 28.1 % plant species were least concerned, 4.2 % critically endangered (<em>Chlorophytum borivilianum</em>,<em>Commiphora wightii, Nardostachys jatamansi </em>), 1.4 % near threatened and 1.4 % endangered, 2.8 % Data Deficient, while 61.9 % species status remained unknown as currently not available in IUCN Red data list. Highly utilized species IUCN status however under ‘least concerned’ category.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The study aids medicinal plant species data with current conservation status in the Delhi-Dehradun Highway Shivalik hills Belt. Medicinal plant species such as <em>Chlorophytum borivilianum</em>, <em>Commiphora wightii</em>, and <em>Nardostachys jatamansi</em> are critically endangered and others could be prone due to overexploitation. The present data could help to fill the previous conservation and quantitative ethnobotanical studies gaps in the study area. </p> <p> </p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Medicinal flora, Rajaji National Park<strong>, </strong>Himalaya, IUCN status<strong>, </strong>Critically Endangered Species, Traditional Knowledge,</p> Nishant Gupta Ashok Agarwal Virendra Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Nishant Gupta, Ashok Agarwal, Virendra Yadav 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 17 Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used against erectile dysfunction in Tabora region, Tanzania <p><em>Background:</em> Globally, erectile dysfunction (ED) is a public health concern that upsets men's psychosocial well-being. Despite using indigenous knowledge to manage various disorders in Tanzania, there is a lack of data on the medicinal plants (MPs) used to manage ED. Therefore, this study was aimed at documenting MPs traditionally used by traditional healers (THs) to manage ED in Tabora region, Tanzania.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An ethnobotanical survey was conducted from June to October 2020. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 38 THs in 9 wards, explicitly asking about MPs used against ED, parts used, methods of preparation, and routes of administration. The collected information was analyzed by computing percentage frequencies and familiarity index.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Thirty-four plant species belonging to 21 families and 32 genera were documented to be used to manage ED. Family Fabaceae (26%) dominated the species used in the treatments. <em>Abrus precatorius</em> L. (59%)<em>, Senegalia senegal</em> (L.) Wild.,<em> Ricinus communis</em> L. (with 57% each)<em>,</em> <em>Coffea arabica</em> L.<em>, </em>and<em> Flueggea virosa</em> (Willd.) Voigt. (56% each) were the most cited MPs. Tree (52%) and root (60%) were the most utilized growth form and plant part, respectively. Decoction (34%) and oral (97%) were the most used methods of preparing and administering the remedies, respectively.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The findings indicate that the region has diverse MPs for treating ED. Most MPs used by THs to treat ED are yet to be tested; thus, further research is required to authenticate the efficacy of the herbal remedies and to formulate low-cost contemporary drugs.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicine, herbal remedies, impotence, Traditional medicine, Tanzania</p> David Sylvester Kacholi Halima Mvungi Amir Copyright (c) 2023 David Sylvester Kacholi, Halima Mvungi Amir 2023-03-02 2023-03-02 25 1 12 A study on different plant species of the Rosaceae family and their ethnobotanical uses among the local communities at Swat district, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The study area possess 55 plants of the family Rosaceae, which are widely used traditionally throughout the area. The family contains a range of plants that have high ethnobotanical and economical value. The family is well-known for its economically valuable fruits and medicinal plants. As a result, the purpose of this study was to collect ethnobotanical data of the Rosaceae family from Swat district in order to provide comprehensive documentation for future research. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The ethnobotanical data was collected from 2021 to 2022 from 80 respondents by using semi-structured questionnaires, open-ended questionnaires, and personal observations. The interviewed participants were mostly herbalists, farmers, folk healers, shepherds, and knowledgeable group members, age from 30 to 80 years. All the collected data was analyzed through Microsoft Excel (2016).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> There were 55 plant species of the family Rosaceae existing in the area, including 7 (13%) climbing shrubs, 19 (34%) herbs, 11 (20%) shrubs, and 18 (33%) tree species. Results of the present study showed that 85% of the plants in the family were utilized as medicinal in the area, followed by honeybees (44%), fuel wood (33%), foods (33%), fodder (31%), fencing (25%), ornamentals (14%), timber (7%), and (7%) plants were used for making agricultural tools. The most common part used as medicine was fruits (43%), followed by shoot (30%), leaves (13%), flowers (6%), roots (4%) and other parts were used (4%). Powder was the most commonly used preparation method (32%), followed by decoction (28%), direct consumption (19%), juice extraction (17%), and other methods (6%). Results of the present study indicated that plants of the family Rosaceae were highly economical for the native communities of the area.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This study provides awareness to the native community and the worldwide trend towards native information, regeneration and transmission of knowledge. Furthermore, this study of the family's ethnobotanical uses will provide a foundation for future research in the family.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotanical, Diversity, Family Rosaceae, Swat</p> Shujat Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Shujat Ali 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 16 Diversity and socio-cultural importance of wild food herbs and cyanobacteria in the Lake Chad Basin (Niger) <p><em>Background</em>: Wild herbaceous food species are declining throughout the Sahel region, particularly in the south-eastern corner of Niger, where settlements of thousands of refugees from Boko Haram, in addition to the native people, generate high pressure on the herbaceous food species. The objective of this study is to assess the use of wild herbaceous food plants in two departments in the Lake Chad Basin.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with 270 informants asked about their use of these plants for food including parts consumed, food categories, economic value and impact of exploitation.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 32 wild herbaceous species, mainly from the family Poaceae (21.8%) and dominated by the life form Therophytes (43.7%), were cited. According to the respondents, the most consumed parts were the leaves with 51.2% and 41.3% of the citations in Mainé Soroa and N'Guigmi, respectively. Seeds were cited by 26.8% of the informants in Mainé Soroa and 30.7% in N’Guigmi. Fruits were cited by 19.2% and 26.2% in Mainé Soroa and N'Guigmi, respectively. The least consumed parts were roots and flowers. The species preference depends on the ethnic group. Refugees who had recently settled in the area stood out with a consumption of other species than the native people. Informants from Mainé Soroa and N’Guigmi stated that 52% and 44% of the species, respectively, were becoming increasingly scarce. The main causes of the degradation of these resources were agriculture, drought and overexploitation.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>In general wild herbaceous food resources play a very important role in the Lake Chad Basin, where people live insecure lives.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Herbaceous food plants, indigenous plants, local knowledge, Lack Chad Basin, Niger.</p> Habou Rabiou Rahila Maazou Mansour Mahamane Issiaka Issaharou-Matchi Ali Mahamane Anne Mette Lykke Copyright (c) 2023 Habou Rabiou, Rahila Maazou, Mansour Mahamane, Issiaka Issaharou-Matchi, Ali Mahamane, Anne Mette Lykke 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 25 1 14 Ethnobotanical documentation of Harike Wildlife Sanctuary (Ramsar Site), Punjab: A case study <p><em>Background</em>: Harike Wildlife Sanctuary (HWS) is a natural bank of medicinal plants and native flora; therefore regular monitoring is required to maintain such diversity. The objective of the present study is to document the medicinal plants used by local people settled around HWS besides to develop a systematic record of traditionally used medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The data was collected with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire following the snowball sampling method. People with some knowledge of medicinal plants were targeted for gathering information. To confirm the plant availability and identification, various field surveys were conducted along with informants across the habitat types within Harike Wildlife Sanctuary. Besides the harvest time of different wild plants mentioned by informants and the database is prepared for useful medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 85 species from 79 genera and 51 families were mentioned by informants for the treatment of 40 types of health ailments. Leaves (25% species) are the most used plant part and decoction (19 species) is the most used method for the preparation of the drug, while the most frequent administration of the drug is oral (85% species). The ethnobotanical indices like Use Value, Relative Importance and Fidelity Level (FL) of each species have been derived from the primary dataset.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Even though the study area also has access to contemporary healthcare services, the study found that numerous species are utilized to treat a wide range of medical conditions. By creating an effective plan, the current study may help to preserve medicinal and aromatic plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Harike-wetland, Ethnobotany, Fidelity Level, Medicinal plants, Use Value, Punjab</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Sameer Gautam Bhupendra Singh Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Sameer Gautam, B S Adhikari 2023-02-22 2023-02-22 25 1 25 Application of ethnobotanical indices to document the use of plants in traditional medicines in Rawalpindi district, Punjab-Pakistan <p><em>Background.</em> Ethnobotanical studies report the customary uses of plants used by the local communities across the world. The goal of present study was to census the ethno-medicinal uses of local plants used by the natives of Tehsil Kallar Syedan, District Rawalpindi by using quantitative ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Methodology. </em>Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out during March 2018 to April, 2022 to document traditional uses of medicinal plants by using semi-structured questionnaires. The gathered data was examined by using quantitative indices comprising frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), use value index (UV) and fidelity level (FL%).</p> <p><em>Results.</em> In total, 169 medicinal plant species belonged to 136 genera and 54 families have been documented from this region which are being used to treat or prevent common diseases. The informants included people of different age groups. Poaceae was the most widely used family (17 species). Major life form of plants was herb (61%); while leaves (35%) were highly used in preparing recipes. RFC values ranged from 0.11 to 0.78; while UV ranged from 0.10 to 0.82. A total of 13 species showed highest FL of 100%. Most medicinal applications involved the whole plant (50.8%), although leaves (32.5%), roots (10.0%), flowers (8.2%), stems (5.9%), seeds (3.5%), bark (3.5%), fruit (1.7%), latex (1.7%), bulbs (1.1%), rhizomes (0.5%), and tubers (0.5%) were also used.</p> <p><em>Conclusion. </em>This research appraisal provides some additional and novel use along with higher RFCs and UVs which may serve as benchmark for phytochemical analysis and novel therapeutic properties.</p> <p><em>Key words:</em> Ethnobotanical indices, Traditional plants, Ethno-medical knowledge, Traditional medicines,<em> Herbalists,</em> Kallar Syedan</p> Huma Zareef Muhammad Tayyab Gul Rahmatullah Qureshi Hanan Aati Mehmooda Munazir Copyright (c) 2023 Huma Zareef, Muhammad Tayyab Gul, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Hanan Aati, Mehmooda Munazir 2023-04-12 2023-04-12 25 1 29 Quantitative ethnobotanical study and conservation status of herbal flora of Koh-e-Suleman range, Razmak valley, North Waziristan, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The present work was intended to explore the quantitative ethnobotany and conservation status of flora of Koh-e-Suleman range, Razmak valley, North Waziristan, Pakistan. For the first time, significant traditional knowledge of the uses of reported flora was documented.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Objective</em>: The aim of the present study was to: (i) elucidate local populations' traditional knowledge of indigenous plants used for various purposes (ii) compile ethnomedicinal data using quantitative analyses for in-depth pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants. (iii) evaluate the reported flora's conservation status.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e., Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), and fidelity level (FL).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> 102 participants including 75 men and 27 women were interviewed. The participants reported a total of 68 plant species, belonging to 57 genera and 19 families. There was 1 family of pteridophytes (1 species), 1 family of gymnosperms (4 species) and 63 species belonging to 17 families of angiosperms. Of the total reported plants, 38 were fodder species, 37 were medicinal species, 5 were timber species, 9 were fuel species, 8 were fruits species, 1 was vegetable species, 5 were condiment species, 2 were thatching species, 9 were ornamental species while none of the species was poisonous in nature. Conservation status revealed that 49 species (72.05 %) were vulnerable, 12 species (17.64 %) were rare, 6 species (8.82 %) were endangered, and 1 species (1.47 %) was found infrequent.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The current study showed the majority of the species were used as fuel wood, medicines, and fodder. As most plant species have significant curative properties, a rotational and moderate grazing system is required to conserve the plants. Local residents must inculcate in their children the importance of floral diversity and conservation.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>:</strong> Anthropogenic activities, Conservation status, Endangered species, Quantitative ethnobotany, Razmak valley.</p> Irfan Ali Shah Tanvir Burni Lal Badshah Noor Ul Uza Rainer W Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Irfan Ali Shah, Tanvir Burni, Lal Badshah, Noor Ul Uza, Rainer W Bussmann 2023-02-18 2023-02-18 25 1 18 Ethnobotanical research under the COVID-19 pandemic: assessing a remote method for documenting Indigenous plant-related knowledge <p><em>Background:</em> In response to the limitations on fieldwork imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, we describe and assess a remote method for documenting plant-related knowledge, using smartphones that requires no in-person interaction between an on-site Indigenous community and off-site researchers.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The on-site team identified the Indigenous taxa, created equivalents of photo vouchers, and recorded their names and uses as voice messages using a smartphone, thereby learning about plants from one another. They then sent the data using WhatsApp messages to the off-site team, who identified the botanical names of the taxa, and analyzed the plant-related knowledge.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> We assess the remote, collaborative, and transdisciplinary quality of the method, factoring in communication, audiovisual documentation, species identification, knowledge exchange, logistics, and ethics. Despite the problems we experienced with identifying taxa growing in high forest and translation issues that complicated the documentation of plant uses, the method was on the whole a success. It allowed the on-site team to activate their passive knowledge of their language and share their knowledge with their relatives. The off-site team identified 57% of the recorded 54 taxa to species level and documented their names and uses as primary audio data, which keep on enhancing the quality of the documentation.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Smartphones can be used as research tools during periods of restricted physical access, but also to extend research beyond the fleeting field visits and to elevate the empirical standard of ethnobotany when it comes to language data. We see such remote research solutions not as replacements for in-person collaborations, but as valid and dynamically evolving research methods in their own right.</p> <p>Keywords<em>:</em> smartphones, empiricism, photo vouchers, Taruma, Wapichan, Guyana</p> Anne Marie Holt Robin Bredero zur Lage Adrian Gomes Anna Serke Elizabeth Louis Nita Louis Konaukii Gomes Irene Suttie Vincent Louis Konrad Rybka Tinde van Andel Copyright (c) 2023 Anne Marie Holt, Robin Bredero, Adrian Gomes, Anna Serke, Elizabeth Louis, Nita Louis, Konaukii Gomes, Irene Suttie, Vincent Louis, Konrad Rybka, Tinde van Andel 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 25 1 25 Uses of Oldeania alpina (K. Schum.) Stapleton (Poaceae) and local perceptions of its spatio-temporal dynamics in Lubero cool highlands region (DR Congo) <p><em>Background: </em>In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), <em>Oldeania alpina</em> (K. Schum.) Stapleton provides multiple goods and services to rural populations and is the keystone species of mountain forest ecosystems, most of which are in a very advanced state of degradation. The present study was carried out in Lubero cool highlands region, in the North-East of the DR Congo. It aims to highlight the knowledge of local populations on the uses of <em>O. alpina </em>as well as their perceptions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of this high-altitude bamboo species. </p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in five villages of the study area through semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with 245 people. The different forms of use of <em>O. alpina </em>organs and the local perceptions of its spatio-temporal dynamics were the key axes of the surveys. The software R version 4.1.5 was used to calculate the ethnobotanical indices and to carry out static analyses of the data.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The results showed that <em>O. alpina </em>is well known by the populations of the study area and is solicited in seven main categories of use, namely: fuelwood (22.5 %), construction (22 %), handicrafts (17 %), agriculture (14.5 %), pharmacopoeia (14 %), worship (8 %) and food (2 %). For these uses, the populations solicit the following organs: culms (59.2 %), blades (12.24 %), shoots (10.54 %), rhizomes (6.78 %), sheaths (6.56 %) and straw (4.68 %). Also, for the populations of the study area, the bamboo groves of <em>O. alpina</em> are in a regressive spatio-temporal dynamics.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: In Lubero cool highlands region, <em>O. alpina</em> is in constant degradation due to uncontrolled human exploitation. The results of this study provide reliable technical bases for developing conservation strategies for <em>O. alpina</em> in the study area.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Bamboo, <em>Oldeania alpina, </em>ecosystem services, multipurpose species, ethnobotany, threatened species, local conservation policy, multipurpose species, Congo Basin, Lubero, DR Congo.</p> Norbert Kambale Ndavaro Apollon Hegbe Muhindo Sahani Honoré Biaou Ramdan Dramani Armand Natta Copyright (c) 2023 Norbert Kambale Ndavaro, Apollon Hegbe, Muhindo Sahani, Honoré Biaou, Ramdan Dramani, Armand Natta 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 25 1 20 Ethnobotanical study on plant resources from sacred groves of Dakshin Dinajpur district, West Bengal, India <p><em>Background:</em> Sacred groves found in Dakshin Dinajpur district are natural <em>in-situ</em> conservatories that provide a home to numerous biological entities with rich ethnomedicinal plant diversity. Native communities have been conserving these groves through their own beliefs and folklore practices and they possess vast knowledge of herbal ethnic medicines. The current study aims to explore the ethnic traditional practices of medicinally important plants among different indigenous communities residing in sacred grove-centric villages throughout the district.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> For the current study, 15 ethnomedicinally enriched sacred groves were selected. Ethnomedicinal data were collected from 179 informants and were quantitatively analyzed using various statistical indices viz., Use value, Informant consensus factor, Fidelity level, and Relative Frequency of citation. With the help of an<em> in-silico </em>network pharmacological study, the findings were revalidated.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> In the present study, a total of 105 ethnic plants belonging to 93 genera and 47 families were documented and the most dominant plant family was Fabaceae. The diseases reported by the informants were classified into 16 different disease clusters. <em>Cuscuta reflexa</em> Roxb.<em>, Heliotropium indicum </em>L. and <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> (L.) Pers. were the most popular medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Gathering such first-hand information about ancient traditional practices will be helpful in further pharmacological studies and may show new paths to modern therapeutic approaches.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Sacred Groves; Traditional Knowledge; Dakshin Dinajpur; Quantitative analysis; <em>in-silico</em></p> Kushankur Sarkar Priyankar Roy Subhasis Panda Chandrani Choudhuri Monoranjan Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2023 Kushankur Sarkar, Priyankar Roy, Subhasis Panda, Chandrani Choudhuri, Monoranjan Chowdhury 2023-03-09 2023-03-09 25 1 35 Ethnobotanical study of plant resources in Dhurkot rural municipality, Gulmi district Nepal <p><em>Background.</em> Despite easy access to modern medicines, people are still using plant-based medicine for their primary healthcare needs. People, particularly in the rural area are more dependent on herbal medicines. This study aims to explore the essential plants used in medicine locally and their uses on different ailments and diseases in Dhurkot Rural Municipality of Gulmi district, a western district of Nepal. </p> <p><em>Methodology.</em> The study includes several visits to different community forests, interviews, and discussions with people at different time intervals from February to October 2021. Data were collected through Focus group discussion, transect walk, direct observation, and key informant interviews. Local indigenous healers, popularly known as "dhami", "pujari", "guru" and elderly people who know the uses of medicinal and aromatic plants helped us in collecting information about the utilization of plants as medicines.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Altogether 67 plant species belonging to 39 families and 64 genera were used by the people for their primary healthcare needs to treat different health problems. We found that the leaves are the most used parts of the plant followed by barks. During preference ranking among 484 individuals and focus group discussion people showed a preference for <em>Cinnamomum tamala</em> (Lauraceae) followed by <em>Phyllanthus emblica </em>(Phyllanthaceae)<em>, Zanthoxylam armatum </em>(Rutaceae). Herbs are dominant among the plant forms used followed by trees, shrubs, and climbers.</p> <p><em>Conclusion.</em> We conclude that people in this area still depend on plant-based medicine for their primary health care needs. Many people seek traditional remedies when they suffer from various common health problems. Besides this, abundance of medicinal plants in the region are declining due to various anthropogenic factors, infrastructure development, and climate change. Thus, appropriate conservation and management approaches along with proper identification and cultivation of important medicinal and aromatic plants are urgently required in the study area.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, indigenous healers, focus group discussion, traditional medicines.</p> Rachana Bhandari Bijay Pandeya Balkrishna Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Balkrishna Ghimire, Rachana Bhandari, Bijay Pandeya 2023-02-20 2023-02-20 25 1 19 Ethnoveterinary study of the medicinal plants of Khar, Dheri, Julagram, Tari, and Totakan Villages of Tehsil Batkhela, Malakand, Northern Pakistan <p><em>Background: </em>The current study was conducted to document the medicinal plants used commonly for the treatment of veterinary diseases in the study area.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The snowball sampling method was used for the selection of informants and the informants were interviewed through a semi-structured questionnaire. The documented data was quantified by indices UV (use value) and RFC (Relative Frequency of Citation).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>During fieldwork, about 51 plant species belonging to the 35 families were collected and ethnoveterinary data was documented for these plants. The most dominant family was Apiaceae and Solanaceae (5 Species each). The most dominant life form was herb (34 Species). The most commonly used plant part was the leaf (16 Species). The most common method of drug preparation was decoction (28 Species). The highest RFC value was calculated for <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em> (L.) Sprague (0.245) and the highest UV value was calculated for <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em> (L.) Sprague (0.28). The most commonly treated group of diseases was digestive system disorders.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Traditional communities still use medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases of animals. But the knowledge of ethnoveterinary is at risk because the younger generations have no interest. Furthermore, due to deforestation and urbanization, the local medicinal flora is also at risk.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnoveterinary; Medicinal plants; Traditional knowledge; Local people perception</p> Heera Naveed Akhtar Shah Khalid Hammad Ahmad Jan Sobia Gul Aiman Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Heera, Naveed Akhtar, Shah Khalid, Hammad Ahmad Jan, Sobia Gul, Aiman Ali 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 25 1 19 Palatability status of the Flora of Koh-e-Safaid Range Upper Kurram Valley, Khyber PakhtunKhwa North West Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The current study was carried out in Upper Kurram, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from 2015 to 2019. Grazing is the most common of the land uses by domestic and wild animals. Grazing is the most significant biotic stress in terrestrial ecosystem after the fire factor.</p> <p><em>Objectives: </em>Objectives of the study were; to find out the Palatability status of the Flora of Koh-e-Safaid Range Upper Kurram Valley, KP Pakistan; to record the flora of grazing and browsing livestock preferences in the field.</p> <p><em>Methodology:</em> The palatability of plant species was recorded by observing the grazing livestock in the field. Cattle were visually observed to determine their preferences. All the information’s were confirmed from local elders. Palatable species were categorized into Highly Palatable (HP), Mostly Palatable (MP), Less Palatable (LP), Rarely Palatable (RP) and Non-Palatable (NP).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The current study reported five palatability classes based on their utilization by animals. Highest number of plants fell under the group of highly palatable plants 261 (39.90%) which includes <em>Cynodon dactylon, Dicanthium annulatum, Medicago sativa</em> and <em>Rubus fruticosus.</em> The number of mostly palatable plants were 148 (22.62%) such as <em>Alopecurus agrestis</em>, <em>Brachiaria ramosa</em>, <em>Gagea reticulata, Melica persica, Polypogon viridis</em>. The number of rarely palatable plants were 73 (11.16%) such as <em>Allium griffithianum, Achyranthes aspera</em>,<em> Alteranthera pungens</em>, and <em>Dioscorea deltoidea, </em>while 27 (4.12%) plants were observed less palatable such as<em> Coronopus didymus, Carthamus oxyacantha and Ranunculus afghanicus.</em> A total of 145 (22.17%) plants were observed as non-palatable of which <em>Abies pindrow</em>, <em>Agave americana, Alajja rhomboidea, Cedrus deodara</em> and <em>Hertia intermedia </em>were significant among the non-palatable species.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>Various factors impact the palatability of plants in different localities of the world. These factors include morphology, phenology, minerals and secondary metabolites in a plant. Like most herbivores, it preferred smaller leaves with a smaller specific leaf area and a higher dry matter content in the leaf. Phenological changes associated with climate change are related to the seasonal availability and palatability of food plants. The presence of minerals like Ca, Mg and K, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca in different palatable plants in Kurram indicates the reason for their palatable condition. Secondary metabolites such as glycosides, alkaloids, nitrates and others such as oxalate, lectins and tannins have an adverse effect on the taste of plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Palatability, grazing, species, Kurram, Pakistan</p> Wahid Hussain Lal Badshah Sayed Mahmood Shah Shariat Ullah Asghar Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Wahid Hussain, Lal Badshah, Sayed Mahmood Shah, Shariat Ullah, Asghar Ali 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 25 1 27 Diversity and assessment of economic plants of Tehsil Takht Bhai, district Mardan, Pakistan <p><em>Background: </em>Plants play a vital role in the maintenance and economic development of an area. The current research work focuses on the investigation of economic tree species of Tehsil, Takht Bhai, and District Mardan.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>For data collection different localities of Tehsil Takht Bhai were visited during 2021-2022. The plants were dried and identified with the help of Flora of Pakistan. Representative plant parts were mounted on herbarium sheets and submitted to herbarium of Center of Plant Biodiversity, University of Peshawar. The data for fuel wood was collected through standard procedures of ex-situ (artifact) and in-situ (inventory) methods. Wood depots, sawmills and farmers were visited, and information was collected from fruit markets, furniture industry, timber markets, and construction material owners through a questionnaire on the spot by interview method. The calorific value of fuel wood species was determined by Bomb Calorimeter.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The plants were evaluated for their conservation status in which 7 spp. were exotic, 5 spp. were indigenous, 9 spp. were not evaluated, 2 spp. were of least concern and <em>Acacia nilotica </em>(L.) Willd. ex Delile was critically endangered. A total of 360000 mounds of fuel wood was sold out in summer season resulted into a revenue of PKR 241.2 million (m). The highest sale of 90000 mounds was recorded in case of <em>Populus euramericana </em>(Dode) Guinier, which generated 63 m of revenue. In winter season 438000 mounds of fuel wood was sold out that generated revenue of PKR 340.2 m. The highest sale of 105000 mounds was recorded in case of <em>P. euramericana</em>, which generated PKR 94.50 m of revenue. Maximum per annum revenue of PKR 157.50 m was generated from selling of <em>P. euramericana</em>. On priority basis, 50 % of the local people used <em>Acacia modesta </em>Wall. as fuel wood and 55 % of people used <em>Dalbergia sissoo </em>Roxb. ex DC. for furniture. The maximum income generated from fuel wood on basis of consumption priority was PKR 35.1 m and for furniture was PKR 33.66 m for these species respectively. It was also noted that <em>P. euramericana </em>was used for formation of pallets, which generates revenue of PKR 720 m per annum from 10 sites. Other economic uses include fodder (8 spp.), fruits (2 spp.), furniture (10 spp.), timber (10 spp.), constructional material (11 spp.), bed legs (7 spp.), chip boards (3 spp.), match industry (2 spp.), sport items (2 spp.), toothpicks (2 spp.), ice-cream sticks and pallets (1 sp.) each. The calorific value showed that <em>A. modesta</em> had highest value <em>i.e., </em>5500 kcal/kg while <em>Ailanthus altissima </em>(Mill.) Swingle had lowest value <em>i.e., </em>4400 kcal/kg.<em> P. euramericana </em>and <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis </em>Dehn. were adopted by the locals as farm and agro forestry species.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>From the current research, it was concluded that the inhabitants of the area rely heavily on plants for fuel wood as well as other economic purposes and also gain high revenue generation so sustainable use of plants should be made in order to support the socio-economic status of the local inhabitants.</p> <p><em>Key words:</em> Assessment, diversity, economic plants, fuel wood, Mardan, Pakistan, Takht Bhai.</p> Sadia Parveen Asad Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Sadia Parveen, Asad Ullah 2023-02-27 2023-02-27 25 1 15 Large-scale ethnomedicinal inventory and therapeutic applications of medicinal and aromatic plants used extensively in folk medicine by the local population in the middle atlas and the plain of Saiss, Morocco <p><em>Background</em>: In this work, we carried out a thorough ethnomedicinal investigation of the aromatic and therapeutic plants used in several Middle Atlas and the plain of Saiss provinces (central Morocco). Our goal was to gather data on the variety of plants used, their therapeutic applications, and the portions utilized by local inhabitants.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In eight provinces, including Azrou, Ifrane, Elhajeb, Immouzar, Sefrou, Fez, Meknes, and Mrirt, interviews were done during the 2018-2019 season. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to analyze the collected data. To assess the value of medicinal plant resources, we estimated the Family Use Value (FUV), Medicinal Use Value (MUV), and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). We next sought consensus among the participants on the reported cures for each category of disorders using the ICF.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 154 different kinds of aromatic and medicinal plants from 56 different families were discovered, and local people used them for therapeutic purposes. The most recorded family was Lamiaceae, with 14 species and FUV=0.47. <em>Urtica pilulifera</em> L, was the most frequently utilized species and had the highest RFC equal to 0.425. The most frequently utilized preparation techniques were decoction and brewing, and the most frequently administered portions were the leaves and leafy stems. Additionally, the ICF values per use category ranged from 0.53 to 0.97. Cancer was the category with the highest ICF value (0.97). Conclusions: By advancing knowledge of the medicinal flora and preserving ancestors’ wisdom in Morocco's Middle Atlas and the plain of Saiss, the current study could be of tremendous service.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal, medicinal plants, Middle Atlas, Plain of Saiss, Morocco, traditional medicine.</p> Wissal El Yaagoubi Lahsen El Ghadraoui Meriem Soussi Said Ezrari Saadia Belmalha Copyright (c) 2023 Wissal El Yaagoubi, Lahsen El Ghadraoui, Meriem Soussi, Said Ezrari, Saadia Belmalha 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 29 Ethnobotanical importance and conservation status of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad in division Mirpur, Kashmir Himalaya. <p><em>Background:</em> <em>Citrullus colocynthis </em>(L.) Schrad has been used traditionally for curing ailments in humans and animals in different parts of the world. The current study was conducted to determine the ethnobotanical importance of <em>C. colocynthis</em> in division Mirpur, Kashmir Himalaya.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Twelve well-planned ethnobotanical surveys of the study area were arranged. A total of 118 respondents of varying educational backgrounds, professional affiliations, and age groups were interviewed. Visual appraisal assessment (VAA) and rapid rural appraisal (RRA) methods were used to collect the qualitative and quantitative data.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The plant part value (PPV) indicated that fruit as a whole (PPV=90) and its parts, i.e., rind (PPV=83.33), pulp (PPV=80), and seeds (PPV=90) are mostly used for ethnomedicinal purposes. <em>C. colocynthis</em> was found to be most commonly used to treat microbial infections (FL=0.91), diabetes (FL=0.86) and obesity (FL=0.84). The informant agreement ratio (IAR) values indicate that <em>C. colocynthis</em> has antidiabetic (IAR=0.96), antilipidemic (IAR=0.91), and antimicrobial (IAR=0.88) potential. The conservation status was calculated to be 1.82, and it was stated that <em>C. colocynthis </em>is vulnerable in the study area.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> It can be concluded that <em>C. colocynthis </em>has been an important ethnomedicinal plant in the study area. It is still in use by farmers, herbalists, nomadic people, and rural people for the treatment of microbial infections, obesity, constipation, and blood purification. Due to its unchecked utilization, there is severe pressure on its survival, and its conservation is needed immediately.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Traditional Ethnomedicines, Mirpur, Conservation Status, <em>Citrullus colocynthis</em></p> Mubsher Mazher Muhammad Ishtiaq Bilqeesa Hamid Shiekh Marifatul Haq Mussaddaq Mazhar Faiza Bashir Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Mubsher Mazher, Muhammad Ishtiaq, Bilqeesa Hamid, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Mussaddaq Mazhar, Faiza Bashir, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-03-02 2023-03-02 25 1 14 An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used to treat and manage diabetes mellitus in Ede, Osun State Nigeria <p><em>Background:</em> The severity and relatively high incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Nigeria call for research into discovering more potent antidiabetic agents. People of Ede have a long history of relying on medicinal plants to treat and manage various ailments, including DM. Therefore, it provides an alternative means of managing and treating the condition. This study was carried out to identify and document medicinal plants used in treating DM among the inhabitants of Ede, southwestern Nigeria.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A preliminary survey of the study area was conducted between August 2022 and February 2023. One hundred thirty-five people were selected for semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to collect ethnobotanical data, including the local names of the plants, the plant parts used, and methods of preparation. A literature survey was also conducted to determine which recorded plants have been validated scientifically for their traditional use in treating DM.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Thirty-nine plants from 24 families were identified from the survey. <em>Crinum jagus</em> from the family Amaryllidaceae has the highest citation and fidelity level frequency. Trees (46%) and shrubs(23%) were the most abundant life forms of the recorded plants. Similarly, leaf (43%) and stem bark (19%) were the most used plant part, while decoction (54%) was the favoured method of preparation. Over 87% of the plants have been assessed for antidiabetic activities, thus lending credence to the usage of the implicated plants for DM.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This study indicates that the area has a rich diversity of medicinal plants for treating and managing DM. Therefore, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological screening of plants that have not been tested is recommended to aid the ongoing search for effective and safe antidiabetic agents.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Antidiabetic activities, Diabetes mellitus, Ede, Ethnobotany, Indigenous knowledge, Medicinal plants</p> Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao Yusuf Ola Mukaila David Yahn Kenkpen Copyright (c) 2023 Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao, Yusuf Ola Mukaila, David Yahn Kenkpen 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 25 1 18 Traditional knowledge in medicinal plants and intermedicality in urban environments: a case study in a popular community in southern Brazil <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnobotanical studies have demonstrated the ability of different social groups to maintain and diversify plant knowledge in urban environments. This study characterizes the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants in a popular community in Porto Alegre metropolitan city, Brazil.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 28 people, four of whom were healers. Data were collected regarding the uses, ways of obtaining the plants, the origin of the interviewees and their knowledge. The mentioned species value of relative importance was calculated. Relationships between traditional and scientific medical knowledge (intermedicality) were characterized and discussed.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The study identified a total of 237 plant species, most of them native to Brazil. The family with the highest number of representatives was Asteraceae (38), followed by Lamiaceae (17). Native and ritualistic species showed high values of relative importance. The main form of learning found was vertical, with mothers and grandmothers being the main ones responsible for teaching. Traditional knowledge is influenced by scientific medical care practices and the most significant use of herbs refers to the digestive system, followed by the respiratory system. The collection is the leading way of obtaining the plants.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The high number of species used, and the substantial knowledge repertoire, reflect the local sociocultural and environmental diversity and the vital role of women and healers in producing and transmitting this knowledge. Deepening ethnobotanical studies with healers and women is a way of enhancing traditional medicines in urban environments.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> urban ethnobotany, ethnomedicine, native species, ritualistic use, urbanization</p> Alana Casagrande Mara Rejane Ritter Rumi Regina Kubo Copyright (c) 2023 Alana Casagrande, Mara Rejane Ritter, Rumi Regina Kubo 2023-03-19 2023-03-19 25 1 34 Armillaria mellea (Vahl. : Fr.) P. Kumm. - a non-timber forest resource in the Ñhöñho culture: promoting sustainable development and ethnomycotourism <p><em>Background</em>. The indigenous and mestizo communities in Mexico have used <em>Armillaria mellea </em>as a non-timber forest resource, mainly as food; ecologically it is an abundant species in forests. For this reason, we establish <em>A. mellea </em>as a species with cultural importance and a high potential for the development of sustainable regional and ethnomycotourism projects.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>. The field work was carried out in the <em>Ñhöñho</em> communities of Texquedó and Xahai, Querétaro; Mexico. Semi-structured surveys were applied to local specialists in collecting mushrooms. Species were identified at the taxonomic level. Participation-action workshops were held for the organization and development of ethnomycotourism events.</p> <p><em>Results</em>. A total biomass of 107.11 kg of <em>A. mellea </em>was collected with the support of the “<em>hongueros</em>” (local mushroom collectors) during the rainy seasons of 2017, 2018 and 2019. A greenhouse-type solar dehydrator was designed to process the mushrooms with a minimum dehydration capacity of 30 and a maximum of 100 kg of fresh mushrooms; and value-added products were designed with edible wild mushrooms. On the other hand, tours and mushroom collections (edible and inedible) were designed with local specialists, academics and visitors; promoting and laying the foundations for the development of ethnomycotourism with an approximate economic income per year in each community of 700 to 1200 dollars. Finally, as a result of this project, the non-profit civil organization; Ethnomycology, Research and Community Development A.C.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>. Mushrooms constitute the basis for the planning of regional sustainable projects, as means of revaluing traditional systems, and strengthening the local economy, as well as conservation and management under a biocultural approach.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>. Mycotourism, Ethnomycotourism, Value-added products, Edible wild mushrooms, Otomí, Mexico</p> Daniel Robles-García Tania Vianney Gutierrez Santillan Adriana Montoya-Esquivel Arturo Sánchez-González Copyright (c) 2023 Tania Vianney Gutierrez Santillan, Daniel Robles-.García, Adriana Montoya, Arturo Sánchez-González 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 25 1 18 Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in magico-religious practices in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, India. <p><em>Background:</em> Local inhabitants of Kullu region of Himachal Pradesh, use various sacred plants for pleasing and worshipping local ‘<em>devats</em>’, in various religious ceremonies, but we are losing the sacred valuable knowledge at a rapid pace, hence the need to document and preserve this knowledge.</p> <p><em>Method:</em> Ethno-botanical survey, field visits were conducted in different parts of Kullu district. Indigenous people, shamans, tantric, and local elderly members of society were consulted to collect the data. Informal discussions and interviews were done for data collection. Different use categories, the basic variables like frequency of citation (FC), use reports (UR), the number of uses (NU) and the ethno-botanical indices like relative frequency of citations (RFC), relative importance index (RI), cultural importance index (CI), and cultural value index (CV) were determined and compared.</p> <p><em>Result:</em> The paper includes the list of 75 species under 46 families, used for Magico-religious beliefs along with their medicinal value. Most utilized parts were flowers, whole plant, leaves, seeds, followed by fruits. <em>Ficus religiosa </em>L. showed highest value in all the indices (CI =2, RFC=1, RI= 0.75), with highest number of citation (FC=25), Use report (UR=50), followed by <em>Ocimum sanctum </em>L.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> To maintain the age-old faiths, people of these areas, harvest plants sustainably and economically, these practices contribute in the ex-situ conservation of plants while fulfilling their values in magico-religious beliefs, as well as sustainable development of the area. Study also reveals the status of 21 rare plant species which need conservation.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Sacred Plants, Religious Ceremonies, Ex-situ Conservation, Magico-religious beliefs, Sustainable Development</p> Smriti Thakur Radhika Jamwal Subodh Negi Copyright (c) 2023 Dr Smriti Thakur, Dr Radhika Jamwal, Subodh Negi 2023-03-25 2023-03-25 25 1 18 Medicinal plants used against gynecological disorders by the local inhabitants of District Budgam, Kashmir Himalaya <p><em>Background: </em>Medicinal plants are an essential part of the human health care system and are used to treat a variety of gynecological issues. Due to low living standards, famine, and strenuous physical labor, rural women frequently experience gynecological issues, even while pregnant. The objective of this study was to document the indigenous knowledge of local flora indigenous knowledge on the treatment of various gynecological disorders in the district Budgam, Jammu and Kashmir.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Methods: </em>To assess the medicinal plants' utility in the region, a quantitative analysis including the Use value (UV) and Family use value (FUV) was carried out. Key informants were interviewed through semi-structured interviews, as well as group discussions.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 51 medicinal plant species from 28 families are used to treat 33 distinct gynecological disorders. Among these families; Asteraceae was the dominant family (08 species).The leaves were the most commonly used part (34%). Herbs dominated all other life forms by (36 species).The most typical way to consume the medications was by decoction 39%, (32 species).According to the current study; the most prevalent disease addressed by the medicinal plants included is menstrual problems (36%). The Highest (UV of 0.65) were calculated for <em>Artemisia absinthium</em> while as the lowest (UV of 0.21) for <em>Celtis australis. </em>The highest family use value (FUV) was reported for Asparagaceae (0.50) while as the lowest FUV was calculated for Amaranthaceae (0.31). Locals continue to value herbal treatments as a trustworthy means of curing a variety of ailments.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The current study demonstrates that rural women frequently experience gynecological problems and depend on traditional medical care. The result also indicates that the local population is sensitive and careful about gynecological diseases. This study is providing a baseline for future pharmacological studies to discover new herbal drugs to treat a variety of gynecological issues.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Traditional knowledge; Rural women; Ethnomedicine; Gynecological disorders; Kashmir Himalaya</p> Mohsina Niyaz Syed Aasif Hussain Andrabi Rayees Afzal Mir Copyright (c) 2023 Mohsina Niyaz Syed Niyaz Ahmad, Syed Aasif Hussain Andrabi, Rayees Afzal Mir 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 25 1 23 Use value of indigenous range grass species in pastoral northern Kenya <p><em>Background:</em> Land degradation is a major challenge facing the world today, with devastating effects particularly among communities inhabiting semi-arid rangelands who are more directly dependent on natural resources. Over the years, indigenous grasses have provided multiple economic, ecosystem and cultural benefits for many communities in Kenya. However, they have increasingly experienced declining abundance, diversity and productivity over the years, compromising their benefits. This study was conducted to assess use value and local knowledge of indigenous grasses among pastoral communities in Isiolo and Samburu Counties in northern Kenya.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical data were computed and ranked based on four use indices: relative frequency of citation, relative importance index, cultural value index and cultural importance index. Four key use-categories of the grasses were identified including livestock forage, erosion control, thatching and making hay for sale.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Top ranked grasses across these use-categories included <em>Pennisetum mezianum, Chrysopogon plumulosus, Heteropogon contortus</em> and <em>Sporobolus helvolus</em>. These are perennial grasses with multiple uses and are available in wet and dry sessions and in drought periods. While trend analysis revealed overall declining availability of indigenous grasses over recent decades, it strongly came out that the four above-mentioned most preferred species had highest declining availability as perceived by local communities.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> These findings indicate need for enhanced actions for conserving indigenous grasses considering their multiple benefits and declining availability. Practical local knowledge, traditional structures and their pasture management models are great opportunities for creating responsive actions for rehabilitating degraded critical grazing areas while conserving key indigenous grasses.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Biodiversity loss, community knowledge, drylands, ethnobotanical, indigenous grasses, Kenya</p> Erick Ouma Omollo Oliver Vivian Wasonga Evans L. Chimoita Copyright (c) 2023 Erick Ouma Omollo, Oliver Vivian Wasonga, Evans L. Chimoita 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 25 1 16 Conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas medicinais e intermedicalidade em ambientes urbanos: estudo de caso em uma comunidade popular do sul do Brasil - Traditional knowledge in medicinal plants and intermedicality in urban environments: a case study in a popular community in southern Brazil <p><em>Introdução:</em> Estudos etnobotânicos vêm demonstrando a habilidade de diferentes grupos sociais em manter e diversificar conhecimentos sobre plantas em ambientes urbanos. Este estudo caracteriza o conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas medicinais da comunidade do Morro da Cruz, na metrópole de Porto Alegre, Brasil.</p> <p><em>Métodos:</em> Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 28 pessoas, sendo quatro terapeutas tradicionais. Foram coletados dados referentes aos usos e formas de obtenção das plantas e à origem dos entrevistados e de seu conhecimento, e foi calculado o valor de importância relativa das espécies citadas. Relações entre conhecimentos médicos tradicionais e científicos (intermedicalidade) foram caracterizadas e discutidas. </p> <p><em>Resultados:</em> Foram identificadas 237 espécies, a maioria nativa do Brasil. A família com maior número de representantes foi Asteraceae (38), seguida de Lamiaceae (17). Espécies nativas e de uso ritualístico apresentaram altos valores de importância relativa. A principal forma de aprendizado constatada foi a vertical, sendo as mães e avós as principais responsáveis pelos ensinamentos. Conhecimentos tradicionais são influenciados por conhecimentos médicos científicos. A coleta constitui a principal forma de obtenção das plantas. O maior número de indicações de uso das ervas refere-se ao sistema digestório, seguido do respiratório.</p> <p><em>Conclusões:</em> O elevado número de espécies e o significativo repertório de conhecimentos reflete a diversidade sociocultural e ambiental local e o importante papel das mulheres e dos/as terapeutas na produção e transmissão desses conhecimentos. Aprofundar estudos etnobotânico junto a estes atores constitui um caminho para a promoção e valorização das medicinais tradicionais nas cidades.</p> <p><em>Palavras-chave:</em> etnobotânica urbana; etnomedicina, espécies nativas, uso ritualístico, urbanização</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnobotanical studies have demonstrated the ability of different social groups to maintain and diversify plant knowledge in urban environments. This study characterizes the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants in a popular community in Porto Alegre metropolitan city, Brazil.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 28 people, four of whom were healers. Data were collected regarding the uses, ways of obtaining the plants, the origin of the interviewees and their knowledge. The mentioned species value of relative importance was calculated. Relationships between traditional and scientific medical knowledge (intermedicality) were characterized and discussed.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The study identified a total of 237 plant species, most of them native to Brazil. The family with the highest number of representatives was Asteraceae (38), followed by Lamiaceae (17). Native and ritualistic species showed high values of relative importance. The main form of learning found was vertical, with mothers and grandmothers being the main ones responsible for teaching. Traditional knowledge is influenced by scientific medical care practices and the most significant use of herbs refers to the digestive system, followed by the respiratory system. The collection is the leading way of obtaining the plants.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The high number of species used, and the substantial knowledge repertoire, reflect the local sociocultural and environmental diversity and the vital role of women and healers in producing and transmitting this knowledge. Deepening ethnobotanical studies with healers and women is a way of enhancing traditional medicines in urban environments.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> urban ethnobotany, ethnomedicine, native species, ritualistic use, urbanization</p> Alana Casagrande Mara Rejane Ritter Rumi Regina Kubo Copyright (c) 2023 Alana Casagrande, Mara Rejane Ritter, Rumi Regina Kubo 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 25 1 39 Anatomical and phytochemical studies and ethnomedicinal uses of Colchicum autumnale L. <p><em>Background</em>: In the world, great importance is attached to the intensification of plants. To date, most medicinal plants are only partially used. In case of <em>Colchicum autumnale</em> L. currently mainly the corms are used for the extraction of alkaloids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intensification of the use of this perspective plant reported from the study area. This article examines the anatomy and phytochemistry of leaf and corm of <em>C. autumnale</em>, which is grown as a medicinal crop in Uzbekistan.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The leaves were fixed in 70% ethanol according to the generally accepted method; transverse and paradermal sections were examined on the fixed material. When studying the anatomical features of the leaf, preparations was formed by manually cutting a transverse section of the leaf were observed by a MOTIC V1 microscope. The slides were stained with glycerin jelly having safranin. Cells and tissues were measured using a micrometer MOB-15. To determine the amount of alkaloids contained in the leaves and in corms, a chemical analysis was carried out in the laboratory of alkaloids of the Institute of Chemistry of Plant Substances.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: On the transverse section of the stomata of the leaves of <em>Colchicum autumnale</em> anomocytic type, 2-3 rows of parenchyma and palisade cells, the characteristic size of the stomata. The root structure of <em>C. autumnale</em> consists of 4-5 rows of corolla, 4 protoxylems and 1 metaxylem, and the presence of rhomboid calcium oxalate crystals in its parenchyma is a characteristic feature of the species. As a result of studying the chemical composition of the plant in the conditions of the Tashkent region, it was observed that the amount of alkaloids in the aerial part of the colchicum, in the leaves was 0.4% and in the corm 0.14%.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The current work sought to resolve taxonomic issues involving species that share the majority of their physical characteristics and to clarify relationships between important taxa by utilizing leaf epidermal characteristics. As a result of chemical analysis, it was revealed that the amount of alkaloids in the leaves of <em>Colchicum autumnale</em>, introduced in the conditions of the Tashkent region (Uzbekistan), is higher than in natural regions. This proves that in the conditions of Uzbekistan it is possible to grow <em>Colchicum</em> and obtain high-quality raw materials.</p> <p><em>Key words:</em> autumn crocus, meadow saffron, anatomy, phytochemistry, ethnomedicine.</p> Sarvar Boboev Trobjon Makhkamov Rainer W Bussmann Muhammad Zafar Akramjon Yuldashev Copyright (c) 2023 Sarvar Boboev, Trobjon Makhkamov, Rainer W Bussmann, Muhammad Muhammad , Akramjon Yuldashev 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 9 Ferula tadshikorum Pimenov - introduction, chemical composition and use in folk medicine <p><em>Background:</em> This study determined the results of the introduction of the <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em>, and comparatively studied the content of proteins and polysaccharides in leaves and roots in three age individuals.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The work used phenological, protein and polysaccharide chemical analyses, as well as a survey on the use of <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em> among local residents of Surkhandarya region of Uzbekistan.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Under the conditions of introduction, phenological observations of the growth and development of <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em> were carried out. Based on 4-year experiments, we concluded that, in contrast to the natural conditions, in Tashkent Botanical Garden a shortening of the duration of stages in juvenile and immature individuals, as well as an increase in the number of virginal individuals, is observed in ontogenesis. For the first time, the chemical composition of roots and leaves was studied in three individuals of different ages: 4-year-old introducents of the virginal stage of development, and natural individuals of medium, mature virginal age. The analysis for the content of protein and protein N found that the average protein content in the roots of the <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em> plant ranged from 2.3% to 7.12%, while in the leaves it ranged from 10.23% to 25.56%. The roots and leaves of mature virginal individuals of <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em> had the greatest nutritional value in terms of total protein content. For the first time, the content of various groups of polysaccharides in the roots and leaves of 3 virginal samples of <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em> was elucidated, and alcohol-soluble sugars, water-soluble polysaccharides, pectin substances and hemicellulose were isolated. According to the monosaccharide composition, the roots contained especially to glucogalactaarabans, the leaves arabinogalactans. Some recipes of folk medicine on the use of leaves and resin for the treatment of certain human diseases are given.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> For the medicinal plant <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em>, new prospects are opening up for the use in both folk medicine and official medicine. In the future, more in-depth phytochemical studies are needed to identify the therapeutic potential of the <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em>.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>. chemical analysis, ethnobotany,<em> Ferula tadshikorum</em>, introduction, leaves, root, polysaccharides, proteins.</p> D.T. Khamraeva D.N. Tukhtaeva O.K. Khojimatov Rainer W Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 D.T. Khamraeva, D.N. Tukhtaeva, O.K. Khojimatov, Rainer W Bussmann 2023-02-16 2023-02-16 25 1 10 A note on an edible fern of Nepal: Blechnum orientale L. <p><em>Background:</em> The consumption of ferns as vegetables and pickles in Nepal is a noteworthy phenomenon. <em>Diplazium esculentum</em> stands out as one of the most commonly consumed ferns. Being rich in plant resources, eastern Nepal remains relatively unexplored compared to central Nepal. Therefore, the present study seeks to provide a brief account of the edible uses of <em>Blechnum orientale</em>, a fern species, from eastern Nepal.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Multiple field visits were conducted in Pathari Municipality and Kanepokhari Rural Municipality of Morang district. The habitats where <em>B. orientale</em> was collected by local vendors were examined, ethnobotanical uses, photographs, and market prices were recorded.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> From April to May, young fronds of <em>B. orientale</em> were collected from local community forests by Tamang, Limbu, and Magar tribes of an area. Young fronds were washed, boiled to soften them, and used to prepare vegetables. Pickles are also made by mixing boiled young fronds with potatoes, green chili, onions, salt, mustard oil, and flax seed powder. Local vendors sell the fronds in bundles along Mahendra Highway in the price of 50 to 100 Nrs per bundle.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The fern is a vital vegetable source for local communities during the monsoon season, providing sustenance and income generation opportunities. Sustainable collection and commercialization are recommended.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Blechnaceae, Edible, Eastern Nepal, Morang.</p> Rijan Ojha Hari Prasad Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 Rijan Ojha, Hari Prasad Devkota 2023-04-29 2023-04-29 25 1 8