Ethnobotany Research and Applications https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia in cooperation with Saving Knowledge / Ethnomont. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>ERA is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> Saving Knowledge, Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia en-US Ethnobotany Research and Applications 1547-3465 <p>All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.</p> Conservation linkages of rare and endangered medicinal plants used in the traditional health care system in Pin Valley National Park, Himachal Pradesh https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3727 <p><em>Background:</em> The <em>Amchi</em> system ‘<em>Sowa-</em>Rigpa’ served as the cornerstone of local healthcare system for many years, but now is on the verge of extinction. Therefore, to maintain the long-term survival of this system, it is necessary to document utilization of medicinal plants, treatments performed, status of plants, their habitats and factors influencing the decline of this system.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A systematic field survey was performed from May 2019 to January 2020 covering all 13 villages (2270 souls in 545 households) with 12 <em>Amchies</em> in Pin Valley. <em>Amchies</em> practicing <em>Sowa-Rigpa</em> system were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Knowledge Richness Index (KRI) and the Use Value (UV) were calculated to measure the knowledge on medicinal plants and the significance of the species, respectively. The vegetation sampling was performed by laying 25, 1x1m quadrats in each habitat during the peak growing season. The Pearson’s correlation and Mann-Whitney U test were performed using Past 4.03 to analyze the knowledge among different age classes and different professions among practitioners.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Forty-seven endangered plant species were used to treat 27 different ailments. The most common ailment was osteoarthritis (12%), while the decline in <em>Amchi</em> population was 45% in last few decades. <em>Amchi</em>es involved in government services, as well as farming, observed high knowledge as compared to others. Three critical habitats for critically threatened medicinal plants were identified in the buffer zone. People highly referred to the allopathic system (63%) followed by <em>Amchi</em> system (17%) and for both 20%.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The lack of income, government incentives and enthusiasm among younger generation in practicing this system may jeopardize <em>Sowa-Rigpas’</em> survival. Integration of this system with modern healthcare system, as well as additional government job possibilities and women’s involvement may be effective to enhance this diminishing tradition.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <em>Amchi, </em>Trans-Himalaya, Medicinal plants, Spiti Valley, <em>Sowa-rigpa</em></p> Kalzang Targe Salvador Lyngdoh Rainer W. Bussmann Bhupendra Singh Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Kalzang Targe, Salvador Lyngdoh, Rainer W. Bussmann, Bhupendra Singh Adhikari 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 24 1 22 Alpine ethnobotanical knowledge in Sondalo (SO, Lombardy, Italy) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4209 <p><em>Background:</em> Whereas Alpine populations have been geographically isolated from major cities since ancient times, they have long learned to make use of the features of their own territory and its resources, especially autochthonous spontaneous plants. In such areas there is still a wide traditional use of plant species; this heritage, however, risks becoming extinct. Our work gathered and processed information on the plants used for medicinal, veterinary, cosmetic, domestic, ritual, and religious purposes by the inhabitants of Sondalo (Valtellina, SO, Lombardy, Italy).</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The survey was conducted through semi-structured interviews. All data was entered within a database. Extensive bibliographic research was performed in scientific literature on the biological activity of the species used for human medicinal purposes.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> We interviewed 101 people aged 25-98. 112 plants were mentioned, belonging to 52 families. 87 species were spontaneous, 25 cultivated. The most cited species were <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> F.H. Wigg., <em>Sambucus nigra</em> L., and <em>Achillea erba-rotta </em>subsp.<em> moschata</em> (Wulfen) I. Richardson. The most frequently used parts were flowers/inflorescences, leaves, and fruits. The most common preparation forms were infusion, decoction, and syrup. The traditional uses covered different aspects of the daily life: 73 species were used for cooking, 62 for medicinal purposes, 27 in the domestic field, 17 for agropastoral activities, 13 for animal healthcare. The evaluation of scientific literature allowed us to find information on the biological activity of 36 plants, linked to the traditional uses of the territory.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> This work enhances the mosaic of ethnobotanical studies carried out in the Alpine region and highlights the importance of this kind of surveys in the search for new natural potentially active compounds.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, Northern Italy, Alps, Medicinal plants, Biocultural heritage.</p> Martina Bottoni Lorenzo Colombo Caterina Gianoli Fabrizia Milani Paola Sira Colombo Piero Bruschi Claudia Giuliani Gelsomina Fico Copyright (c) 2022 Martina Bottoni, Lorenzo Colombo, Caterina Gianoli, Fabrizia Milani, Paola Sira Colombo, Piero Bruschi, Claudia Giuliani, Gelsomina Fico 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 24 1 63 Ethnomedicinal survey of antidiarrheal plants of the Nyamwezi people of Nsenda ward in Urambo District, central western Tanzania https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3935 <p><em>Background:</em> Globally, diarrhoea is a primary public health concern associated with high mortality and morbidity. In Tanzania's rural areas, a paucity of contemporary health facilities and poverty have necessitated pursuing traditional remedies. However, the usage of traditional remedies is poorly documented. Therefore, this study aimed to document medicinal plants (MPs) used by traditional healers (THs) to treat diarrhoea in the Nsenda ward, Tanzania.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather ethnobotanical data from 21 THs on the use of MPs in treating diarrhoea in Nsenda ward. The purpose and significance of the study were communicated to THs, and their consent was requested before interviewing them.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Twenty-four MPs belonging to 17 families and 24 genera were recorded as antidiarrheal. Most reported MPs belong to Fabaceae (13%) family. <em>Clerodendrum myricoides</em> (Hochst.) Vatke (0.76)<em>, Psidium guajava</em> L. (0.66), and<em> Coffea arabica</em> L. (0.62) had the highest relative frequency of citation. Tree (67%) and root (46%) were the most utilised life form and plant part, respectively. The wild (79%) environment offered the most utilised plant materials. Decoction (37%) was the preferred preparation technique, and all the remedies were administered orally. About 21% of the preparations involved the addition of different ingredients and solvents, 13% were consumed freshly, and 56% involved dilution of remedies in water.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The study has uncovered substantial numbers and knowledge of MPs used to treat diarrheal infections in the ward. The study recommends that scientific endorsement is needed to understand the pharmacological potentials of the recorded MPs.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Antidiarrheal, diarrhoea, ethnomedicine, medicinal plants, Tanzania, Urambo</p> David Sylvester Kacholi Halima Amir Mvungi Copyright (c) 2022 David Sylvester Kacholi, Halima Amir Mvungi 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 24 1 14 The applicability of similarity indices in an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from three localities of the Yunga district, Moquegua region, Peru https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3661 <p><em>Background:</em> From ethnobotanical research carried out in the southern region of Peru, the need for further investigation is evident, especially in Moquegua; given this, an ethnobotanical exploration is presented that includes a validation of medicinal plants through the reports of three focus groups and the analysis of similarity or concordance of medicinal species from three nearby localities in the district of Yunga, Moquegua, using two coefficients already known and one new in ethnobotany.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Medicinal plants were collected with the help of experts, which were shown to three separate focus groups (Exchaje, La Pampilla and Yunga), whose composition was representative and decided by local authorities, who established the medicinal quality of the collected plants. For agreement analysis, two similarity coefficients were used, Jaccard (Cj) and Sørensen (Cs), and the use of the Cohen kappa Index (CKI) and Fleiss (FKI) is incorporated and proposed, for which purpose the validation of medicinal species was written in binary; statistical analysis was done using Stata 15 software.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Of 61 species of plant collected from experts, 36 were validated as medicinal by the focus groups, naming a total of 127 use reports. The Asteraceae are the most abundant with 18 species, followed by Lamiaceae with three, among others. The medicinal bush yareta (<em>Azorella compacta, </em>Apiaceae) presented 11 reports of use. The predominant habit of validated medicinal species was shrub (47.2%). The so-called warm plants were the most abundant (58%) compared to the cold and temperate ones. Digestive system disorders are the category with the most reports (27). La Pampilla and Yunga presented the highest values of similarity (Cj=0.61; Cs=0.76; CKI =0.6) and the FKI showed a concordance value of 53% for the three localities.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants still exists in Yunga, Moquegua. This is evidenced through the use of medicinal species identified by experts. Interesting ancestral conceptions are observed around the quality of plants, about their thermal properties, such as hot, cold and temperate plants; with Digestive System Disorders being those most frequently reported. The Kappa Index is a suitable tool to show the level of agreement between localities, whose values, compared through a scale, allow greater objectivity in the analysis, in comparison with the Jaccard and Sorensen coefficients. The concordances between the evaluated localities becomes almost perfect (values closer to one) when they are influenced by factors such as their proximity, and social and cultural interrelation.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Agreement, ethnobotany, Jaccard, kappa, medicinal plants, similarity, Sørensen, traditional medicine, Yunga, Moquegua.</p> <p><strong>Resumen</strong></p> <p><em>Introducción</em>: De las investigaciones etnobotánicas realizadas en la región sur del Perú, se evidencia la necesidad de mayor investigación, especialmente en Moquegua; ante esto, se presenta una exploración etnobotánica que incluye una validación de plantas medicinales a través de los reportes de tres grupos focales y el análisis de similitud o concordancia de especies medicinales de tres localidades cercanas en el distrito de Yunga, Moquegua, utilizando dos coeficientes ya conocidos y uno novedoso en etnobotánica.</p> <p><em>Métodos</em>: Se procedió a colectar plantas medicinales con ayuda de expertos, las cuales fueron mostradas a tres grupos focales por separado (Exchaje, La Pampilla and Yunga), cuya conformación fue representativa y estuvo a cargo de las autoridades locales, quienes establecieron la calidad de medicinal de las plantas colectadas. Para el análisis de similitud se emplearon dos coeficientes de similitud, de Jaccard (Cj) y de Sørensen (Cs) y se incorpora y propone el uso del Índice kappa de Cohen (IKC) y Fleiss (IKF), para cuyo fin se procedió a escribir en binario la validación de especies medicinales; el análisis estadístico fue hecho utilizando el software Stata 15.</p> <p><em>Resultados</em>: De 61 plantas colectadas con expertos, 36 fueron validadas como medicinales por los grupos focales, nombrándose un total de 127 reportes de uso. Las Asteraceae son las más abundantes con 18 especies, seguida de Lamiaceae con tres, entre otras. El arbusto medicinal yareta (<em>Azorella compacta, </em>Apiaceae) presentó 11 reportes de uso y los géneros <em>Baccharis</em>, <em>Caiophora</em> y <em>Senecio </em>fueron los más representados<em>.</em> El hábito predominante fue el arbustivo (47.2%) frente a las hierbas y sub arbustos. Las plantas denominadas cálidas fueron las más abundantes (58%) en comparación a las frías y templadas. Los Trastornos del Sistema Digestivo es la categoría con más reportes (27). La Pampilla y Yunga presentaron los valores más altos de similitud (Cj=0.61; Cs=0.76; IKC=0.6) y el IKF mostró un valor de concordancia de 53% para las tres localidades.</p> <p><em>Conclusiones</em>: El conocimiento tradicional sobre las plantas medicinales está vigente en Yunga, Moquegua. Esto se evidencia a través del uso de especies medicinales identificadas por expertos. Se observan interesantes concepciones ancestrales en torno a la calidad de las plantas, sobre sus propiedades térmicas, como plantas calientes, frías y templadas; siendo los Trastornos del Sistema Digestivo los más frecuentemente reportados. El Índice Kappa es una herramienta adecuada para mostrar el nivel de concordancia entre localidades, cuyos valores, comparados a través de una escala, permiten una mayor objetividad en el análisis, en comparación con los coeficientes de Jaccard y Sørensen. Las concordancias entre las localidades evaluadas se vuelven casi perfectas (valores más cercanos a uno) cuando están influenciadas por factores como su proximidad e interrelación social y cultural.</p> <p><em>Palabras clave</em>: Concordancia, etnobotánica, Jaccard, kappa, medicina tradicional, plantas medicinales, similitud, Sørensen, Yunga, Moquegua.</p> Jorge Luis Cabrera Meléndez Domingo Iparraguirre León Michael Way Félix Valenzuela Oré Daniel B. Montesinos-Tubée Copyright (c) 2022 Jorge Luis Cabrera Meléndez, Domingo Iparraguirre León, Michael Way, Félix Valenzuela Oré 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 24 1 18 Local knowledge about medicinal plants does not influence the self-reported well-being of inhabitants of the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4183 <p><em>Background</em>: The literature gathers several pieces of evidence on the use of medicinal plants for disease treatment, showing that local knowledge about medicinal plants is a relevant reservoir of information for local health treatment. However, a direct positive correlation between this local knowledge and the perception of well-being is still unknown, as well as the potential impacts of this correlation on humans’ quality of life. In this study, we hypothesized that the local knowledge of medicinal plants positively impacts well-being.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The study was conducted in six communities inside the Catimbau National Park, Northeastern Brazil, dependent on using plants to treat diseases. Local knowledge about medicinal plants and self-reporting well-being were collected by free listing and semi-structured interviews, respectively. The well-being index of each participant was calculated by summing the scores of their answers for seven questions that covered individual aspects and food and financial security. A generalized linear model was conducted to assess the relationship between the knowledge of ethnospecies and the well-being index of participants.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Participants cited an average of 10.06 ethnospecies and 8.18 therapeutic targets. The mean score of the well-being index was 22.22. We found no association between the local knowledge of medicinal plants and the well-being index.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The local knowledge of medicinal plants is not a determining factor of local human well-being.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Keywords:</em> happiness, ecosystem services, ethnobotany.</p> Bruno Melo Sousa Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Elcida Lima Araújo Copyright (c) 2022 Bruno Melo Sousa, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Elcida Lima Araújo 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 24 1 8 Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plant species in Nensebo District, south-eastern Ethiopia https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3881 <p><em>Background</em>: Plants are important sources of traditional medicine in many cultures. Ethiopia, being rich in floral and cultural diversity, merits documentation of medicinal plants and associated traditional medicinal knowledge in various parts of the country. To this end, an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was conducted in Nensebo district, southern Ethiopia.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field guided walks, direct observation, focus group discussions and market surveys from December 2018 to February 2019. Both descriptive and quantitative methods were used for data analysis, as appropriate. Ethnobotanical data analysis techniques such as informant consensus factor, paired comparison, and preference ranking.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 127 medicinal plant species belonging to 108 genera and 67 families were identified and documented. Medicinal plants were mostly (60%) collected from the wild. Of the recorded plant species, 70% were reported to be used to treat human ailments and 12% were used to treat livestock ailments. Herbs were the most frequently harvested medicinal plant growth form (32%). Among the plant parts used for medicine, leaves (36%) were the most frequently used. The most widely used mode of preparation for medicines was crushing (38%) and the most frequent route of administration was orally (31%). The most common human aliments treated in the area were gonorrhea, diarrhea, fever, tapeworm and headache, whereas the most common livestock aliments treated in the area were blackleg, cattle coughing, equine coughing, equine rheumatism. There was 21% informant consensus that <em>Croton macrostachyus</em> is effective in treating the common human aliment gonorrhea and also the preference raking findings indicated that <em>Croton macrostachyus</em> as most preferred medicinal plant species to treat gonorrhea.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Several medicinal plant species and associated indigenous knowledge were reported to be used to treat human and livestock ailments, implying the local community depends on them for primary health care. As a result, there is a need for conservation of medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge in the area.</p> <p><em>Key words:</em> Informants consensus, mode of preparation, pairwise comparison, route of administration</p> Zerihun Girma Gemedi Abdela Tesfaye Awas Copyright (c) 2022 Zerihun Girma, Gemedi Abdela, Tesfaye Awas 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 24 1 25 Utilizations, vulnerability and conservation practices of Saba senegalensis (A. DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae), a high value local species in Burkina Faso Utilisations, vulnérabilité et practiques de conservation de Saba senegalensis (A. DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae), une espèce locale à haute valeur socio-économique au Burkina Faso https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3623 <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Saba senegalensis </em>is a woody liana that provides medicinal products, food, income and ecological benefit (soil and water conservation) to the populations in sub-Saharan Africa. In Burkina Faso, the species is mismanaged by the local population, but few studies have been conducted on its uses. This study seeks to understand the local knowledge of <em>S. senegalensis </em>uses and its vulnerability.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in the provinces characterized by slightly (Houet), moderately (Mouhoun) and severely (Yatenga) dry climate in Burkina Faso. A total of 180 randomly selected individuals responded to the questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the informants, the plant parts used, and the categories of uses were recorded. Analyses included an index of uses and vulnerability, importance values of plant parts used, and frequency calculations.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Local knowledge of <em>S. senegalensis</em> uses varied according to the locality and informant age. Seven use categories were identified: traditional medicine, food, construction, fodder, handicrafts, domestic energy, and magic. All vegetative organs of <em>S. senegalensis</em> are used. The species’ vulnerability index (IV=2.75) is higher than 2.50, making it vulnerable. The leaves and tendrils plant are the most common plant parts used in traditional medicines. Generally, crude drugs are used in the form of decoction, followed by infusion forms. The diversity of medicinal uses of <em>S. senegalensis</em> highlights the need for future ethno-pharmacological studies of the species. Exploitation of the fruits of the species contributes substantially to food and nutritional security and to improving the living conditions of local populations.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Our findings provide essential information for decision-making for effective domestication initiatives for <em>S. senegalensis</em>. The findings also provide a baseline for future research into the development of value chains for the species. They also draw attention to the need for conservation measures for the plant.<strong> </strong></p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Local knowledge; wild fruit tree; goose liana; forest products; use category; metric index; vulnerability index.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Resumé</strong></p> <p><em>Contexte</em> : La liane goïne (<em>Saba senegalensis</em>) est une liane ligneuse qui fournit des médicaments, de la nourriture, des revenus et des avantages écologiques (conservation des sols et de l'eau) aux populations d'Afrique subsaharienne. Au Burkina Faso, l’espèce est mal exploitée par les populations locales alors que peu d’études se sont intéressées sur ses usages. L’objectif de la présente étude est d’appréhender les connaissances locales sur <em>S. senegalensis</em> et les pratiques qui sont source de sa vulnérabilité.</p> <p><em>Méthodes</em>: La collecte des données s’est faite au moyen d’interviews semi-structurées conduites dans les provinces caractérisées par un climat légèrement (Houet), modérément (Mouhoun) et sévèrement (Yatenga) sec au Burkina Faso. Au total, 180 personnes choisies de manière aléatoire ont répondu au questionnaire. Les caractéristiques sociodémographiques des informateurs, les organes utilisés de la plante et les domaines d’utilisation ont été recensés. Le traitement des données a consisté en des calculs de fréquences et des indices de valeurs d’usage, d’importance et de vulnérabilité (IV) des organes de l’espèce.</p> <p><em>Résultats</em> : Les résultats ont montré que les connaissances locales relatives aux usages de <em>S. senegalensis</em> varient suivant les localités et l’âge des répondants. L’espèce est sollicitée dans sept domaines d’usage que sont : la médecine traditionnelle, l’alimentation, la construction, le fourrage, l’artisanat, l’énergie domestique et socio-culturel. Tous les organes de la plante sont utilisés. L’indice de vulnérabilité (IV = 2,75) est supérieur à 2,50 classant ainsi l’espèce comme très vulnérable. Les feuilles et les vrilles sont les organes les plus couramment utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle. Généralement, les médicaments à l’état brut sont utilisés sous forme de décoction, suivie de formes d'infusion. La diversité des usages médicinaux de l’espèce constitue un atout pour la valorisation de ses propriétés médicinales à travers des études ethno-pharmacologiques. En plus des usages médicinaux, l’exploitation des fruits de l’espèce contribue substantiellement à l’amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle et des revenus des populations locales.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Nos résultats fournissent des information de base pours des recherches futures en vue du développement de chaînes de valeur de l’espèce à travers la mise en place d’une véritable filière. Aussi, ils attirent l’attention sur la nécessité de prise de mesures pour la conservation de la plante.</p> <p><em>Mots clés:</em> Connaissances locales, fruitier sauvage, liane goïne, Produits forestiers, domaine d’usage, indice métrique, indice de vulnérabilité.</p> Sata Diawara Patrice SAVADOGO Lassina SANOU Amadé OUEDRAOGO Blaise Kabre Copyright (c) 2022 Sata Diawara, Patrice Savadogo, Lassina Sanou, Amadé Ouédraogo, Blaise Kabre 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 24 1 19 Ethnobotany of Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart. (Arecaceae) in the Afar depressions, Ethiopia https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4145 <p><em>Background:</em> <em>Hyphaene thebaica</em> is a Palm tree or shrub often with dichotomous branching that is predominantly found in an open wet landscape, riverbeds/flood plains, and around river valleys. This study was conducted to document the ethnobotany of <em>Hyphaene thebaica</em> in the Afar depressions, Ethiopia. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A purposeful sampling method was used to select the informants. A total of 80 informants - 20 informants from each district and 15 of them in each district were women. Out of the selected informants 12 of them i.e., three from each district were considered key informants based on the recommendations from the administrators of different hierarchies who are believed to have sufficient knowledge about the plant and communities. The remainder (68 informants) were general informants. Direct matrix ranking was used to rank the preferred use of <em>H. thebaica</em>. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using OriginPro 2022. </p> <p><em>Results:</em> Results revealed that <em>H. thebaica</em> has numerous importance as implied by the informants in the Afar communities. These include material culture and <em>Sennan Ari</em> (100%), Doma (45%), and medicinal value (32%). The use preference ranking of the species revealed that material culture and making <em>Sennan Ari</em> were ranked first with 100% of the key informants confirming the information.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The present study investigated the indigenous knowledge of the desert Palm, <em>Hyphaene thebaica,</em> and found the plant is multipurpose and is utilized for material culture production, temporary shelter/house (<em>Sennan Ari</em>) making, extraction of an alcohol/liquor, medicinal value, and income-generation. Advancing the material culture production by integrating current knowledge and phytochemical investigation on the alcohol extract and determining its efficacy is recommended.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Desert palm, Herbal medicine, <em>Hyphaene</em>, Indigenous knowledge, Material culture, Pastoralism</p> Kflay Gebrehiwot Ali Zeynu Copyright (c) 2022 Kflay Gebrehiwot, Ali Zeynu 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 24 1 13 Traditional uses of plants in Gokwe South District, Zimbabwe: construction material, tools, crafts, fuel wood, religious ceremonies and leafy vegetables https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3851 <p><em>Background: </em>Most people who reside in rural areas have over the years benefited from the utilization of forest products obtained from forests and surrounding woodlands. Both timber and non-timber forest products are important in livelihood maintenance, provision of security, reduction of poverty and malnutrition and help generate income. The aim of the study is to evaluate and document plants that are traditionally used by community in Gokwe South District, Zimbabwe and to assess their contribution to the livelihood and sustenance of the community.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical data was collected from February 2022 till March 2022 through semi-structured interviews and data analysed through quantitative indices such as use value (UV) and relative frequency of citation (RFC). Field surveys were made to collect voucher specimens, which were identified, authenticated and deposited at the National Herbarium, Zimbabwe.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 89 plant species belonging to 81 genera and 44 families are traditionally used in Gokwe South District. The Fabaceae family is the highest plant species (15 species) followed by Anacardiaceae and Euphorbiaceae (five species each). Seven use categories were identified with the food category recording the highest number of plant species used (48 species) followed by tools and handicraft (29 species).</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>The study showed that the traditional use of plant is still a common practice in the district. The great diversity of plants gives the need for their conservation and sustainable use to be established and monitored.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Plant diversity, use patterns, traditional uses of plants, Gokwe South District</p> <p><em> </em></p> Ruvimbo Jessy Mapaya Bridgett Shopo Alfred Maroyi Copyright (c) 2022 Ruvimbo Jessy Mapaya, Mrs Shopo, Prof. Maroyi 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 24 1 23 Phytochemical analysis and ethnomedicinal uses of Oroxylum indicum in Nepal https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4037 <p><em>Background:</em> Plant natural products have a long history of usage as a source of therapeutic agents. <em>Oroxylum indicum </em>(L.) Kurz is a prominent therapeutic plant in South Asia, comprising several phytochemicals with substantial medical significance, including the treatment of COVID-19.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Herein, we documented the medicinal importance of <em>O. indicum</em> throughout Nepal using a questionnaire-based survey and and validated the findings through biochemical analyses.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>All fractions (water, hexane and dichloromethane) obtained from different extraction solvents revealed a high abundance of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, and carbohydrates that is consistent with its vast ethnomedicinal uses generated through the questionnaire survey.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> In a nutshell, <em>O. indicum</em> is a promising medicinal plant based on our current experiment, and more research on ethnomedicinal and plant biochemical capabilities might lead to new scientific avenues and novel drug discoveries. It further paves the scope of documentation of traditional knowledge for the benefit of local and national communities.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> antioxidant activity, COVID-19, drug discovery, <em>Oroxylum indicum</em>.</p> Keshab Bhattarai Ripu Kunwar Bikash Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Bikash Baral, Keshab Bhattarai, Ripu Kunwar 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 24 1 12 Wild Edible Plants of Purmandal block of District Samba, J&K (UT), India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3841 <p><em>Background</em>: Edible plants that are neither cultivated nor domesticated but can be found in their natural habitat are known as wild edible plants (WEPs). In times of food scarcity, WEPs give a valuable natural nutritional supply as food, diet, and nutrients.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: An ethnobotanical field study was conducted in eleven villages of Purmandal using focused group discussions, and interviews through semi-structured questionnaires. Information was gathered from a total of 153 informants (115 females and 38 males). Informants were briefed about the objectives of the study and Prior Informed Consent (PIC) was obtained as per Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The various uses of WEPs were quantified as use-reports, and Cultural Importance Value (CI) and Factor informant consensus (F<sub>ic</sub>) were calculated.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Altogether 58 plants belonging to 51 genera and 34 families were used as WEPs. Cucurbitaceae and Rutaceae (5 species each) were the most represented families, and leaves and fruits were the most frequently used plant parts. The contribution of herbs, shrubs, and climbers were 36.2%, 37.9%, and 15.5%, respectively. The maximum CI was recorded for <em>Mangifera indica </em>L., <em>Phyllanthus emblica</em> L., and <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> (L). Benth. The values of F<sub>ic</sub> varied between 0.95 (medicinal usage) and 0.99 (<em>chutney</em> preparation).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Locals of Purmandal have good knowledge of WEPs. Traditional products made from WEPs like <em>Mangifera indica</em>, <em>Phyllanthus emblica</em> and <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> can be commercialized to improve the economic status of the locals. Furthermore, the nutritive values of important species may be studied.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Wild edible plants, Purmandal, Food security, Sustainable agriculture.</p> R.K. Manhas Nisha Bhagat Hina Upadhyay Sanjeev Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 R.K. Manhas, Nisha Bhagat, Hina Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 24 1 19 Ethnomedicine and Culture: Exploitation of plant species for traditional use in the remote area of Kashmir Himalayas https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4001 <p><em>Introduction:</em> In the valley of Kashmir-India, use of flora is not only prioritized over fauna species to get against health disorders but plays a vital role in the cultural aspects. The uses of herbs, particularly those that have a scientific basis as remedy of minor illnesses are progressively appreciated across the modern world.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The present study was conducted from March 2019 to August 2021 for the collection of medicinally important plants and related traditional knowledge in the frontier administrative district (Kupwara) of Kashmir- India. A simple stratified sampling using semi structured interviews followed by group discussions was employed to achieve the goal.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 53 plant species belonging to 36 families, with Asteraceae as the dominant family (11%) were recorded. The most dominant life form used in the treatment of various ailments were herbs with 42 species (79%), followed by trees (6 species, 11%), shrubs (3, 6%), ferns and fungi (1 species each). Roots were most frequently used (39%), followed by leaves (21%), tuber, stem latex, whole plant (5% each), wood, fruits (3% each), fruit, bark, seed, fruiting body, twig and whole frond (2% each). The ICF (Informant Consensus Factor) values ranged from 0.95 to 0.98, and the highest ICF was recorded for gastrointestinal disorders, liver diseases, bone and joint disorders, dental diseases and kidney problems (0.98 each), while as the lowest values of ICF were recorded for ethno-veterinary diseases (0.95). Gastro-intestinal disorders were treated with most species (22%). Highest Use Value (UV) was recorded for <em>Artemisia absinthium </em>while lowest values of UV were recorded for <em>Eryngium billardieri. </em>A cross-cultural comparison of plant resources shows that 41 plants were commonly used by all ethnic groups. Upon the similarity of usage, Gujjars and Bakarwals (26%) showed greater similarity, whereas the least overlap was observed between Kashmiri and Bakarwal (9%). Cluster analysis yielded two primary clusters, cluster first included the plant species with medicinal (Med) attributions and Cluster 2 comprised the species with a variety of attributions like food, fodder, spice, black magic (bla-mag); herbal tea (her-tea) and fuel wood (fue-wod)<strong>. </strong>The highest FUV (Family Use Value) was reported for Pinaceae (0.49) followed by Asteraceae (0.47) and Polygonaceae (0.46). The results in this study have listed some of the medicinal plants like, <em>Rhodiola fastigiata, Lilium polyphyllum, Betula utilis </em>and <em>Anagallis arvensis </em>reported for the first time with traditional usage.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The present study reveals the importance of the plants across the frontier administrative district (Kupwara) of Kashmir- India. The use of local plants for medicinal purposes and other traditional uses are being practiced from generations; in this regard species with high UV can be bio-profiled for the possible elucidation of some novel molecule with potent medicinal attribution.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Plants, medicinal, Use Value, cross-culture</p> Aadil Abdullah Khoja Syed Asif Hussain Andrabi Rayees Afzal Mir Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Aadil Abdullah Khoja, Syed Asif Hussain Andrabi, Rayees Afzal Mir, Rainer W. Bussmann 2022-10-14 2022-10-14 24 1 22 Folklore use of wild fruits by the Oraon tribe of Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh, India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3757 <p><em>Background</em>: Forests and trees are the major resources sustainably utilized by the tribals for their livelihood. The tribals communities have lived in and known the forests in an intimate manner and have also gathered information about possible use and conservation of forests and trees. In present times, however, the indigenous knowledge base that the tribals have gathered and preserved yet far has been endangered due to sociocultural hybridization as a result of modernization and globalization. This situation, hence, calls for an urgent need to device strategies to conserve tribal knowledge through various means. In this-respects, the present study attempts to survey, document and preserve the knowledge regarding the wild edible fruits consumed by Oraon tribes of Surguja district of Chhattisgarh and the Current status of the tribe concerning the interest towards the wild fruit collection, consumption and conservation.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The study was undertaken during December 2019-July 2020. The information was obtained through semi-structured schedule. The importance of wild edible fruits as ethnomedicine was expressed through Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 26 wild fruit species, considered by the Oraon tribe to have medical values and ability to impart health benefits have been reported in this study. The reported fruit species belongs to 16 different families. Moraceae was the dominant family amongst the reported fruit species, the highest informant consensus factor (ICF) value was 0.94 for Liver related problems followed by Inflammation (0.91), Pain and Skin related disease as (0.86).The most frequently used fruit species were <em>Morus alba </em>(0.86), followed by <em>Syzygium cumini </em>(0.84), <em>Diospyros melanoxylon</em>, <em>Madhuca longifolia </em>and <em>Neolamarckia cadamba </em>(0.82) each, <em>Ficus religiosa </em>and <em>Ziziphus mauritiana </em>(0.80) each based on <em>Relative frequency of citation</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Furthermore, the documentation of diverse therapeutic practices of wild fruit species by the Oraon and several other tribes shall support further pharmacological research to develop novel future generation drug molecules.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Dietary nutrition, Folklore uses, Indigenous technical knowledge, Wild edible fruits.</p> Amrita Kumari Panda Satpal Singh Bisht Shashi Lakra Ashish Kumar Aseem Kerketta Rojita Mishra Koustava Kumar Panda Satpal Singh Bisht Sushma Kerketta Copyright (c) 2022 Amrita Kumari Panda, Satpal Singh Bisht, Shashi Lakra, Ashish Kumar, Aseem Kerketta, Rojita Mishra, Koustava Kumar Panda, Satpal Singh Bisht, Sushma Kerketta 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 24 1 16 Inventory of medicinal herbs utilized for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in district Kupwara of Jammu and Kashmir https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3975 <p><em>Background:</em> The medicinal plants are used for the treatment of various disorders and are believed as a promising agent in the local traditional health care system throughout the globe. This paper provides noteworthy information regarding the use of medicinal herbs for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in district Kupwara of Jammu and Kashmir.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Extensive surveys (31 visits) were conducted in the study area during August 2020 to January 2021 for the collection of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge associated with them. A total of 75 participants were interviewed using group discussions (<em>n=</em>12 with <em>n=</em>6 people each) and semi structured interviews (<em>n=</em>59). Documented ethnomedicinal data was analyzed using quantitative ethnobotanical indices including use value (UV).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>During the study a total of 45 plants belonging to 20 different families were reported with their medicinal usage to treat musculoskeletal disorders. Asteraceae (13 species) was found to be the dominant family and leaves (41%) were found to be used for the preparation of most of the remedies. Herbs were reported to be the dominant plants utilized with paste as the common method of preparation and topical method as the dominant method of administration. The highest use value (0.49) was reported for <em>Foeniculum vulgare.</em></p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> It can be concluded that, local inhabitants still prioritize herbal medicines as an effective way to treat MSK disorders. This comprehensive investigation helps in phytochemistry and pharmacological research to screen such medicinal plant species for future drug discovery development which give more interesting information with global interest. Scientific authentication of the bio-activity of the particular medicinal plants will validate the integration and use of these natural medications for primary health care of local populations.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Musculoskeletal disorders, Ethnomedicine, Use value, Kupwara, J&amp;K</p> Tawseef Ahmad Mir Muatasim Jan Rainer W. Bussmann Tuybia Bilal Copyright (c) 2022 Tawseef Ahmad Mir, Muatasim Jan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Tuybia Bilal 2022-11-01 2022-11-01 24 1 13 Traditional usage of plant resources in Ethnoveterinary practices in Spiti valley of Himachal Pradesh, North western Himalayas India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3939 <p><em>Background:</em> To best of our knowledge it is first quantitative study of ethnoveterinary practices from Spiti valley of Northwestern Himalayas. Spiti valley lies in cold arid zone of Himachal Pradesh and most of the high-altitude villages in this region remains cut off from rest of the world during a major part of the year (November-May).</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A total of 48 respondents, 45-80 years old and including farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists familiar with livestock problems and use of conventional recipes, were interviewed and their responses recorded in detail. The data was analyzed by using three different quantitative indices <em>viz</em>. Use value (UV), Informant consensus factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL %).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 26 species were used in ethnoveterinary practices, distributed among 17 families and 25 genera. The UV was found to be highest in <em>Brassica campestris </em>(UV=0.95) followed by <em>Lactuca macrorhiza</em> (UV=0.62). The FL was found to be highest (100%) in <em>Bunium persicum,</em> <em>Oxytropis lapponica,</em> <em>Sassurea bractaeta, Lactuca macrorhiza</em> and <em>Cousinia thomsonii </em>for its use in treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, wound healing<em>, </em>neck sore, as a galactagogue and for the treatment of local swellings. Highest ICF was found in case of anestrus, animal bite followed by galactagogue.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Study concluded that 26 plant species used in ethnoveterinary practices to cure the various ailments. Scientific validation of different plant species with high UV and FL should be conducted in future for the optimum utilization of these species in animal health care.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Amchis, Cold desert, Ethnoveterinary, Medicinal plants, Spiti valley</p> Rohit Bishist Deachen Wangmo Bhupender Dutt Krishan Lal Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Rohit Bishist, Deachen Wangmo, Bhupender Dutt, Krishan Lal Gautam 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 24 1 24 Prevailing traditional health care services in Western Ladakh, Indian Trans-Himalaya https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3901 <p><em>Background:</em> There has been a spurt in revival of Traditional Health Care Services (THCS) in different parts of the world due to increasing awareness about their importance and the initiatives taken by the local governments. Ladakh, located in the Indian Trans-Himalaya represents an ethno-cultural landscape with well-established history of use of traditional medicines in healing of different ailments. However, several THCS so far remained informal and have not been documented properly. The present study aimed to assess and document the status of three different THCS <em>viz</em>., <em>Amchis</em>, <em>Akhons</em> and <em>Shamans</em> in western Ladakh.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Both qualitative and quantitative data about the 36 <em>Amchis</em>, 53 <em>Akhons</em> and 21 <em>Shamans </em>was collected through questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and participatory appraisals in three valleys of western Ladakh were organized.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The <em>Amchis</em> and <em>Akhons</em> were mostly middle aged and older men while <em>Shamans</em> were mostly young women. All the three healers were generally illiterate with weak socio-economic status. <em>Amchis</em> and <em>Akhons</em> were more experienced as it was their main profession and received the knowledge hereditary. <em>Amchis</em> and <em>Shamans</em> were mostly Buddhist while <em>Akhons</em> were Muslim. These traditional healers treated 17 different ailments.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The local population of the western Ladakh reported that most of the sub-centers and primary health centers lack medical equipment, drugs, and skilled workforce. Due to deficiencies in health care services the use of indigenous healthcare practices is common. Efforts should be made to fortify THCS by collaborating with modern medicine systems to improved local health care. Of all the THCS, the <em>Amchi</em> system or <em>Sowa-rigpa</em> seems to be the most codified and might therefore be the most logical one to be integrated into the public health care system.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Traditional health care system, <em>Amchi</em>, <em>Akhon</em>,<em> Shaman</em>, Western Ladakh</p> Kunzes Angmo Lotos Gailson Bhupendra Adhikari Gopal Rawat Jahangeer Bhat Rainer W Bussmann Zubair A. Malik Copyright (c) 2022 Kunzes Angmo, Lotos Gailson, Bhupendra Adhikari, Gopal Rawat, Jahangeer Bhat, Rainer W Bussmann, Zubair A. Malik 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 24 1 12 Ethnobotanical study on traditional medicinal plants used by Oromo ethnic people of Goro district, Bale zone of Oromia region, Ethiopia https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3659 <p><em>Background</em>: An ethnobotanical study was conducted among Oromo people in Goro district, Oromia region, Ethiopia to document ethnomedicinal uses of plants.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and field walks were used to collect data on medicinal plants and demography during October 2017- September 2018 from 369 non-traditional and 24 traditional medicine practitioners. Descriptive statistics and quantitative indices viz. Independent t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), multiple regression analysis, Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Fidelity Level (FL), Preference Ranking (PR) and Direct Matrix Ranking (DMR) were performed to analyze the data.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 84 medicinal plants belonging to 45 families were documented. The family Asteraceae was represented by six species. Most of the plants were herbs (30). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (39.36%) followed by roots (19.18%). Oral route was frequently (62.26%) cited way of remedy application. Gastrointestinal and Dermatological illnesses had the highest ICF value (0.80), whereas the least ICF value was for Parasitic infections (0.47).The highest FL (100%) was recorded for <em>Aloe ruspoliana </em>and <em>Nicotiana tabacum </em>for Wound and Leech repulsion, respectively. <em>Achyranthes aspera </em>was top-ranked plant to treat stomachache. The analysis of DMR revealed <em>Cordia africana </em>as top-ranked multipurpose plant. Gender, age and educational status significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) affected the traditional medicinal knowledge. Results of multiple linear regression showed that age and educational status predicted traditional medicinal knowledge.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Our study explored the profound indigenous knowledge of the Oromo people of the study area. Their traditional knowledge on the medicinal plants must be validated with phytochemical and pharmacological studies and the knowledge needs to be preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Direct matrix ranking, Fidelity level, Goro district, Informant consensus factor, Preference ranking, Traditional medicine</p> Kedir Adem Usman Meseret C. Egigu J. Sasikumar Mahalingam Copyright (c) 2022 Kedir Adem Usman, Meseret C. Egigu, J. Sasikumar Mahalingam 2022-08-26 2022-08-26 24 1 21 Multifunctional plants used in the diet of Quilombolas in the Castainho Community (Garanhuns, Pernambuco). https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3879 <p><em>Background</em>: The rich flora of Brazilian biomes includes a potentially high amount of species capable of both nourishing and helping to prevent or treat diseases whose potential is still little explored. This study aims to provide information about the knowledge richness of multifunctional plants among quilombolas, generating information that can be used to improve the quality of life in the rural community of Castainho (Garanhuns, Pernambuco).</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured interviews were conducted, associated with guided tours to collect the cited plants. The data obtained were analyzed using the Use value index (UV) for the species and Knowledge richness index (KRI) for the informants.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 52 botany families, 117 genera, and 136 species were catalogued. Most species 47% (64) were used as medicine only, 21% (29) as food only, and 32% (43) were multifunctional plants, the latter being 12 natives to Brazil, 11 naturalized, and 20 exotic cultivated plants whose medicinal and nutritional properties were perceived by the interviewees. The inclusion of species native to Brazil, naturalized species, and exotic, but non-African species in the diet and medicinal flora of the quilombolas of Castainho attests to the cultural and environmental adaptations through which they have gone to survive and diversify their traditions.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany; African descendants; Medicinal plants; Food plants; Rural communities; Maroons.</p> Marleny Prada de la Cruz Alissandra Trajano Nunes Antônio Fernando Morais Oliveira Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti Copyright (c) 2022 Marleny Prada de la Cruz, Alissandra Trajano Nunes, Antônio Fernando Morais Oliveira, Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 24 1 12 Ethno-veterinary practice for the treatment of cattle diseases in the eastern highlands of Nigeria https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3861 <p><em>Background:</em> Cattle rearing is the main means of livelihood for the Fulani people in the highlands of Gashaka Gumti National Park in Nigeria, however the remote location and inaccessible terrain prevent access to modern veterinary care. This puts both livestock and their keepers at risk. To survive, the inhabitants of this area rely on traditional methods to heal their animals. Regrettably, the Ethno-veterinary Medicine (EVM) knowledge in this region is jeopardized by the locals changing their preferences due to rapid socio-economic, environmental and technological changes taking place all over the world. Therefore, documenting the therapeutic knowledge of the medicinal plant is imperative to prevent it from being lost.</p> <p><em>Materials and Methods:</em> We conducted repeated field surveys and data were collected from sixty community members using semi-structured questionnaires through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and rapid rural appraisal (RRA) approach. </p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of eighty-eight (88) plant species belonging to 73 genera and 37 families, were recorded for the treatment of 24 cattle diseases. The most represented families were Fabaceae (17 species), and Asteraceae (7 species). Trees were the dominant plants recorded (49 species). <em>Pterocarpus erinaceous </em>was the most widely used therapeutic plant species. Leaves (27%) were the most widely used plant parts, followed by the whole plant (22%), stem bark (14%), and others. The most frequent route of medicinal administration was oral, followed by topical application. Out of the 24 ailments recorded, Bovine tuberculosis was the most reported ailments followed by Pneumonia.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Together, these data show that the Fulani people in the study area have a vast knowledge of medicinal plants useful for effective treatment of cattle illness where traditional veterinary care is unavailable. It is pertinent to say that our study has made an important contribution towards the preservation of EVM knowledge of the study area. Therefore, subjecting the most utilized species to a phytochemical and pharmacological investigation is imperative for possible novel discovery and the production of cheap drugs.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Gashaka Gumti National Park, Chabbal Hendu, Afromontane, Fulani, Tuberculosis</p> George Isaac Nodza Temitope Onuminya Aramide Dolapo Igbari Temitayo Oluwatoyin Ogundipe Ahmad Abdulhameed Copyright (c) 2022 Isaac Nodza Nodza, Temitope Onuminya, Aramide Dolapo Igbari, Temitayo Oluwatoyin Ogundipe; Ahmad Abdulhameed 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 24 1 16 Assessment of medicinal folklores and chemical composition of Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult. in Cholistan Desert of Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4041 <p><em>Background: </em>The desert ecosystem of Cholistan is rich in xerophytic flora of medicinal importance. <em>Aerva javanica </em>is most common shrub and equally neglected as potential medicinal plant in the study area. Chemical composition as well as medicinal folklores of <em>Aerva javanica </em>in the Cholistan desert of Pakistan was explored in this study.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Data was collected through questionnaires by interviewing local inhabitants and herbal practitioners and direct observations during field surveys. A total of 320 respondents of various age groups were selected randomly for household survey and medicinal plants experts (n=14) were interviewed by using snowball method for validating medicinal uses. Whole plant including leaves, flowers and tender shoots was sampled. Nutritive and phytochemical attributes were analyzed.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The plant use inventory of this plant showed that local inhabitants used this shrub as firewood, fodder, making huts and as human and veterinary medicine like treating diarrhea (14.3%in cattle and 50% in human) and intestinal pain (35.7%),Diuretic (64.3%), kidney disease and face acne (21.4%). Plant use knowledge varies according to community status and increases with increasing age of respondents. Nitrogen (N), Protein and Ash contents (5.22%, 32.51% and 33.50% respectively) were recorded. Secondary metabolites like phenolics (188.67mg g<sup>-1</sup>), Alkaloids (8.00mg g<sup>-1</sup>)and flavonoids (0.35mg g<sup>-1</sup>)were recorded in the plant on of dry weight basis.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Results on nutritive parameters and secondary metabolite prove it to be good as forage for livestock and can be used for medicinal purposes. So, further studies should be conducted to explore its medicinal properties.</p> <p><em>Key words</em>: Bui, traditional uses, Chemical composition, ethnobotany, Cholistan desert</p> Muhammad Farooq Azhar Abida Aziz Ehsan Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Farooq Azhar, Abida Aziz, Ehsan Ali 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 24 1 10 Ethnoecology for the control of Hovenia dulcis in the deciduous seasonal forest Santa Catarina, Brazil https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3845 <p><em>Background</em>: The Deciduous Seasonal Forest (DSF) is one of the most abundant phytophysiognomies in Santa Catarina State / Brasil. However, it is severely impacted by fragmentation and introduction of invasive exotic species. In this scenario, the <em>Hovenia dulcis</em> is a species with a high degree of biological invasion, including in protected areas as the Fritz Plaumann State Park/Santa Catarina. Our objective was to understand the history of introduction of this invasive species in the park area, as well as to identify plant species with the potential to replace <em>H. dulcis</em>.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with informants residing in the Park's Buffer Zone (BZ). As base data for analysis, we use citations of use and the potential replacement species. For the complementary analysis, the consensus value or level of fidelity for the uses was estimated. To investigate the introduction history of the species in the study region, a literature search was conducted on the use of <em>H. dulces</em>.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Twenty-four informants were interviewed. The uses related to <em>H. dulcis</em> comprised thirteen citations. In the analysis of rapid ordering, firewood (23.25) was the most cited use. A total of thirty-four cited species with the potential to replace <em>H. dulcis</em> was obtained. The species' introduction history confirmed the technical indication as one of the main stimulators of the species' expansion in the region.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Results demonstrate that the species is considered, by farmers, technically suitable for cultivation in the BZ of the Park. Hence the importance of highlighting other species with a greater or equal level of biological characteristics to replace <em>H. dulcis</em>.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Invasive alien species; ethnobotany, protected areas</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Resumo</strong></p> <p><em>Antecedentes</em>: A Floresta Estacional Decidual (DSF) é uma das fitofisionomias mais abundante no Estado de Santa Catarina/Brasil. Contudo, é severamente afetada pela fragmentação e introdução de espécies exóticas invasoras. Neste cenário, a <em>Hovenia dulcis</em> é uma espécie com um alto grau de invasão biológica, inclusive em áreas protegidas como o Parque Estadual Fritz Plaumann/Santa Catarina. O nosso objetivo foi compreender a história da introdução desta espécie invasora na área do parque, bem como identificar espécies vegetais com potencial para substitui-la.</p> <p><em>Métodos</em>: Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com informantes residentes na Zona de Amortecimento do Parque (ZA). Como dados de base para as análises utilizamos citações de uso e de espécies com potencial de substituição. Para a análise complementar, foi estimado o valor consensual ou o nível de fidelidade para os usos. Para investigar o histórico de introdução da espécie na região de estudo, foi conduzida busca bibliográfica sobre o uso da <em>H. dulces</em>.</p> <p><em>Resultados</em>: Foram entrevistados vinte e quatro informantes. Os usos relacionados com <em>H. dulcis</em> compreenderam treze citações. Na análise de ordenamento rápido, a lenha (23,25) foi a utilização mais citada. Foi obtido um total de trinta e quatro espécies citadas com potencial para substituir a <em>H. dulcis</em>. A história de introdução da espécie confirmou a indicação técnica como um dos principais estimuladores da expansão da espécie na região.</p> <p><em>Conclusões</em>: Os resultados demonstram que a espécie é considerada, pelo agricultores, tecnicamente adequada para o cultivo na ZA do Parque. Daí a importância de destacar outras espécies com maior ou igual nível de características biológicas desejáveis para substituir <em>H. dulcis</em>.</p> <p><em>Palavras chave</em>: Espécies exóticas invasoras; etnobotânica, áreas protegidas</p> Karine Petter da Silva Carolina Novicki Karine Louise dos Santos Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela Copyright (c) 2022 Karine Petter da Silva, Carolina Novicki, Karine Louise dos Santos, Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 24 1 14 Ethnopharmacological preparations used for digestive system disorders in Talassemtane National Park (North of Morocco) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3839 <p><em>Background:</em> The present ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological study of plants used to treat ailments of the digestive system was carried out in the north of Morocco. The study aims to collect data on the plants used, their vernacular names, the parts used, and their modes of preparation and administration.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Surveys and interviews were carried between 2014 and 2017 in Talassemtane National Park, North of Morocco. Data were collected through open semi structured interviews with the informants. A sample of 200 people aged from 20 to 60 years, including 24 herbalists and 28 traditional healers were included.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> We identified 96 taxa belonging to 33 botanical families. With a total of 3270 use reports, we have identified 20 medicinal uses to treat 174 conditions or symptoms classified in digestive diseases according to the international classification of primary care (ICPC-2). The main families used in this pathological group are: Lamiaceae (24 species), Asteraceae (13 species), Apiaceae (11 species), Fabaceae (8 species). Most remedies are prepared as a decoction (48%), the most used parts of the plant are: leaves (29%), fruits (16%), seeds (11%) and the most common mode of administration is oral (84%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat acute digestive system problems was common. All the local population used medicinal plants as a first choice to deal with the illness. This study represents a useful inventory to preserve and spread this knowledge.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotanical survey; Digestive system problems; Medicinal plants; Talassemtane National Park.</p> Fatima Zahrae Redouan Cheikh Yebouk Alessandro Crisafulli Rosa Maria Picone Abderrahmane Merzouki Copyright (c) 2022 Fatima Zahrae Redouan, Cheikh Yebouk, Alessandro Crisafulli, Rosa Maria Picone, Abderrahmane Merzouki 2022-08-15 2022-08-15 24 1 25 Ethnopharmacological analysis of medicinal plants in Jech Doab, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4021 <p><em>Background</em>: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the aboriginal knowledge regarding use of medicinally important plant species from Tehsil Malakwal, District Mandi Bahauddin, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methodology</em>: A total of 120 inhabitants (75women and 45 men) were interviewed for by using semi structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed qualitatively as well as by using quantitative indices of Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Jaccard Index (JI).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 60 medicinally important plant species belonging to 35 families were reported from study area. Plant diversity showed that Fabaceae (20%) was dominating family. Herb (55%) was leading life form of plants and leaves (31.03%) showed maximum usage for medicinal purpose. Decoction (20.92%) was most common mode of utilization. RFC and UV ranged from 0.16-0.90 and 0.02 to 1, respectively. 9 plant species showed 100% fidelity level. The highest ICF value was recorded for gastrointestinal disorders (0.96). The value of Jaccard Index ranged from 0.54 to 28.24%. Some of medicinal plants showed new medicinal uses not reported in previous studies.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Study concludes that local inhabitants still prefer medicinal plants over allopathic medicine for treating various ailments. But this precious knowledge is restricted to old age people. So, awareness is necessary to conserve this knowledge.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnomedicine, Malakwal, Mandi Bahauddin, Indigenous people, Medicinal plants</p> Tayyaba Munawar Yamin Bibi Rahmatullah Qureshi Farooq Ahamad Sibtain Hussain Abdul Qayyum Copyright (c) 2022 Tayyaba Munawar, Yamin Bibi, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Farooq Ahamad, Sibtain Hussain, Abdul Qayyum 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 24 1 22 Tuberous plants with active compounds against helminths in livestock: A systematic review https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3759 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The rise in drug-resistant to helminths has posed a challenge on conventional techniques of controlling parasitic illnesses in livestock. Using less conventional approaches such as plant extracts on the other hand, is encouraged. This research explored tuberous plants used in developing anthelmintics and identified active compounds associated with the plants.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> From October 2020 to February 2021, a comprehensive literature search was conducted using search engines such as Google Scholar, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository, NCBI, Taylor and Francis Online, Wiley Online Libraries, Science Direct, ResearchGate, and Springer Link. This evaluation included only ethnobotanical papers that showed tuberous plants with anthelmintic properties.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;Forty-eight ethnobotanical investigations recorded plants with tuber portions that were utilized to combat helminths. There were 43 plants identified, divided into 24 families. seven plants were found to be the most culturally important plants in the management of helminths; these were <em>Dioscorea deltoidea, Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata</em>, <em>Gloriosa superba, Curcuma longa, Dioscorea pentaphylla, </em>and <em>Cyperus rotundus. </em><em>The common phytochemical classes were phytosterols, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, essential oils, flavonoids, and terpenoids.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: <em>Dioscorea deltoidea, Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata,</em><em> Gloriosa superba,</em> <em>Curcuma longa, Dioscorea pentaphylla, </em>and <em>Cyperus rotundus</em> were shown to be the most culturally important plants for helminth control. These plants are mostly found in India and Nepal. There is need to investigate other tuberous plants to identify unique compounds that are active against helminths to develop more robust anthelminthic drugs and reduce anthelmintic resistance levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anthelmintic, ethnobotanical, tubers, active compound, anthelmintic resistance, livestock</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mellisa Mpofu Grace Mugumbate Calvin Gomo Arnold Bray Mashingaidze Zedius Chikwambi Chrispen Murungweni Copyright (c) 2022 Mellisa Mpofu, Grace Mugumbate, Calvin Gomo, Arnold Bray Mashingaidze, Zedius Chikwambi, Chrispen Murungweni 2022-08-26 2022-08-26 24 1 36 Local ecological knowledge dynamics of farmers in areas which have been chronically disturbed by human actions in the Brazilian Caatinga https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3753 <p><em>Background</em>: The diversity of plants indicated for the same use, plays important strategies which can affect the resilience of local ecological knowledge. In this context, we investigated the variation of local ecological knowledge through the richness of cited species, redundancy on an individual level and utilitarian redundancy (fuel, construction and technology) by local populations inserted in a dry forest with different environmental characteristics in northeastern Brazil.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 120 local experts and described metrics which indicate the intensity of chronic human disturbance, defined as ongoing activities to remove natural resources, as well as the average annual rainfall in forests close to populations.</p> <p><em>Results</em><em>:</em> We verified that there are differences between the number of species mentioned and the utilitarian redundancy between the studied areas. The richness of known species is suggested to influence redundancy on an individual level. Furthermore, we observed that information sharing about the plants among local experts is different, as some species were shared more than others.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Our results suggest that people living in areas of greater chronic anthropic impact and less rainfall may be subject to a lower resilience of local knowledge.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Caatinga; ethnobotany; redundancy; chronic anthropic disorders.</p> Kamila Marques Maiara Bezerra Ramos Sonaly Silva da Cunha Maria Gracielle Rodrigues Maciel Stefanny Martins de Souza María de los Ángeles La Torre-Cuadros Sérgio de Faria Lopes Copyright (c) 2022 Kamila Marques, Maiara Bezerra Ramos, Sonaly Silva da Cunha, Maria Gracielle Rodrigues Maciel, Stefanny Martins de Souza, María de los Ángeles La Torre-Cuadros, Sérgio de Faria Lopes 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 24 1 21 Documentation of ethnoveterinary knowledge: Harnessing potential phytotherapy in high mountainous areas of Paddar, District Kishtwar (India) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3941 <p><em>Background: </em>Most people and livestock producers in rural India continue to rely on traditional medicine for health-care practices. The aim of the present study was to document important plant species employed by the people of Paddar to treat livestock ailments.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Reconnaissance surveys were conducted in Paddar from April 2020 to September 2021. A total of 65 informants (37 men and 28 women) were interviewed during the period. Ethnoveterinary data was collected employing semi-structured interviews and participatory observations. The data were analyzed using frequency of citation (FC) and Informant consensus factor (FIC).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>In total, 43 plant species were used to treat 11 livestock diseases. Herbs were the leading growth forms and leaves were the most used parts used for the treatment purposes. Powder form was the main herbal preparation, and the oral route was the main administration mode. <em>Aucklandia costus, Skimmia laureola</em>, <em>Picrorhiza</em> <em>kurroa</em>, <em>Rumex nepalensis</em>, and <em>Betula utilis</em> were the frequently cited plant species. The FIC value for disease categories ranged from 0.93 to 1. Fourteen plant species were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The present study is conducted for the first time in the region. Novel uses were reported for <em>Achillea millefolium</em>, <em>Berberis lycium</em>, <em>Ototropis elegans, Desmostachya bipinnata</em>, <em>Lablab purpureus, Rheum webbianum, </em>and <em>Aucklandia costus. </em>These species should be the focus of phytochemical and pharmacological investigation, which might lead to the creation of more effective veterinary drugs.</p> <p><em>Key words: </em>Livestock disease, Traditional knowledge, Plant resources, Paddar, Jammu and Kashmir</p> Kanwaljeet Singh Bushan Kumar Pankaj Kumar Javaid Fayaz Lone Yash Pal Sharma Sumeet Gairola Copyright (c) 2022 Kanwaljeet Singh, Sumeet Gairola, Bushan Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Javaid Fayaz Lone, Yash Pal Sharma 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 24 1 22 A review of current trends and future directions in the medical ethnobotany of Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Pakistan) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3869 <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnobotanical studies play an important role in understanding the plant diversity, bio-cultural variability, utilization of plant-based resources, drug discovery and conservation efforts. The current paper reviews and assesses the ethnobotanical literature and documented medicinal plants of the region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Northern Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Relevant literature was searched using electronic scholarly databases Google Scholar, Google, Scopus, Sciences Direct, PubMed, Medline and Web of Science internet websites were extensively browsed using different 24 terms as key words. A total of twenty-four (24) academic journal articles published from 2002 – 2020 were reviewed.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Geographically, 54% articles were from Karakorum Range, 75% form Gilgit sub region and 25% Gilgit district. Ethnic-wise 58% of the studies were conducted on Shinas, 25% on Baltis and 12.5% on Brushiski while Wakhi and Khwar were least explored. For data collection interview methods were solely used. A total of 413 plant species were used for 3160 remedies in 224 genera and 79 families from both wild (83%) and cultivated sources (16%). Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae were the most used plant families with 58, 36 and 32 species respectively. <em>Artemisia</em> was the leading genus with 11 species followed by <em>Prunus </em>(9 species). <em>Salix</em>, <em>Saussurea</em>, <em>Potentilla</em>, <em>Astragalus</em> and <em>Allium</em> contributed seven (7) species each. Regarding habit herbaceous species were most commonly used (310 species, 75%) and shrubs and trees showed comparatively less contribution with 53 (12%) and 49 (11%) species. Article quotation of the recorded species indicated that, <em>Hippophae rhamnoides</em> and <em>Thymus linearis</em> were the most important medicinal species with highest AQ values (number of reports)17 i.e. reported by 70% of the articles. These recorded species were used to treat 353 disease types for different human body systems.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The region of GB is still poorly investigated ethnobotanically, and limited literature found on this subject. However, the diverse medicinal flora of Gilgit-Baltistan validated the regional potential of phytomedicines despite scarce research efforts. GB territory possesses three national parks and current study may be fruitful to develop strategies for regional biodiversity conservation and natural resource management.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Indigenous knowledge, medicinal plants, mountain ecosystem, natural resources</p> Zaheer Abbas Rainer W Bussmann Shujaul Mulk Khan Arshad Mehmood Abbasi Copyright (c) 2022 Zaheer Abbas, Rainer W Bussmann, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Arshad Mehmood Abbasi 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 24 1 16 Plant-based veterinary practices in Jammu and Kashmir: A review of the trends, transfer and conservation of traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3831 <p><em>Background:</em> Traditional veterinary phytotherapy refers to the use of plants for promoting health and curing diseases of livestock. Animal rearing is the major occupation of the tribal communities in Jammu and Kashmir and is thus an important part of their economy. Due to the inaccessibility of modern facilities and allopathic drugs, these communities mainly rely on the local flora to cure common ailments prevalent in livestock, developing a rich knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices. These practices are still prevalent despite the advent of modern allopathic drugs as they are easily accessible, effective, and economic. To date, a plethora of studies have been carried out on ethnoveterinary plants in different regions of India, however few of these are available in Jammu and Kashmir itself. The aim of this review was to collate and analyze the traditional phyto<strong>-</strong>remedies against livestock ailments in Jammu and Kashmir.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An extensive review of the published literature was carried out using various online databases like Academia, Google Scholar, PubMed, Researchgate, Sci-Finder, Scopus, Science direct, and other allied published literature.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 18 research articles from the year 1989-2021 were selected which were exclusively related to the ethnoveterinary importance of plants. It was found that Jammu province was explored more as compared to Kashmir, as 10 studies were exclusively done from Jammu province and major attention was given to the ailments of cattle, sheep, and goats.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The present review indicates that the medicinal plants reported need detailed biochemical assays to ascertain their therapeutical profiles that can contribute to the discovery of novel compounds to the existing drug pool. The integration of the reported plants into the biodiversity registers and promotion of this traditional heritage by the concerned government institutions and stakeholders involved in conservation is the utmost need of the hour which will ultimately result in the conservation of both the traditional knowledge and biodiversity.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnoveterinary, Jammu and Kashmir, tribal, livestock, phyto<strong>-</strong>remedies</p> <p> </p> Abhishek Dutta Yash Pal Sharma Bikarma Singh Bikarma Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Yash Pal Sharma, Abhishek Dutta, Bikarma Singh Bikarma, Rainer W. Bussmann 2022-08-20 2022-08-20 24 1 24 Folk therapeutic uses of ethnomedicinal plants to cure gynaecological disorders in tribal communities of West Bengal, India- A Meta-Analysis https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3743 <p><em>Background</em>. The present paper is an ethnopharmacological review of plants used to treat gynecological ailments by the indigenous communities of West Bengal. The review abridged the data collected on the plants used to treat gynecological ailments, the plant parts used, and their modes of preparation and administration documented by reviewing the past studies from West Bengal, India. </p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods</em>. Systematic review of published literature was done to catalogue, collate and synthesize all available documented evidence on the topic through standardized methods of systematic review protocol. We have reviewed different scientific literature published from 2003 to 2021 related to ethnomedicinal plants used for treating gynecological ailments by the indigenous communities of West Bengal state in India. Only those references where field-based surveys reporting first-hand information on ethno-medicinal plants used to treat human ailments were reviewed. In total we retrieved 50 research papers on ethnomedicinal plants of West Bengal and finally after screening 26 research papers were selected which had references of gynecological disorders/problems for analysis.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Result</em>. A total of 114 plant species represented by 63 families and 107 genera were found documented for their traditional therapeutic uses against gynecological ailments by the indigenous communities in the state. Among all the plant parts, roots were the most frequently utilized plant part and herbal remedies for the gynecological ailments were prepared as paste, extract or as solution.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Conclusion. </em>Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat gynecological ailments in West Bengal is not very common. However, the review is a useful inventory highlighting the medicinal plants particularly for gynecological ailments which can be used as reference for future documentation and research on formulation of new drugs.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>. Gynecological problems; Ethnomedicinal plants; Traditional knowledge; West Bengal</p> Vineeta Gopal Shukla Jahangeer Ahmad Bhat Sumit Chakravarty Copyright (c) 2022 Vineeta, Gopal Shukla, Jahangeer Ahmad Bhat, Sumit Chakravarty, Sumit Chakravarty 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 24 1 19 Traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activity of Maytenus laevis Reissek https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4189 <p><em>Background</em>: Species of the genus <em>Maytenus</em> are recognized for their uses in pain and cancer-related conditions. The purpose of the literature review was to compile scientific information on the traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of <em>Maytenus laevis</em> Reissek.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The scientific name <em>Maytenus laevis</em> and its synonyms, in combination with "traditional uses" OR ethnobotany OR "chemical constituents" OR "chemical composition" OR phytochemistry OR "biological activities" OR "pharmacological activities" OR pharmacology, were searched in the main databases. Seventy papers were selected according to research type and relevance.</p> <p><em>Results</em>:<em> M. laevis</em> is known by the common name ''chuchuhuasi'' and is traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism and cancer, although it is also used as a sexual enhancer. Its chemical constituents are pyridine-derived alkaloids, triterpenes, sterols, iridoids and phenolic compounds, and are of great pharmacological interest, but only anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiparasitic and anticancer activities have been proven in preclinical studies. In addition, different studies point to its growth in Peru, due to it being confused with other species of the genus <em>Maytenus</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Reports on its chemical composition indicate the therapeutic potential of this species. However, there is little information on its pharmacological effects at the preclinical and clinical levels. Therefore, further research could verify its correct distribution and scientific validation of its traditional uses. In addition, specific chemical markers could be used to differentiate it from other species.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: <em>Maytenus laevis</em>, <em>Maytenus javensis</em>, <em>Monteverdia laevis</em>, traditional use, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities.</p> Manuel Eduardo Ascate-Pasos Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza Frank Romel León-Vargas Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Manuel Eduardo Ascate-Pasos, Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui, Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza, Frank Romel León-Vargas, Rainer W. Bussmann 2022-10-23 2022-10-23 24 1 19 A review of the traditional uses, phytochemical compounds, and pharmacological activities of Vallesia glabra (Cav.) Link (Apocynaceae) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4175 <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Vallesia glabra </em>(Cav.) Link (Apocynaceae) is traditionally used in dermatological infections and as a desinflammatory. This review aims to collect information on its traditional uses, phytochemical compounds, and pharmacological activities.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The scientific literature was searched in the databases Scopus, Web of Science, Alicia Repository, ScienceDirect and PubMed Central; 38 documents were selected (26 original articles, 2 review articles, 4 books and 2 theses) from 1939 to 2022.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: <em>V. glabra</em> is traditionally used for pain relief, in infections and inflammations, and as an antifungal. Seventeen indole alkaloids of <em>V. glabra</em> have been identified, several of these alkaloids present important pharmacological activities as antimalarial and bactericidal agents demonstrated in <em>in vitro</em> assays.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The traditional use of <em>V. glabra</em> in infections has been pharmacologically demonstrated in <em>in vitro</em> assays, being the terpenoid indole alkaloids, which confer the activity.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Traditional uses, phytochemical compounds, pharmacological activities, <em>Vallesia glabra</em>.</p> José G. Gavidia-Valencia Alejandrina María Llaure-Mora Edmundo Arturo Venegas-Casanova Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza Felipe Ruben Rubio-López Maritza Rodrigo-Villanueva Rainer W. Bussmann Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui Copyright (c) 2022 José G. Gavidia-Valencia, Alejandrina María Llaure-Mora, Edmundo Arturo Venegas-Casanova, Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza, Felipe Ruben Rubio-López, Maritza Rodrigo-Villanueva, Rainer W. Bussmann, Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui 2022-10-24 2022-10-24 24 1 15 Ethnomedicinal and traditional application of Allium wallichii Kunth (Himalayan Onion): An unexplored and underutilized nutraceutical plant foods from Himalayan regions. https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4031 <p><em>Background: Allium wallichii</em> Kunth (Family: Amaryllidaceae), commonly known as “Himalayan onion” is well recorded as popular ethnomedicine for medicinal and nutritional uses by different people and communities native to Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Southwestern China.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods:</em> Despite the wide ethnomedicinal and pharmacological studies on <em>A. wallichii</em>, there are no concise elaborated article comprising reviews of published literature. So, herein we designed this review article to discuss the potential health benefit in both traditional ethnopharmacology and modern pharmacology. To achieve this exhaustive literature searches using <em>A. wallichii</em> as keywords for screening of relevant information online databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO, Scopus and SpringerLink were performed.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Only few published studies relevant to our objective was found and presented under different section of the current work. It was observed that different parts of <em>A. wallichii</em> was recorded in different regions of the Asia for health, economical and nutraceutical benefits such as dysentery, cholera, cold, cough, blood cholesterol levels, itching, to remove maggots from wounds, leech remover, antidote, cut, wounds (finger and toe infections), gastric problems, bile complaints, moth repellent, bodyache, sinusitis, carminative, dizziness, mumps, hypertension, intestinal pain, liver diseases, indigestion for children, high altitude sickness, condiment for curries, pickles, soup and vegetable source for cash income. Major bioactive phytochemicals such as 1,2 bis (methylthio) ethene, diosgenin, 2,4 dimethyl thiophene, tigogenin, dimethyl disulfide and trisulfide were reported. However, in modern pharmacology anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer activities was established.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>It was concluded that <em>A. wallichii</em> need special attention for protected cultivation and conservation in near future for maximum output and utilization are required. Moreover, <em>A. wallichii</em> could be considered as an excellent source of safe and effective medicinal and nutritional herbal remedies for human and animal consumption after only careful investigation.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <em>Allium wallichii</em>, Himalayan onion, Nutraceuticals, Anti-cancer</p> Vijay Singh Rana Neeraj Sethiya Manisha Duseja Rupa Gupta Dheeraj Bisht Avinash Gangal Copyright (c) 2022 Vijay Singh Rana, Neeraj Sethiya, Manisha Duseja, Rupa Gupta, Dheeraj Bisht, Avinash Gangal 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 24 1 16 Digital Ethnobiology: exploring the digisphere in search of traditional and indigenous knowledge and practices https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4067 <p>During the last decades, under influence of globalization, the scope of ethnobiological research has expanded. Rapidly developing technology, telecommunication, the internet, and social media promote the occurrence and maintenance of ties within and between communities through multifaceted ways of digital communication. This often gives rise to digital or virtual communities in which knowledge, perspectives and ideas are shared. We want to highlight the significance of these virtual digital social ties and the associated exchange of ethnobiological knowledge among and between ethnic groups, which can lead or has led to an extension of the ethnobiological field of study to a digital or virtual environment. We propose the new term "digital ethnobiology" as "the scientific study of dynamic relationships between peoples, biota, and environments in a virtual or digital environment". We support our term with four case studies from the field of urban ethnobotany, sociology, and agribusiness development. We discuss opportunities, concerns, challenges, future perspectives, and raise some relevant questions on good research practices.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><em>:</em> digital ethnobiology; digital networks; migrant groups; urban ethnobotany</p> Emiel De Meyer Melissa Ceuterick Copyright (c) 2022 Emiel De Meyer, Melissa Ceuterick 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 24 1 8 What is the métier of ethnobiology or why should this science be busy? https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4027 <div><span lang="EN">Ethnobiologists have been guiding their research from different approaches and disciplinary lenses. There are those who defend a scientifically-oriented ethnobiology while others believe in an engaged ethnobiology (or an ethnobiology of action) aimed at learning from ancestral wisdom and, simultaneously, supporting the holders of this wisdom in different demands. But what then would be the job of ethnobiologists? From a narrative, briefly centered on our academic trajectory, I argue how ethnobiology can constitute an epistemological umbrella under which there would be space for epistemic and theoretical diversities.</span></div> Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Copyright (c) 2022 Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 24 1 7 How to become an ethnobiologist: against the cultural monopoly https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3983 <p>In this note, I construct a narrative that defends the interdisciplinary aspect of ethnobiology based on my experience as ethnobiologist. While I point out the criticisms that the discipline receives, I undertake an exercise of self-criticism, defending that the divergences that exist in the discipline can be overcome with a real understanding of its nature.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Brazilian anthropology, ethnobiology, ethnoscience.</p> Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Copyright (c) 2022 Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque 2022-08-20 2022-08-20 24 1 8 Quantitative ethnobotanical appraisal of medicinal plants used by indigenous communities of District Malakand, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3707 <p><em>Background: </em>Medicinal plants are the only possible solution to facilitate and treat different complications of human beings. The local residents of District Malakand are dependent on medicinal plants for their primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to document medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge of District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The area was frequently visited from March to August in 2018-2019, during the peak flowering season for the collection of specimens and semi-structured interviews on the uses of medicinal plants. A total of 150 participants selected randomly and the demographic information (age, gender) and status of conservation was aggregated using a semi-structured questionnaire collected from each site. Informants were interviewed in their local language (Pashto).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 62 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families were recorded. A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species were used for gastro-intestinal disorders. Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) ranged from 0.48 to 0.3. The highest RFC value was registered for <em>Jasminum officinale</em> 0.48<em>. </em>Similarly, the UV (Use Value) range from 0.92 to 0.35, with highest values for <em>Citrus medica</em> (0.92), <em>Lagenaria siceraria</em> (0.55), and <em>Lycopersicum esculentum </em>(0.5). Older participants from 55-70 years of age showed higher knowledge about plants, followed by the age group 45–55.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em><em>: </em>In the present study, some plants were of key importance i.e.,<em> Citrus medica, </em><em>Lagenaria siceraria, Lycopersicum esculentum, </em><em>Lactuca sativa </em>and<em> Brassica rapa. </em>This documentation of medicinal plants and their uses shows the rich tradition in ethno-medicinal knowledge of the District Malakand, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Indigenous community, Quantitative ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Malakand, Pakistan</p> Nazil Hussan Ara Begum Muhammad Hamayun Asif Khan Tabassum Yaseem Rainer W Bussmann Waheed Murad Copyright (c) 2022 Nazil, Hussan Ara Begum, Muhammad Hamayun, Asif Khan, Tabassum Yaseem, Rainer W Bussmann, Waheed Murad 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 24 1 14 Traditional knowledge and diversity of medicinal plants in Hindukush range, Tehsil Mastuj, Chitral, Pakistan: An ethnobotany survey https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4089 <p><em>Background</em>: The aim of the current study was to elaborate the indigenous knowledge about the use of medicinal plants in the Hindukush range, Tehsil Mastuj, Chitral, Pakistan. The study's goal was to use quantitative ethnobotanical indices to chronicle indigenous knowledge about the treatment of various disorders, as well as to locate and describe traditional applications of medicinal plants in the area to highlight key medicinal plant species by comparing the results to previously published ethnobotanical and pharmacological data. The medicinal flora is on the verge of extinction due to overgrazing and injudicious use.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We conducted interviews with residents of Mastuj. Semi-structured protocols with a free list of plants were used to collect information, as well as botanical collection and identification of mentioned plants. Use Value (UV) and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR) were used to analyze ethnobotanical data<em>. </em></p> <p> </p> <p><em>Results:</em> 44 plants belonging to 25 families were identified. Of them 1 family was gymnosperm, and 24 families were angiosperms. There were 36 wild plants, 4 wild and cultivated, 3 cultivated plants. The information collected from the study area revealed that 38 plants were used for the treatment of various ailments and diseases i.e., for cough, backache, skin diseases, dysentery, eczema, diarrhea, purgative, typhoid, rheumatism, narcosis, dyspepsia, malaria, tuberculosis, bronchitis, leprosy, jaundice, vomiting, wheals, lumbago, oedema, and as vermifuge and anthelmintic.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Local communities have kept their traditional ways of life, relying on wild and cultivated plants for food, fuel, fodder, building materials, and crude drugs. Elders and health practitioners in the study area are knowledgeable about indigenous <em>et al. </em>medicinal plants, whereas young people are less interested in herbal treatments. As a result, traditional knowledge ethnomedicine is on the verge of extinction. <em>In situ</em> and <em>ex situ</em> conservation measures should be implemented to ensure the preservation and long-term use of such medicinal plant species, particularly those with economic and pharmaceutical importance. Residents should be properly trained and guided in the collection, drying, storage, and preservation of medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotanical indices, Extinction, Hindukush range, Indigenous knowledge, Medicinal plants.</p> Ghulam Dastagir Sayed Attaullah Jan Noor Ul Uza Imran Ahmad Samiullah Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Ghulam Dastagir, Sayed Attaullah Jan Sayed, Noor Ul Uza Noor, Imran Ahmad Malik, Samiullah, Rainer W. Bussmann 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 24 1 19