Ethnobotany Research and Applications <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>ERA is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> Saving Knowledge, Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia en-US Ethnobotany Research and Applications 1547-3465 <p>All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.</p> Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of dog bites by herbalists in Eastern, Western, and Central Uganda <p><em>Background:</em> Dog bites arise due to man’s casual and tactical association with dogs, and it is a global health challenge. Rural and semi-urban communities are the most affected since accessing conventional post-exposure prophylaxis is nearly a myth. As an alternative, readily available and affordable medicinal plants are used. Indigenous knowledge about such plants is limited to specialized herbalists, and with the continuous modernization of African societies, loss of such knowledge is anticipated if not documented. Therefore, the medicinal plants used to manage dog bites in Eastern, Western, and Central Uganda were documented. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Snowball sampling was used to identify the specialized herbalists. An interview guide was used to collect ethnobotanical data from June 2021 to December 2022. The information collected included; names of plants used, plant parts, methods of preparation, and mode of administration. Descriptive data was analyzed using the relative frequency of citation (RFC) index and informant consensus factor (F<sub>IC</sub>).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 31 medicinal plants, belonging to 20 families and 30 genera were documented, with the majority from family Solanaceae. The most commonly used plants were: <em>Baccharoides lasiopus </em>(O.Hoffm.) H.Rob., <em>Gymnanthemum thomsonianum </em>(Oliv. &amp; Hiern ex Oliv.) H.Rob., <em>Rhoicissus tridentata </em>(L.f.) Wild &amp; R.B.Drumm, <em>Phytolacca dodecandra </em>L'Hér<em>.,</em> and <em>Nicotiana tabacum </em>L<em>. </em>Leaves were the most used plant parts. The main mode of preparation was infusion. Oral and topical were the major modes of administration. Herbs obtained from the wild were the most used and the conservation strategy was planting around home compounds and in gardens. RFC was ≤ 0.27, and F<sub>IC</sub> was ≤ 0.19.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Specialized herbalists possess vast indigenous knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plants to manage dog bites in Uganda. However, there is a need for scientific justification of the traditional therapeutic claim, in a bid to find novel bioactive compounds which can act as drug leads for the development of drugs for the treatment of dog bite-related infections.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Dog bites, Medicinal plants, Traditional management, Uganda</p> Paul Mukasa Patrick Ogwang Richard Oriko Julius Lejju Eunice Olet Hannington Gumisiriza Christopher Adaku Copyright (c) 2023 Paul Mukasa, Patrick Engeu Ogwang, Richard Oriko Owor, Julius B Lejju, Eunice Apio Olet, Hannington Gumisiriza, Christopher Adaku 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 26 1 15 Medicinal ethnobotanical knowledge across urban cultural groups: A case study in a South African township <p><em>Background</em>: The use of medicinal plants for primary health care is still prevalent in southern Africa, but the decline in indigenous traditional knowledge is cause for concern as this could lead to a loss of valuable indigenous cultural knowledge. Many ethnobotanical studies have been conducted amongst rural communities, however limited information is available on the indigenous cultural knowledge amongst mixed tribal urban communities</p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods</em>: This study was conducted in the diverse urban township of Tembisa, located in the eastern parts of Gauteng Province in South Africa. Through the use of structured questionnaires (n=2724), the Zulu, Tsonga, and Pedi ethnic groups' knowledge of 17 regularly used medicinal herbs was assessed.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results</em>: Our findings indicated that indigenous traditional knowledge is still prevalent in this urban setting, although the extent of this knowledge was significantly influenced by cultural group, participant age, residency period and age of migration into this urban environment. Two plant species <em>Artemisia afra</em> and <em>Helichrysum odoratissimum</em>, were particularly well known amongst all cultural groups, but knowledge on other plants varied. Generally, the younger generation had less knowledge than the elders with the exception for the Tsonga people.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Conclusion</em>: Although it was refreshing to find that cultural knowledge about medicinal plants still exists in an urban environment, the perceived lack of knowledge among the younger generation can be viewed as a risk to the continued existence of this knowledge, especiaaly if the opportunities to relay this knowledge becomes less, as influenced by modern urban living.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Keywords:</em> ethnobotany<strong>, </strong>medicinal plants, cultural knowledge, urban environment</p> Kara - Lee Prinsloo Riana Kleynhans Ray Jansen Copyright (c) 2023 Kara - Lee Prinsloo, Riana Kleynhans, Ray Jansen 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 26 1 10 Comparative ethnobotanical study in the North-East region of Morocco (Al Hoceima, Nador, and Jerada). Local ethnobotanical knowledge of Amazigh and Arabized provinces <p><em>Background:</em> This study aims to compare the information recorded in the three provinces of Jerada, Nador, and Al Hoceima in the Northeastern part of Morocco, in order to evaluate variability of medicinal plant knowledge in these provinces.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> All the data were gathered through conducting open-ended semi-structured interviews with randomly selected individuals between 2017 and 2019. The study targeted people belonging to a specific ethnic category: The Berber tribes Aït Waryaghel in the province of Al Hoceima, the tribes Guelaya in the province of Nador, and the Arabs in the province of Jerada.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Information on 241 taxa were collected through ethnobotanical surveys conducted with a total of 1,177 persons across the three targeted provinces. In Jerada, 200 taxa were documented based on responses from 380 participants, of which 52% were women. In Al Hoceima, 179 taxa were identified through interactions with 410 persons, with 68% being men, while in Nador 131 taxa were recorded from interviews with 387 interviewees, with 53% being women. The analysis of the results revealed a total of 790 medicinal uses recorded across the provinces: 232 in the province of Al Hoceima, 172 in the province of Nador, and 386 therapeutic uses in the province of Jerada. Additionally, 474 other uses were recorded, with 166 in the province of Al Hoceima, 120 in the province of Nador, and 188 in the province of Jerada.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Ethnicity indeed has an important role in the common knowledge of the population; it is even one of the imposing factors that forge it, making the comparison between different regions necessary in order to promote an adequate strategy to preserve biodiversity in a given region.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotanical knowledge, Ethnicity, Medicinal plants, North-East Morocco.</p> Halima Smaili Fatima-Zahra Mir Abderrahmane Merzouki Copyright (c) 2023 Halima Smaili, Fatima-Zahra Mir, Abderrahmane Merzouki 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 26 1 79 Quantitative ethnobotany and vulnerability of woody plant species in Nyé’été forest, South Region of Cameroon <p><em>Background</em>: Despite the importance of the wild plants, the degradation of ecosystems and plant populations increase noticeably due to climate change and anthropogenic pressure. Wrong methods of harvesting do not optimize foliar and fruit productions of the trees and even can kill them. This study focused on local usefulness and the vulnerability of wild woody plant species in Nyé’été forest in South-Cameroon.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The methods of ethnobotanical inventories so called “walk-in-the-woods method” and "show and tell method" were applied to collect data. Main collected information concerned local names of useful plants, the harvested parts of the plants, the methods of harvesting and the different categories of use.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In total, 75 useful species divided into 66 genera and 31 families were reported. The richest families were Fabaceae (9 species in 9 genera), Apocynaceae (6 species in 6 genera), Annonaceae (6 species in 5 genera), Malvaceae (5 species in 3 genera) and Meliaceae (5 species in 4 genera). Seven main categories of use were recognized. Traditional medicine was the most important category (76% of inventoried species and VUT = 1329.96). Wood, bark, leaves and fruits were the most useful parts of plants because the response rate of each organ was Fki &gt; 50 %. About 31 species were very vulnerable and 20 species were moderately vulnerable (Iv ≥ 2.5 and Iv 2 ≤ Iv &lt; 2.5). According to IUCN status, 27 species were threatened of which <em>Erythrophleum suaveolens</em> was endangered species (EN).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Obtained results would contribute effectively to appreciate the potentiality of useful plants of Cameroonian forests and the anthropogenic pressures to the plant resources in order to conserve them.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotanical inventories, ethnobotanical potentialities, anthropogenic pressure, vulnerability, Cameroon</p> Gilbert Todou Komo Mbarga Yves Tchobsala Ibrahima Adamou Copyright (c) 2023 Gilbert Todou, Komo Mbarga Yves, Tchobsala, Ibrahima Adamou 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 26 1 14 Comparative ethnobotanical survey of Pimpinella anisum, Coriandrum sativum, Carum carvi in three zones of Morocco: Therapeutic uses, sources of knowledge, and efficacy against diseases and food purposes <p><em>Background</em>: This study aimed to compile data on the variation of medicinal uses of three medicinal plants (<em>Pimpinella anisum </em>L.<em>, Coriandrum sativum </em>L.<em>, </em>and <em>Carum carvi </em>L.) among local populations in three Moroccan regions.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Interviews were conducted in seven sites belonging to three regions of Morocco from 2019 to 2020. To analyze recorded data, graphic, descriptive indicators, and multivariate tests were employed. We investigated the responses of participants about therapeutic uses and the factors influencing their responses.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In the research zone, interviews were conducted with 600 persons ranging in age from 20 to 60 years who use <em>Pimpinella anisum </em>L.<em>, Coriandrum sativum </em>L.<em>, </em>and<em> Carum carvi </em>L. for therapeutic purposes. The selected plants were used by participants for food purposes (milk flow), cosmetic interests, and therapeutic roles counting digestive disorders, intestinal spasms, laxatives, dysmenorrhea, bloating, intestinal cramps, and antitussive effects. The majority of people only utilize the plants in their dried form, while tisane, powder, and infusion were the most popular usage forms across all analysed sites. The surveyed sites varied in terms of all studied factors, though.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: This study could be very helpful in preserving ancestors' knowledge and advancing our understanding of the medicinal plants of Morocco, including the Middle Atlas and the Saiss plain.</p> Meriem Soussi Wissal El Yaagoubi Wafae Squalli Meryem benjelloun Lahsen El Ghadraoui Copyright (c) 2023 Meriem Soussi, Wissal El Yaagoubi, Wafae Squalli, Meryem benjelloun, Lahsen El Ghadraoui 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 26 1 .18 Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the population of Ain Chkef (North central Morocco) <p><em>Background</em><em>: </em>Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) use in the folk medicine is widely spread in Morocco. This work aims to study their use in Ain Chkef; a rural area in North central Morocco. It also documents multiples data concerning the ethno-medico-botanical traits of the most cited species.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>An ethnobotanical survey was carried out through the interview of 183 individuals. The responses were analyzed using several plant citation indexes (RFC; FIV; PPV and FL). Correlations between plants and humans of different ages, genders, educational levels, and marital status, were investigated by multiple components analysis (MCA) performed using XLSTAT software.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>93.44% of the studied population use MAPs. Among the 48 used species, belonging to 27 botanical families, the most frequently cited were <em>Origanum compactum </em>Benth<em>.</em> <em>Chenopodium ambrosioides </em>L, <em>Cuminum cyminum</em> L., <em>Mentha pulegium </em>L. Leaves were the dominant part used. The infusion and decoction were the principal preparation methods. MCA showed that people not or low using MAPs (&lt; 3) are sharing common traits: Male, not married, high educational level, &lt; 40 years aged. People highly (&gt; 7) or moderately (4 to 7) using MAPs are mainly: Female, married, with low educational level, &gt;40 years aged.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The present study highlighted the spread use of MAPs among the interviewed population in Ain Chkef as traditional remedies. Thus, this work will provide researchers with an important ethnobotanical database which can be exploited in the development of pharmacognosy.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Ethnobotanical study; medicinal plants; Ain Chkef; Plant citation indexes; multiple component analysis.</p> Khadija Benamar Saad Ibnsouda Koraichi Saad Benamar Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Khadija Benamar, Saad Ibnsouda Koraichi , Saad Benamar, Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim 2023-06-18 2023-06-18 26 1 23 Indigenous knowledge and bioactive compounds of Berberis aristata confirm its therapeutic potential: An ethnopharmacological appraisal in Nepal <p><em>Background:</em> The prevalence of ethnomedicinal plant usage can be attributed to a combination of factors, primarily driven by local preferences towards traditional herbal remedies. This tendency is exacerbated by a dearth of practicable alternatives and the pervasiveness of economic distress. Additionally, this phenomenon is greatly influenced by a persistent belief in the effectiveness of folkloric herbal cures and the alleged medicinal qualities of local flora. Nepal stands as a region abundant in biological resources, showcasing a noteworthy reservoir of therapeutic plant species employed extensively in Ayurvedic medicine.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> <em>Berberis aristata</em> DC (also called Daruharidra / Chutro), known for its therapeutic leads, was the focus of this ethnobotanical survey, examining its chemo-diversity and medicinal properties based on its traditional use by the indigenous communities throughout Nepal. We chose to perform the qualitative phytochemical screening along with other biological analyses of <em>B. aristata</em> to complement and validate our findings obtained from the ethnobotanical studies.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Our findings revealed that 14 distinct ethnic communities residing in 24 districts utilize <em>B. aristata</em> for diverse therapeutic purposes, with the Tamang indigenous group being the primary users. Most ethnic communities employing <em>B. aristata</em> for medicinal purposes reside in the Bagmati and Koshi Provinces. Analytical chemistry revealed higher phenol and flavonoid content in <em>Berberis</em> leaves. The free radical scavenging assay revealed the highest values for bark methanolic extract and demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. The inhibitory effects on α-amylase found varying levels of inhibition in different plant parts.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Overall, the present study highlights the importance of investigating and utilizing the vast natural resources available in Nepal. Finally, we conclude traditional medicinal plants, such as <em>B. aristata</em>, possess enormous potential for developing novel therapeutic medications that are safe, affordable, and effective for human consumption.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Conservation, Distribution, Indigenous knowledge, Medicinal plant, Therapeutic uses</p> Indira Pandey Keshab Bhattarai Rabin Bhattarai Keshab Bhattarai Ripu Kunwar Bikash Baral Copyright (c) 2023 Bikash Baral, Indira Pandey, Keshab Bhattarai, Rabin Bhattarai, Keshab Bhattarai, Ripu Kunwar 2023-10-29 2023-10-29 26 1 21 Ethnomedicinal and Traditional uses of the Flora of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p><em>Background: </em>The present study aimed to assess the traditional knowledge and uses of ethnomedicinal plants to cure different disorders. The local inhabitants of district Lower Dir, Pakistan was relied on medicinal plants for their fundamental medical requirements. </p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge was approached by using the questionnaire and random interviews. Mostly old people were approached for the collection of information regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plant. The data were analyzed with the help of various statistical indices such as fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), relative popularity level (RPL), relative order priority (ROP), relative frequency citation (RFC) and jaccard index (JI).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 147 taxa belonged to 106 genera and 57 families were reported. The dominant family was Lamiaceae with 18 taxa (12.24%), Asteraceae was the second largest family with 12 taxa (8.16%), Rosaceae was the third largest family with 9 taxa (6.12%), Solanaceae and Brassicaceae with 6 taxa each (8.16%), Amarantheaceae, Brassicaceae, Berberidaceae and Rutaceae with 5 taxa each (13.6%), Violaceae with 4 taxa (2.72%), Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceace, Plantaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Ranunculaceace with 3 taxa each (14.28%), followed by Acanthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Fagaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Pinnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariacea, Thymelaeaceae, and Verbrnaceae with 2 taxa each (16.32%), while the remaining families contained one taxon each (18.4%). Regarding the parts used mostly leaves of 67 taxa (45.57%), followed by fruits of 25 taxa (17%), roots of 20 taxa (13.60%), seeds of 11 taxa (7.48%), whole plant of 9 taxa (6.12%), bark of 7 taxa (4.76%), oils extracted from seeds and gums of 4 taxa each (5.44%) were used.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The current study provided useful knowledge about ancient using of therapeutic plants species that were utilized by the local inhabitants for curving of various disorders. The inhabitants of the area have diverse knowledge about the remedies of medication for effective work against ailments. </p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicine, Fidelity level, Jaccard index, Lower Dir, Pakistan, Use value.</p> Muhammad Irfan Fazal Ullah Inzimam Ul Haq Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Irfan, Fazal Ullah, Inzimam Ul Haq 2023-07-22 2023-07-22 26 1 22 Ethnobotanical Survey of the Chinese Tea Substitutes Consumed in Uíge Province, Angola: Part 1 <p><em>Background: </em>This ethnobotanical study is the first based on the herbal teas or tisanes consumed in Angola, specifically in Uíge province. The aims of this study were to document traditional knowledge related to the use of herbal teas and then assess their floristic diversity.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Field research was conducted between January to December 2022, in both rural and urban areas of Uíge province. Ethnobotanical methods included participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. These were used to obtain detailed information on plants used to brew herbal teas. A total of 150 informants (including 18 key informants) were interviewed.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 60 species of herbal teas distributed in 48 genera and 27 families are used by the local population in Uíge province. Of these 58.63% are indigenous and 41.37% are exotic species. The most frequently used part was the leaf (62.5%), and the most frequently used preparation methods were decoction (68.7%), and infusion (31.3%). In addition, these plants are mainly used for other purposes, such as phytomedicines (71.6%), and bioenergy (14.1%). Regarding the medicinal use of tisanes, most are used to treat or prevent coughs (23.3%), and anemia (20%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: It is important to implement the systematic protection of wild plant resources and the establishment of botanical gardens in order to provide a sustainable source of production of these herbal teas, which also contribute to the income of local farmers. This would benefit, the quality of the products, and support environmental and human well-being.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotanical survey, herbal teas, Uíge Province, Angola</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Résumé </strong></p> <p><em>Contexte</em>: Cette étude ethnobotanique est la première basée sur les tisanes consommées en Angola, plus précisément dans la province d'Uíge. Le but de cette étude était de documenter les connaissances traditionnelles liées à l'utilisation des tisanes, puis d’évaluer leur diversité floristique.</p> <p><em>Méthodes</em>: La recherche sur le terrain a été menée entre Janvier et Décembre 2022, dans les zones rurales et urbaines de la province d'Uíge. Des méthodes ethnobotaniques comprenaient l'observation participative, des entretiens semi-structurés, des entretiens avec des informateurs clés et des discussions de groupe. Ceux-ci ont été utilisés pour obtenir des informations détaillées sur les plantes utilisées pour faire la tisane. Au total, 150 informateurs (dont 18 informateurs clés) ont été interrogés.</p> <p><em>Résultats</em> : Un total de 60 espèces de tisanes réparties en 49 genres et 26 familles sont utilisées par la population locale de la province d'Uíge. Parmi celles-ci, 58,63% sont indigènes et 41,37% sont des espèces exotiques. La partie la plus utilisée fréquemment est la feuille (62,5%), et les méthodes de préparation les plus utilisées étaient la décoction (68,7%) et l'infusion (31,3%). De plus, ces plantes sont principalement utilisées à d'autres fins, comme les phytomédicaments (71,6 %) et la bioénergie (14,1 %). Concernant l'usage médicinal des tisanes, la pluspart est utilisée pour traiter ou prévenir la toux (23,3%) et l'anémie (20%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Il est important de mettre la protection systématique des ressources végétales et la création de jardins botaniques afin de fournir une source durable de production de ces tisanes, qui contribuent également aux revenus des agriculteurs locaux. Cela profiterait à la qualité des produits, et soutiendrait le bien-être environnemental et humain.</p> <p><em>Mots clés</em>: Enquête ethnobotanique, tisanes, Province de Uíge, Angola.</p> Monizi Mawunu Domingos António Pedro Vita Jean-Paul Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua Félicien Lukoki Luyeye Luyindula Ndiku Pélagie Mbandu Luzolawo Ngiambudulu M. Francisco Copyright (c) 2023 Jean-Paul Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Monizi Mawunu, Domingos António, Pedro Vita, Luyindula Ndiku, Ngiambudulu M. Francisco, Félicien Lukoki Luyeye, Pélagie Mbandu Luzolawo 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 26 1 27 The tale of Hawai‘i’s two scented laua‘e, Microsorum spectrum and Microsorum grossum: Solving the mystery of their history and restoring indigenous knowledge, using the synergism of Linnaean and Polynesian taxonomy. <p><em>Background:</em> This study quelled a fervent disagreement by restoring indigenous knowledge. The issue was—had the <strong>laua‘e</strong> fern, <em>Microsorum grossum,</em> been part of Hawaiian culture “since earliest times,” as asserted by certain cultural specialists, or was it introduced to Hawai‘i after 1900, as inferred from historical records? Assuming both expert opinions were correct, I surmised that there had been another plant species named <strong>laua‘e </strong>prior to 1900, the identity of which had become obscure.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> This hypothesis was tested by reconstructing the history of Hawaiian <strong>laua‘e </strong>using a dual-disciplinary approach—drawing on knowledge referenced by Linnaean and indigenous plant names—to answer three questions. Was there evidence that <em>M. grossum </em>grew in Hawai‘i before 1900? If not, was there evidence of another species named <strong>laua‘e</strong> before 1900? If so, what was it?</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Records of botanical surveys provided no evidence that <em>M. grossum </em>was present in Hawai‘i before 1919, and the distribution of Polynesian names for the species was consistent with this finding. English and Hawaiian literature of the 19<sup>th</sup> century evidenced an unidentified plant, named ”<strong>lauae</strong>,” that was herbaceous and very fragrant. Observations from field biologists led to the inference that this was <em>Microsorum spectrum, </em>and its Hawaiian name, <strong>laua‘e</strong>, was confirmed by handwritten notes on an herbarium specimen.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Awareness of the <strong>laua‘e</strong> <strong>maoli </strong>‘native <strong>laua‘e</strong>’, <em>M. spectrum, </em>faded as its populations shrank, and the introduced <strong>laua‘e</strong> <strong>hānai</strong> ‘adopted <strong>laua‘e</strong>’, <em>M. grossum, </em>eventually supplanted the cultural role of its predecessor.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, plant name, fern, historical reconstruction, cultural memory, comparative linguistics.</p> Puanani Anderson-Fung Copyright (c) 2023 Puanani Anderson-Fung 2023-08-18 2023-08-18 26 1 43 Wild and cultivated plant collections from marketplaces of Odisha, India and their role in livelihood support <p><em>Background</em>: Marketplaces serve as valuable sources of information regarding the interactions and relationships between people and plants. In India, the significance of marketplaces remains largely unexplored, despite the country's remarkable biocultural diversity. To address this research gap, we conducted a study focusing on the diversity of edible wild and cultivated fruits and vegetables available in both rural and urban markets within the Bhadrak district of Odisha, India.<em> </em></p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We conducted a comprehensive survey of rural and urban marketplaces in the Bhadrak district of Odisha, India, covering three seasons. Data were collected from 91 informants through semi-structured interviews, key informant discussions, and direct observations. During field visits, voucher specimens were collected and photographs of marketplaces as well as the fruits and vegetables being traded were taken.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 93 species, including one species of Pteridophyte, belonging to 37 families and 74 genera, were documented from the markets in the district. Among these species, 53% were native and 47% were non-native. The families Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae were particularly well-represented. Out of the recorded species, 22 (23.7%) were wild species. Habit analysis revealed that herbs constituted the highest proportion 41.9%, followed by trees 35.5%, Climbers 18.3%, and shrubs 4.3%. According to the majority of informants, wild fruits and vegetables were valued for both their food and medicinal properties. Commonly reported species used for both dietary and medicinal purposes included <em>Glinus oppositifolius</em> (L.) A. DC., <em>Ipomoea aquatica</em> Forrsk., <em>Marsilea minuta</em> L., <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam., <em>Syzygium cumini</em> (L.) Skeels, and <em>Tamarindus indica</em> L. When it came to vegetables, leaves, and stems were commonly consumed, while fruits were typically eaten raw.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The markets in the Bhadrak district offer a variety of plants, including a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Through analysis of the collected data, it has been revealed that wild fruits and vegetables play a crucial role in generating income and have the potential to become a significant supplementary livelihood option for local farming communities. It is worth noting the dual role of many plant species, serving as dietary components while also contributing to preventive healthcare practices. Market surveys serve as valuable tools for assessing food environments, and the documented food heritage holds great importance in promoting bio-conservation, environmental sustainability, and food security.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Fruits, Vegetables, Crop biodiversity, Local economy, Wild and cultivated Plants, Medicinal use</p> Taranisen Panda Nilamani Dikshit Nirlipta Mishra Shaik Rahimuddin Bikram Pradhan Raj Ballav Mohanty Copyright (c) 2023 Taranisen Panda, Nilamani Dikshit, Nirlipta Mishra, Shaik Rahimuddin, Bikram Pradhan, Raj Ballav Mohanty 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 26 1 23 Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of the Flora of district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The current study was based on ethnomedicinal uses of the plants of district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Different statistical indices were quantitatively used to evaluate the new knowledge of the inhabitants.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Methods: </em>Frequent field visits were carried out from 2019 to 2022 in different seasons of the year. A questionnaire was used to collect all the information regarding taxa's traditional uses. The questionnaire was made to identify the knowledge of rural men, women, and their immediate families regarding the collection of medicinal plants along with their use in a community. Women were seldom interviewed, and this was a unique opportunity to investigate their plant knowledge.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Results: </em>A total of 154 plant taxa with 130 genera distributed in 58 families were used for the treatment of different ailments. Amongst them, the leading family was Poaceae with 14 taxa (9.09%), the second leading family was Fabaceae having 13 taxa (8.44%), followed by Amranthaceae with 11 taxa (7.14%). Habit wise 87 taxa (56.49%) were herbs, 38 taxa (24.67%) were shrubs, and 29 taxa (18.83%) were trees. Habitat wise 90 taxa (58.44%) were mesophytes, 16 taxa (10.38%) were sciophytes, and 48 taxa (31.16%) were xerophytes. Abundance wise 92 taxa were common (59.74%), 62 taxa were rare (40.25%); 142 taxa (92.2%) were wild, and 12 taxa (7.79%) were cultivated. Different parts of the taxa were utilized for the treatment of various ailments viz. leaves of 78 taxa (50.6%), roots of 19 taxa (12.3%), and Fruits of 17 taxa (11%) were used.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The valuable information about the primeval use of medicinal taxa by the residents for the treatment of various disorders. The inhabitants of the area have diverse knowledge about the remedies of medication for effective work against them. </p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnomedicinal, Flora, Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. </p> Fazal Ullah Muhammad Irfan Muhammad Saeed Copyright (c) 2023 Fazal Ullah, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Saeed 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 26 1 26 Exploring the traditional knowledge and medicinal flora of the communities residing along North Eastern India-Pakistan borders <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnobotanical studies underpin the understanding of plant-people interaction in any geographical area along with the conservation strategies and priorities. The current study was carried out in the marginalized communities residing along the North Eastern Indo-Pak border of Depalpur and its adjoining areas of the Punjab Province, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Snow-ball and random sampling techniques were employed for study participants. They were semi-structurally interviewed with open ended questions for the collection of desired data.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Altogether, 75 plant taxa were recorded in 68 genera and 32 families. The majority of them were wild herbs (86%), and whole plants (82%) were utilized frequently for drug preparations. Studied plants were reported to treat 40 ailments, however significantly used for fever (43 spp.) and gastrointestinal disorders (40 spp.).</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> These findings endorsed the significant plant based knowledge of the border area populations. However, unprecedented rapid urbanization, economic development, and sociocultural dynamics challenged the retention of traditional knowledge. Profound decline was observed in the number of herbal practitioners, and their successors seem less interested in this field because of laborious jobs with low profit. Therefore, organic product development and the establishment of ethno species in home gardens and liaisoning with herbal industries may revitalize the existing traditional practices.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> folk knowledge, border area, bio-cultural diversity, ethnoflora</p> Fahim Arshad Waqas Ahmad Ahmad Muhammad Shoaib Nidaa Harun Kaneez Fatima Zaheer Abbas Sadia Jabeen Muhammad Waheed Copyright (c) 2023 Fahim Arshad , Waqas Ahmad Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib , Nidaa Harun, Kaneez Fatima, Zaheer Abbas, Sadia Jabeen, Muhammad Waheed 2023-07-21 2023-07-21 26 1 41 Local perceptions and endogenous knowledge of Hoary Basil (Ocimum americanum L.) in Burkina Faso <p><em>Background: Ocimum americanum</em> is an aromatic species from the family of<em> Lamiaceae</em>. It has significant socioeconomic potential and is used by the local population in Burkina Faso. Although the species makes a significant contribution to household well-being, the organizations in charge of natural resource management are unaware of and undervalue its socioeconomic value. This study was initiated to assess local communities’ perception of the uses and management techniques of <em>Ocimum americanum</em> to establish sustainable strategies for its better valorization.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in 21 villages covering three phytogeographical sectors of Burkina Faso. All, 160 farmers were interviewed. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) and use value (UV) were used to express the results.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The results showed that socio-cultural factors significantly affect the use value of the species at a threshold of 5%. The primary uses of wild basil are traditional medicine, food, conservation of seeds and foodstuffs, fodder, insect repellant, and tradimystics. The species is still found in the wild, although the majority of informants (54.9%) reported a decline in its population, making it threatened with extinction. However, for beneficial purposes, 24.5% of respondents keep the species in paraculture.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>This study demonstrates how important this species is to local communities. The endogenous knowledge collected among the local population could serve as a baseline for the valuation of the species.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><em>: Ocimum americanum</em>, ethnobotanical survey, endogenous knowledge, Burkina Faso</p> Hervé Kabore Mariam Kibere Kiswendsida Romaric Nanema Copyright (c) 2023 Hervé Kabore, Mariam Kibere, Kiswendsida Romaric Nanema 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 26 1 11 Plant ethnomedicine in Bosnia and Herzegovina, past and present <p><em>Background</em>: Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) belongs to the group of Western Balkan and Mediterranean countries. Its specific geographical position and numerous refugial habitats are responsible for today's remarkable plant biodiversity. The Biocultural diversity of this area originated in the Stone Age, additionally enriched by the influence of various conquerors: Slavic tribes, the appearance of the Franciscans, the Ottoman Empire, the arrival of Sephardic Jews, and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The diachronic changes in the use of medicinal plants in BIH from the Middle Ages until today were studied. In this research, 1211 randomly selected respondents of different ages, genders, and levels of education participated. Frequency (FC) and the relative frequency of citation (RFC), therapeutic use, number of use reports (UR) and the family importance value (FIV) were used to evaluate the relevance of detected species and families.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In daily life practices, respondents utilize about 145 plant species for medicinal purposes, mainly as an infusion, herbal juice, tincture, syrup, and oil. The ethnobotanical bibliography for the region of BIH includes 43 references published so far. According to them, current healers and the local population no longer use about 21% or 60 plant species from 55 genera and 40 families. Also, the ways of application changed, while the ritual uses entirely vanished.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Diachronic changes in traditional medicine in BIH resulted in a decrease in indigenous knowledge about autochthonous medicinal plant species. Native plant resource funds stay neglected while current local connoisseurs and people frequently utilize commonly known innovative medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Traditional knowledge, Medicinal plants, BIH</p> Edina Muratović Adisa Parić Copyright (c) 2023 Edina Muratović, Adisa Parić 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 26 1 27 Ethnobotanical knowledge of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkman (Rosaceae) by people living in community forests in North Kivu, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Prunus africana</em> (Hook. f) Kalkman (<em>Rosaceae</em>) is a multi-purpose species with important utility value for the populations that depend on it. Indeed, local populations living in community forests use <em>P. africana</em>. The objective of this study is to document the different uses of <em>P. africana</em> by local populations in traditional medicine for a better vulgarization for a sustainable management of the resource.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in four <em>P. africana</em> distribution areas in North Kivu. Data were collected on the basis of a survey from 221 informants. Statistical analysis and calculation of ethnobotanical indices were performed using R 4.1.2 software.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Results of the investigations show that <em>P. africana</em> is by far used in medical practices (96.83%). It is also used as wood energy (60.18 %), charcoal (40.27 %), in handicrafts (7.24 %), construction (6.79 %), food (2.26 %) and traditional rites (0.45 %). In traditional pharmacopoeia, the characterization of the uses allowed us to identify 23 diseases for which <em>P. africana</em> extracts are used to treat them. The bark and leaves are the most used organs in the recipes. The decoction (99.5%), the macerated (10.41%) and the powders (7.69%) are the galenic or pharmaceutical forms in which the local populations prepare the remedies. The potions prepared are mainly administered orally (99.5%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The multiple forms of use of <em>P. africana</em> by the populations of North Kivu, both in medicine and in other categories of use, constitute a threat to its survival. For a sustainable management, the results of this study reveal that it is possible to substitute the species <em>P. africana</em> with other plant species with similar potential in order to limit its overexploitation.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: <em>Prunus africana</em>, community forests, multiple uses, traditional medicine, sustainable management, DR Congo</p> Eloge Kambale Muhesi Jean Lagarde Betti Ndongo Din Moïse Musubao Kapiri Harmelle Natacha Nana Afiong Pascal Billong Fils Copyright (c) 2023 Eloge Kambale Muhesi, Jean Lagarde Betti, Ndongo Din, Moïse Musubao Kapiri, Harmelle Natacha Nana Afiong, Pascal Billong Fils 2023-07-25 2023-07-25 26 1 28 Conservation of medicinal germplasm: a proposal to establish priorities based on conservation biology and ethnobotanical criteria <p><em>Background.</em> This study focused to assess the overall status of the <em>ex-situ</em> collection of medicinal plant germplasm and propose management objectives based on ethnobotanical theory and conservation biology at the Germplasm Bank of the Facultad de Agronomía in Uruguay (BGFAgro).</p> <p><em>Methods.</em> Reviewing the passport data of 3646 BGFAgro database accessions, we were able to identify 47 species with medicinal uses and pertinent historical information. A total of 37 medicinal plant species germination capacities were tested using accessions from these taxa. We used a logistic function to search the putative variations in germination capacity. To establish criteria for conservation priority, the frequency distribution of families, species, and associated uses was examined along with correspondence analysis.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Asteraceae and Leguminosae are the families with the highest number of medicinal species, and the years 1997 and 1998 had the highest number of conserved accessions. After 14 years of entrance into the collection, the germination values dramatically decline. There are 14 uses related to medicinal species that exhibit varying degrees of versatility, redundancy, and exclusivity. The most common uses are for the Symptoms and conditions of undefined origin and Digestive system.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>The collection needs support to reach international standards. We show a priority list of species based on ethnobotanical and conservation biology criteria as where to start to enhance <em>ex situ</em> and biocultural conservation tools.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, germplasm banks, <em>in situ</em>-<em>ex situ</em> conservation, ethnobotanical, viability.</p> Elena Castiñeira Latorre Andrés Canavero Rafael Vidal Copyright (c) 2023 Elena Castiñeira Latorre, Andrés Canavero , Rafael Vidal 2023-10-24 2023-10-24 26 1 24 The prevalence and cultural perceptions of hysteria among rural communities in India: An ethnobotanical study in Balangir and Bargarh Districts of Odisha, India <p><em>Background: </em>Anomalist psychology bases supernatural explanations on psychological and physical traits. Maladaptive psychopathological behaviors disturb life. Religious healers, help many patients and caregivers. On this basis, the current study explores the prevalence and cultural perceptions of hysteria among rural communities in Odisha's Balangir and Bargarh districts, India. Traditional therapies for psychopathological illnesses are commonly used in these communities, and we investigate the usage of medicinal plants by traditional healers.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Through a six-month study involving various research methods, we identified 40 plant species across 25 families that are frequently used for treating hysteria and other psychiatric disorders. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the credit score of traditional herbs, and we found that plant leaf powder was frequently employed orally for most treatments.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The study found that traditional healers in the Balangir and Bargarh ethnic communities frequently use plant leaf powder, including species such as <em>Chromolaena odorata </em>(L.) R.M.King &amp; H.Rob. and <em>Murraya paniculata </em>(L.) Jack, for the treatment of hysteria and other psychiatric disorders.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The pharmacological research of these plants could provide useful insights for the treatment of mental health disorders. This study highlights the importance of traditional therapies in managing psychopathological illnesses in rural India.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Hysteria, Ethnobotanical survey, Traditional Plant Knowledge, Wild Useful Plants, Ethnomedicine, Cultural Practices, Mental Disorders, Neurological Disorders</p> Biswajeet Acharya Durga Prasad Mishra Swarnajeet Tripathy Binapani Barik Kanhu Charan Pradhan Sasthimayee Singhgartia Debashish Parida Prafulla Sahu Copyright (c) 2023 Biswajeet Acharya, Durga Prasad Mishra, Swarnajeet Tripathy, Binapani Barik, Kanhu Charan Pradhan, Sasthimayee Singhgartia, Debashish Parida, Prafulla Sahu 2023-09-13 2023-09-13 26 1 25 Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used by the population of Taunsa Sharif, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: Many human illnesses are treated by plant-based medicines because medicinal plants are rich sources of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to document the traditional uses of medicinal plants used by the indigenous communities of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif, District DG Khan, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The ethnobotanical data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire as a tool for face-to-face interviews, and group discussions during the year 2021 to 2022. Fidelity level (FL), usage value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF) indices were used to calculate the relevance of described species in terms of culture.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 130 (75 male and 55 female) local residents of different villages were interviewed about 104 plant species belonging to 42 families. Poaceae and Fabaceae were dominant families with 14 species each. The highest percentage of fidelity level calculated for <em>Calotropis procera,</em> <em>Psidium guajava</em> and <em>Salvadora oleoides</em>. Similarly, the highest use value was calculated for <em>Calotropis procera</em> (0.75). The highest value of ICF was obtained for digestive disorders (0.80).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: It was concluded that the indigenous population still use medicinal plants in their daily life for the treatment of various diseases. Furthermore, this research will be helpful for local government agencies to protect the natural resources.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants; Indigenous knowledge; Traditional medicines; Taunsa Sharif, Punjab Pakistan</p> Adeel Mustafa Umza Hanif Andleeb Anwar Sardar Hammad Ahmad Jan Copyright (c) 2023 Adeel Mustafa, Umza Hanif, Andleeb Anwar Sardar, Hammad Ahmad Jan 2023-07-21 2023-07-21 26 1 27 Bridging the generational gap: Exploring youth understanding on ethnobotanical knowledge and its integration in higher education curricula <p><em>Background</em>: Current ethnobotanical knowledge in Indonesia is declining among the younger generation, particularly university students. Therefore, embedding ethnobotanical knowledge in the formal education curriculum is essential to enhance young awareness of their traditional ecological knowledge. This study aims to analyze ethnobotanical knowledge in undergraduate students as a fundamental step to developing a reliable ethnobotanical learning curriculum in higher education.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This observational exploratory study involved 192 Science Education (SE) and Primary School Teacher Education (PSTE) students in Cirebon District, West Java, Indonesia. An open survey method, employing an online questionnaire, was used to obtain data on ethnobotany knowledge and cognitive competencies.</p> <p><em>Result</em>: The study results revealed that ethnobotany knowledge in students only reached less than 62.00 points, or moderate to low achievement. Furthermore, cognitive ability related to ethnobotanical knowledge barely got 50% across all levels, except for analytical ability ranging from 59-69%, and creating ability resulted in 0%. Most respondents discovered it challenging to use the concept of ethnobotany to identify new botanical discoveries and the application of ethnobotany in daily life. Furthermore, the respondent understands their weaknesses regarding cognitive perspective and initiate technology-based learning to overcome them.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Integrating technology in an ethnobotany-based curriculum can increase identification ability and explore related learning resources to make learning easier for students. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further studies in developing learning models to increase ethnobotany knowledge through technology.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>: </strong>ethnobotany, prospective teacher, traditional knowledge, young generation,</p> Rinto Rinto Retno Sri Iswari Budi Naini Mindyarto Sigit Saptono Copyright (c) 2023 Rinto Rinto, Retno Sri Iswari, Budi Naini Mindyarto, Sigit Saptono 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 26 1 16 Diachronic approach to practices associated with the use of firewood in Parque Costero del Sur and its surroundings (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) <p>of the Biosphere Reserve Parque Costero del Sur (PCS -acronym in Spanish) and its surroundings are analysed diachronically.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Anthracological, ethnobotany historical and ethnobotanical methodology have been used.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In the pre-hispanic period, hunter-gatherer groups used the native species of the talar (<strong>coronillo</strong>, <strong>molle</strong>, <strong>tala</strong> and <strong>sombra de toro</strong>) and the coast (<strong>ceibo</strong> and <strong>willow</strong>), possibly as a source of light, heat, protection, in pottery production and food preparation. Subsequently, the native societies on the frontier continued to use the native species of the talar (<strong>tala</strong>, <strong>molle</strong> and <strong>sombra de toro</strong>) as firewood, with no recorded use of coastal species. Historical documentation reflects the continued use of talar trees as firewood since the colonial period, and even their overexploitation, in addition to the early introduction of exotic species for this purpose. Today, firewood continues to be a key resource in the daily lives of the inhabitants of the PCS for heating and cooking. The use of 28 species was recorded, of which six are native (<strong>tala</strong>, <strong>coronillo</strong>, <strong>molle</strong>, <strong>willow</strong>, <strong>espinillo</strong> and <strong>brusquilla)</strong>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The results presented demonstrate the temporal continuity in the use of some native species as firewood with varying degrees of intensity and the incorporation of exotic species since the colonial period. This reflects the flexibility of the settlers in the face of socio-environmental changes, with innovations and transfers of uses from one plant to another that have enriched local practices.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Interdisciplinary, Magdalena, Punta Indio, Local knowledge, Local fuel plants</p> María Belén Doumecq Naiquen Ghiani Echenique María Soledad García Lerena María Celeste Valencia Copyright (c) 2023 María Belén Doumecq, Naiquen Ghiani Echenique , María Soledad García Lerena , María Celeste Valencia 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 26 1 25 Ethnomedicinal relevance of selected monocot taxa from different geographical regions of Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: Pakistan has a unique biodiversity of monocotyledon flora and due to its unique climatic condition a huge number of medicinal plants are distributed in the area. Ethnobotany plays a crucial role in understanding the dynamic relationships between biological diversity and social and cultural systems. However, studies about the ethnomedicinal significance of monocot taxa in Pakistan are very limited.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This study documented the indigenous uses of selected medicinal monocot taxa. The ethnomedicinal data was obtained through semi-structured interviews with the local men, women and herbalists of the area. The ethnomedicinal data were analyzed by different quantitative indices i.e. Use value (UV), frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and information consent factor (ICF).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In the present study, selected medicinal monocots belonging to seven families were collected from different geographical regions of Pakistan. Family Amaryllidaceae was reported as higher number of used species. Most often used parts were noted as bulbs followed by leaves and roots. The most frequent mode of preparation method was found as a decoction and raw form. Nine different disease categories were reported including respiratory diseases, antidote, gynecological problems, urogenital problems, digestive disorders, glandular disorders, blood circularity system disorders, dermatological problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Among them, the respiratory disorders show the high value of ICF.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The study document showed that selected monocot taxa were used as folk medicine against various diseases. Medicinal monocots having high used value help to identify a phytochemical compound that is bioactive and indispensable for the synthesis of novel drugs for various diseases.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Monocotyledons taxa, medicinal value, medicinal usage; local communities; ethnobotanical indices.</p> Saraj Bahadur Mushtaq Ahmad Muhammad Zafar Najla Begum Maroof Ali Tanweer Kumar Muhammad Yaseen Copyright (c) 2023 Saraj Bahadur, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Najla Begum, Maroof Ali, Tanweer Kumar 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 26 1 17 Deep ethnobotanical survey of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) in Morocco: variation of therapeutic uses, sources of information, and efficacy <p><em>Background:</em> An extensive ethnomedicinal analysis of anise (<em>Pimpinella anisum</em> L.) in Morocco was conducted as part of this study. We aimed to compile information on its medicinal uses and the amounts consumed by locals.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Interviews were conducted in seven Moroccan sites during 2019 and 2020. To examine the gathered data, descriptive and multivariate statistics were employed. We sought participant agreement on the specified therapies for each disorder group.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> 85 herbalist males and 600 participants ranging from 20 to 60 years old were interviewed in the study zone that uses or sells it for therapeutic purposes. The plant was primarily utilized by herbalists for food (18.93%), digestive disorders (18.93%), and laxatives (18.93%), while users use it for Dysmenorrhea (34.85%), anti-constipation (33.02%), antitussive (21.31%), and to promote Milk flow (10.82%). Other users used anise as an antitussive (12.47%) and a treatment for Dysmenorrhea (15.81%), while 14.92% of participants used it to encourage milk flow. Participants used the plant in dried form alone, and the usage form was like a Tisane or infusion in all investigated sites. However, all studied parameters varied among the tested sites.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The new study could be of great use in expanding knowledge of the medicinal flora and conserving ancestors' knowledge in Morocco's Middle Atlas and the Saiss Plain.</p> Meriem Soussi Wissal El Yaagoubi Meryem benjelloun Lahsen El Ghadraoui Copyright (c) 2023 Meriem Soussi, Wissal El Yaagoubi, Meryem benjelloun, Lahsen El Ghadraoui 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 26 1 15 The status and perception of medicinal plants by local population of Adrar province (Northern Mauritania) <p><em>Background:</em> In the province of Adrar (northern Mauritania), there is significant interest in medicinal plants and their use. However, the utilization of herbal medicines has been largely underestimated, with little or no scientific data regarding the status, perception of inhabitants of northern Mauritania, confidence in the healing properties of medicinal plants, and the conservation of traditional medicinal heritage of the local population.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The semi-structured interviews, and questionnaires were conducted between 2014 and 2016 in the 11 municipalities of Adrar province. A total of 120 participants aged from 20 to 90 years old, including 24 herbalists and 28 traditional healers. The ethnobotanical data were quantitatively analyzed using indices such as relative popularity level (RPL), rank order priority (ROP), the Medicinal Plant Knowledge index (MPKi), the Medicinal Plant Use index (MPUi), and the Informant consensus factor (ICF).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> In the present study, we identified 68 taxa from 27 different botanical families. The most significant family is Fabaceae, with 14 species. These plants are used to treat 50 conditions or symptoms grouped into 14 pathological groupings according to the international classification of primary care (ICPC-2). The analysis revealed that the highest value of MPU was obtained for <em>Vachellia tortilis </em>(Forssk.) Galasso &amp;Banfi<em>.</em>, <em>Adansonia digitate </em>L. and <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em> (L.) Delile (MPUi= 100%). In addition, the high fidelity level (FL=100) was recorded for <em>Vachellia tortilis</em>, <em>Adansonia digitata</em> and <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em>, these three species a very high capability (ROP=100) in improving hypertension and Diabetes. For the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) the most prevalent groups were Cardiovascular (K) with (ICF=0.97).</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The knowledge revealed in this study provides a particularly unique source of information on local traditional medicine and adds value to Adrar province.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Mauritanian plants, Medicinal plants, Adrar, ethnobotany, ethnomedicine, traditional medicine.</p> Cheikh Yebouk Fatima Zahrae Redouan Hala El Hachimi Abderrahmane Merzouki Copyright (c) 2023 Cheikh Yebouk, Fatima Zahrae Redouan, Hala Elhachimi, Abderrahmane Merzouki 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 26 1 18 Traditional knowledge and use of plants as agricultural insecticides from a gender perspective in three rural communities of the Ecuadorian Andes <p><em>Background. </em>In Ecuador, plants have traditionally been used to control crop pests as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, we evaluate the state of knowledge surrounding these plants among farmers in three rural communities of the Ecuadorian Andean region and analyze, in turn, whether this knowledge is conditioned by gender.</p> <p><em>Methods. </em>Semi-structured surveys were designed with demographic information, as well as information related to the use of plants to control pests in crops. A total of 240 surveys were administered to farmers in the three selected sectors (120 men and 120 women), followed by on-site visits to contrast the information collected. To determine the importance of the species, the use value (UV) of each species was analyzed, and the Fidelity Level (FL) and informant consensus factor (ICF) indices were established to quantitatively analyze the consensus among the responses collected. The number of species used was also analyzed, as well as the possible differences in the way in which these species were prepared and handled, depending on the genus.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>Thirty-four percent of respondents use plant-based insecticides as the main source of pest control. A total of 21 species were identified for this purpose. The species with the highest use values were <em>Ruta graveolens</em> L. (<strong>ruda</strong>) (UV=0.62), <em>Capsicum annuum</em> L. (<strong>ají)</strong> (UV=0.58), and <em>Allium sativum</em> L. (<strong>ajo)</strong> (UV=0.35). The majority of respondents (60 %) use them to treat the pest caused by <em>Bemisia tabaci</em> Gennadius (<strong>white fly</strong>). The main form of preparation consists of the maceration of 2-3 species, which is applied preventively every 15-30 days. From the surveys, there are slight differences in usage between men and women. There is a higher percentage (55 vs. 40 %) of usage in women, while the average number of species and total number of species are both similar (between 2 and 3 species used in combination and 18 vs. 17 species, respectively). The main differences are of a qualitative nature and refer to the different use values of some species compared to others.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>The results of this work show a worrying erosion of knowledge concerning the use of plant species as insecticides for agriculture. Only 34 % of the respondents use them and only two species have a UV &gt; 0.5 (<em>R.graveolens</em> and <em>C. annuum</em>). Although there are slight differences in usage between men and women, most of these differences refer to the preference of some species over others and, therefore, knowledge of these species does not seem to be significantly influenced by gender.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Traditional Knowledge, Insecticide plants, Pest Control, Gender lens, Andean Region, Ecuador</p> Daysi Pila Rafael Hernández Maqueda Copyright (c) 2023 Daysi Pila, Rafael Hernández Maqueda 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 26 1 12 Ethnobotany of plants used by indigenous communities in Birjand, a dry region with rich local traditional knowledge in eastern Iran <p><em>Background</em>: Despite locating in a dry region with a mostly homogeneous ethnic group, South Khorassan province has a high diversity of medicinal plant uses and rich cultural background. The current study was conducted in Birjand (South Khorassan province) and its 18 adjacent villages to document information concerning the plants used and introduce important plant species using ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In total, 59 people were interviewed about local plants and their utilizations using a semi-structured questionnaire and personal observations between 2018 to 2020. All of the documented plants were collected and identified. The obtained data were analyzed using quantitative ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 119 plant species belonging to 93 families were identified. Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Lamiaceae were the most used plant families. The most frequently plant part used was the aerial part. Decoction was reported as the most common preparation method. The highest UV and RFC values were recorded for <em>Sclerorhachis leptoclada</em>, <em>Scrophularia leucoclada</em>, and <em>Nepeta saturejoides</em>. The highest ICF was reported for digestive system disorders. 35 species showed fidelity level value of 100%.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The present study reveals that the people in Birjand and the adjacent areas have a rich indigenous knowledge regarding the plants. Moreover, plants still maintain their place in people's lives, especially as medicine and food. Older people were more knowledgeable than young ones. The results of this study can be used for screening plant species for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The present study will facilitate the protection programs of the endangered plants in Birjand area.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Conservation, Food, Medicinal plants, Pharmacology, Traditional knowledge</p> Toktam Mohammadi Hamid Moazzeni Atefeh Pirani Jamil Vaezi Khadijeh Motahhari Mohammad Reza Joharchi Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Toktam Mohammadi, Hamid Moazzeni, Atefeh Pirani, Jamil Vaezi, Khadijeh Motahhari, Mohammad Reza Joharchi, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-08-18 2023-08-18 26 1 40 Palatability status and animals’ preferences of forage plants in Pashat Valley, Pak-Afghan border, District Bajaur, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The phytodiversity of a given region provide a variety of services to human and their livestock such as food, feed and medicines. The livestock's preference and nutritional requirement are quantified by the plants' palatability. The present study is the first attempt to record the palatable status of plant resources in the area.</p> <p><em>Objectives</em>: The objective of this study was to assess the palatability of the flora and the preference of grazing and browsing animals in the Pashat Valley Bajaur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: An investigation survey with frequent visits to the research area in different seasons was conducted to record the palatability status of plant resources through visual observations of grazing animals.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The flora of Pashat Valley consists of 385 species belonging to 292 genera and 100 families. Based on habit, there were 289 species of herbs, 54 shrubs, 38 trees and 4 lianas. Of the recorded species, 98 species were non-palatable, 95 species were moderately palatable, 78 species were highly palatable, 60 species were less palatable and 54 species were rarely palatable. The animals preferred 187 plant species in fresh form while 92 species in both fresh and dry forms. Goats and sheep were found the prefer the majority of plant species. The seasonal availability reveals that most of the species grew in the spring (40.65 %) and summer (34.48%) seasons in the area.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: It was concluded that the area has a diverse flora with a rich source of palatable plants. Several variables influence the palatability such as plant morphology, phenology and chemical nature of plants. The documented data explore the palatability status which will act as the foundation for subsequent research into the nutritional components of the palatable plants that will be used as animal feed by the locals to satisfy their nutritional requirements.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Palatability, animals’ preference, grazing, browsing</p> Aminul Haq Lal Badshah Copyright (c) 2023 Aminul Haq, Lal Badshah 2023-10-24 2023-10-24 26 1 22 Fading but still existing: some new observations on Santals’ Ethnoveterinary medicinal practices from the Purba and Paschim Bardhaman districts of West Bengal (India) <p><em>Background:</em> The <em>Santals</em> have innate expertise in managing their livestock’s health and it is still actively practiced in the districts of rural West Bengal, India. Perusal of literature indicates that no research work exclusively on ethnoveterinary medicine has been carried out till date from Purba and Paschim Bardhaman districts of West Bengal. In this regard, indigenous therapeutic knowledge (ITK) for livestock health care is being studied among the <em>Santal</em> ethnic group inhabited in the various corners of these districts.</p> <p><em>Materials and Methods:</em> In the current study, data were gathered using both <em>in situ</em> and <em>ex situ </em>techniques after taking prior informed consent (PIC) from each of the 57 participants. Group discussion and semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was used to conduct the interviews. To identify the important folk-medicinal species, three quantitative indices like factor of informant consensus (F<sub>ic</sub>), use-mentions factor (UM) and relative frequency of citation (RFC) have been employed here.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Altogether 62 plant species have been documented here for 12 types of disease categories. In most of the cases, roots and underground parts (30%) were used. In 69.49% cases, remedies were applied orally. F<sub>ic</sub> value ranges from 0.6 to 0.94, RFC value ranges from 0.79 to 8.7 and <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> L. has been identified as mostly exploited species. Impact of plants like <em>Aristolochia indica</em> L., <em>Pueraria tuberosa</em> (Willd.) DC. and <em>Strychnos nux-vomica</em> L. has also been found deep in the <em>Santal</em> people’s culture of the studied area.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The collected ethnoveterinary medicinal datasets and the statistically analyzed information can contribute a lot to build up bioprospecting objectives, conservation strategies, and socioeconomic agendas.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> ITK, ethnoveterinary phytomedicine, quantitative ethnobotany, <em>Santals</em>, Purba and Paschim Bardhaman, West Bengal</p> Sathi Saha Suman Kalyan Mandal Copyright (c) 2023 Sathi Saha, Suman Kalyan Mandal 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 26 1 17 Ethnomedicinal plants uses for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in Tribal District North Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The local communities of Tribal District North Waziristan rely on therapeutic plant species for their primary health care needs. The present study aimed to record the indigenous knowledge and use of therapeutic plant species to treat different gastrointestinal disorders by the local inhabitants.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnomedicinal data was collected through semi-structured interviews on the use of therapeutic plant species. A total of 130 informants (106 men and 24 women) were randomly selected. The data was quantitatively analyzed using Relataive Frequency of Citiation (RFC), Use Reports (UR), Fidelity Level (FL), Use Value (UV), and Family Importance Value (FIV).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 69 medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were recorded. Among them, Lamiaceae was the most prevalent (10 species), followed by Asteraceae (5 species), and Amaranthaceae, and Apiaceae (4 species each). The dominant growth form was the herb (62.32%), followed by tree (20.29%) and shrub (13.04%). The most common plant parts used in herbal remedies preparations were the leaves (31.51 %) and fruits (26.03 %). The leading mode of herbal recipe preparation was decoction; and the herbal medicines were administered orally. The therapeutic plant species with maximum UV values were <em>Mentha arvensis</em> L., <em>Morus alba</em> L., and <em>Cydonia oblonga</em> Mill. (0.83 each), followed by <em>Withania coagulans </em>(Stocks) Dunal in DC. (0.82). The highest RFC value was reported for<em> Cydonia oblonga</em> Mill. (0.37), followed by <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em> L. and <em>Mentha arvensis </em>L. (0.36) each. The species with 100% FL values were <em>Carum carvi</em> L., <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em> L., <em>Morus alba</em> L.<em>,</em> and <em>Cyndonia oblonga</em> Mill<em>.</em></p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The study showed that indigenous communities still prefer therapeutic plants over allopathic drug for curing different gastrointestinal disorders. However, this invaluable traditional knowledge is presently limited to older people in the study area. There is the need to encourage younger people to engage into this knowledge and participate in its transmission to help conserve the use of medicinal plants for curing ailments in the study area.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, Fidelity level, Indigenous knowledge, Gastrointestinal disorders, North Waziristan, Pakistan.</p> Sabith Rehman Zafar Iqbal Rahmatullah Qureshi Copyright (c) 2023 Sabith Rehman, Zafar Iqbal , Rahmatullah Qureshi 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 26 1 22 Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in Surghar Range of Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> This comprehensive ethnobotanical study was undertaken for the first time to explore and document the medicinal plants used by the indigenous ethnic communities of Surghar Range, Pakistan. The study area is situated adjacent to Salt Range, which lies on the most southern part of Himalayan Ranges in Pakistan. Despite occurrence of so many medicinal plants, culture history and herbal medicines used among the indigenous communities, no explicit ethnobotanical studies are available from this unique region because the field of ethnobotany is still getting mature day by day in Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Semi-structured questionnaires, open interviews and field surveys were used to collect data on medicinal plants and demography from March 2017 to September 2020 from 500 informants by using different quantitative indices viz. relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant census factor (ICF), Jaccard Index (JI) and family use value (FUV) to analyze the data.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results:</em> A total of 417 plants belonging to 89 families were documented that are ethnobotanically used by ethnic communities. Most herbal remedies were used in the form of decoction (33%). ICF values indicate that cardio-vascular complaints ranked (0.7) followed by ENT diseases (0.6). Species like <em>Berberis lyceum</em>, <em>Forsskaolea tenacissima, Kickxia ramosissima, Momordica balsamina, Monotheca buxifolia, Pseudogaillonia hymenostephana, Rumex vesicarius,</em><em> Ocimum americanum, Schweinfurthia papilionacea </em>and <em>Viola</em> <em>cinerea </em>would be interesting targets for drug discovery and are suggested for further investigations.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the aboriginal people. Their traditional knowledge about medicinal plants must be validated with phytochemical and pharmacological screening to determine bioactive compounds and needs to be preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants; Jaccard Index; Surghar Range; Cardio-vascular; Menyanthaceae</p> Sarvat Rahim Amin Shah Shahid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Sarvat Rahim, Amin Shah, Shahid Iqbal 2023-07-13 2023-07-13 26 1 72 Ethnoveterinary data in Britain and Ireland: can native herbal medicine promote animal health? <p><em>Background:</em> The use of plants, and occasionally fungi, to treat and cure animals or to supplement their feeding for livestock was widespread, globally. In some parts of the world this remains a key practice, but there is increasing use of veterinary pharmaceuticals which can have a negative effect on the wider environment. Meanwhile, traditional knowledge is being lost at a great rate, before it has been properly recorded and analyzed.</p> <p><em>Objective:</em> This research analyses current and past ethnoveterinary use in Britain and Ireland and analyses the data within the context of medicinal uses, pharmacology, and other ethnoveterinary information collected in Europe.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Ethnoveterinary data, collected from citizen science and literature, was analyzed by regional distribution (counties), use records (UR), and ATCvet classification.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A broad survey of the plants and fungi traditionally used to treat animals in the Britain and Ireland revealed 198 medicinal plants, principally for farm animals. This was a preliminary investigation, and although requests for current information were sent out in several formats though citizen science, the responses were relatively limited compared with other <em>in situ</em> ethnoveterinary surveys in other European countries. This may be partly due to the methodology, but probably also due to increased availability of modern veterinary medicines, the loss of traditional knowledge transfer between the generations, and concerns about animal safety, toxicity, and effectiveness with phytotherapy. The information reported here was compared with data collected in other countries and their known pharmacology. Some of the plant species cited are used more broadly within Europe for the same medicinal purposes, but in other cases the use appears to be restricted to Britain and Ireland.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>The information on ethnoveterinary uses recorded in this paper could assist with the development of novel biodegradable drugs and feed supplements for future animal management in a changing climate. With the increasing use of herbal lays and biodiversity grazing, and serious concerns about the over-use of veterinary medicines such as antibiotics and anthelmintics, and associated negative impacts on the environment and biodiversity, developing novel plant-based remedies may help to address some of the challenges. Further research on traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge in Britain and Ireland is timely, before the information has disappeared.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: ethnoveterinary; plants; health; feed; livestock; anthelmintic; antimicrobial; traditional knowledge.</p> William Milliken Copyright (c) 2023 William Milliken 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 26 1 32 Traditional socio-cultural utilization and harvesting practices of an alpine medicinal herb, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora in Khumbu Valley, Nepal <p><em>Background:</em> This study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of people in the Khumbu Valley within Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal regarding the utilization and harvesting practices of the Himalayan medicinal plant <em>Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora</em>, which is under threat due to over-harvesting.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The study used focus group discussions and key informant interviews to gather ethnobotanical knowledge from residents of seven enclave settlements of the park buffer zone. These settlements were later grouped into three village clusters based on their elevation. A total of 145 individuals of four ethnic groups with age between 20 and 72 years were interviewed. We analyzed the variation in the knowledge and usage of the plant among respondents in different village clusters, by gender, age-class, and ethnicity.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The majority of respondents were familiar with the plant and its medicinal value, mainly in the treatment of upper respiratory tract illnesses, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, and hypertension. There was no significant association between village clusters and the awareness of the plant's use for specific diseases. However, there was a significant relationship between the village cluster and the number of use reports for different diseases. This suggests variations in the applications of the plant for treating specific ailments across different geographic locations. Females showed higher awareness of the plant's medicinal uses, but gender did not significantly affect use reports for specific diseases or the overall number of use reports. Adults and seniors had the highest awareness of the plant's medicinal uses, with use reports increasing with age class. Ethnicity did not significantly influence awareness or use reports. Rhizomes of <em>N. scrophulariiflora</em> are primarily collected for local use, sometimes exchanged among villagers or used as gifts. Preferred harvesting seasons varied by age, with older individuals favoring mature stages. Younger harvesters showed less concern for sustainable harvesting practices.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: <em>N. scrophulariiflora</em> is recognized for its potential in treating various health issues. The study reveals variations in the knowledge and utilization of <em>N. scrophulariiflora</em> based on geographic location, gender, and age-class, but not ethnicity. The study highlights a generational gap in the knowledge of plant usage, with younger generations losing traditional knowledge due to economic transformation, particularly as they transition to tourism-related livelihoods. To preserve this vital resource and its associated traditional knowledge, efforts should be made to educate and engage younger generations and promote sustainable harvesting practices in the region.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Kutki, Khumbu Valley, Destructive harvesting, Ethnobotanical uses</p> Narayan Prasad Ghimire Mukti Ram Poudeyal Arati Gurung Mukti Ram Poudel Hari Datta Bhattarai Suresh Kumar Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Narayan Prasad Ghimire, Mukti Ram Poudeyal, Arati Gurung, Mukti Ram Poudel , Hari Datta Bhattarai, Suresh Kumar Ghimire 2023-11-17 2023-11-17 26 1 15 Documentation of ethnomedicinal plants used by the people living in reserved forests of semi-arid region Punjab Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnobotanical investigations serve as a foundation for comprehending the intricate interplay between plants and people within specific geographical regions, while also informing conservation strategies and priorities. The present study was conducted within the marginalized communities in the reserved forests of Punjab, Pakistan's semi-arid region.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The study participants were selected using random sampling techniques, and they underwent semi-structured interviews involving open-ended questions to gather the required data.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> In total, 82 plant taxa were documented, representing 74 genera and 32 families. The predominant category was wild herbs (45 species), with whole plants (35 species) being commonly employed in drug preparations. These studied plants were noted for their efficacy in addressing 30 distinct ailments, with fever (33 species) and gastrointestinal disorders (28 species) being the primary conditions they were prominently used for.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>These findings validate the substantial plant-based knowledge held by the populations residing in the semi-arid region. Nonetheless, the rapid pace of urbanization, coupled with economic growth and evolving sociocultural dynamics, has posed challenges to the preservation of traditional wisdom. A notable decline has been observed in the count of herbal practitioners, with their successors displaying diminished interest in the field due to demanding work and limited profitability. As a result, the revitalization of existing traditional practices could potentially be achieved through initiatives such as organic product development, cultivating ethnospecies in home gardens, and establishing collaborations with herbal industries.</p> <p>Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Reserved Forest, local communities, semi-arid region, flora.</p> Muhammad Waheed Shiekh Marifatul Haq Muhammad Azhar Jameel Fahim Arshad Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Waheed, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Muhammad Azhar Jameel , Fahim Arshad, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 26 1 17 Ethnobotanical survey and In vivo study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Malva sylvestris L. <p><em>Background</em>: The mallow is a perennial, herbaceous biennial plant of the Malvaceae family occupying an important place in the Algerian flora. Several investigations demonstrated that this plant is very rich in bioactive compounds and possesses a large plethora of therapeutic properties, making it an interesting material deserving to be studied and developed to emphasize its curative power. Within the framework of the conservation and valorization of the consumable plants cultivated in Algeria, we aimed in the present work to investigate <em>Malva sylvestris</em> cultivated in the region of <em>Sidi Bel Abbes</em> (West of Algeria) as a consumable and a medicinal plant and to evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In this context, an ethnobotanical survey was carried out highlighting the popular knowledge regarding the medicinal uses of this plant. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assessed <em>in-vivo</em> using carrageenan-induced paw edema test.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Our survey demonstrated that the great mallow is used as a consumable plant and as a treatment against: inflammation, anti-cholesterol and anti-diabetes. For the anti-inflammatory activity, the studied extract proved its effective effect, and was able to inhibit the inflammation induced by carrageenan in a significant way (P≤0.05), after two hours of its administration, and at a dose of 550 mg/Kg PC.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: <em>Malva sylvestris</em> appears to be an interesting plant that could be used judiciously in the treatment of inflammation.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><em>:</em> <em>Malva sylvestris</em>, Ethnobotanical survey, Anti-inflammatory Activity, <em>İn vivo</em></p> Chafik Mhamdıa Narimane Seguenı Benif Hamdi Ahmed Reda Belmamoun Hamdi Afaf Bakı Mohamed Djamel Mıara Hamdi Copyright (c) 2023 Benif Hamdi, Chafik Mhamdıa, Narimane Seguenı, Ahmed Reda Belmamoun Hamdi, Afaf Bakı, Mohamed Djamel Mıara Hamdi 2023-07-21 2023-07-21 26 1 13 Medicinal plant use and integration of traditional healers into health care system: A case study at Ankasa Forest Reserve and catchment communities in Ghana <p><em>Background</em>: The study documented the medicinal plants used to treat diseases and assessed the level of integration of traditional medicine practice (TMP) into the health care delivery system in the study area.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: A structured questionnaire was purposively used to select informants from Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Association. The ethnographic method using a semi-structured questionnaire, interviews and group discussions was employed to collect data for assessing level of integration. The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Used Value (UV) of the species were determined.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 132 medicinal plant species was recorded. The most dominant family was the Fabaceae (19 species), growth form was the tree (76 % of species), the commonly used plant part was the bark (81 species), a disease commonly treated was malaria (34 species), and most common method of drug preparation was decoction (46.1 %). The medicinal plants with the highest RFC (0.90) and UV (1.72) values were <em>Morinda lucida</em> Benth. and <em>Nauclea latifolia</em> Sm. respectively. The low level of integration of TMP into the care health system was mainly due to poor collaboration between TMPs and biomedical staff.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Traditional communities rely on medicinal plants for primary healthcare but poor conservation practices put the knowledge and practice of traditional healing at a risk. The integration of TMP into the health care system needs Ghana government`s attention in the study area.</p> <p><em>Key words</em><strong>: </strong>Medicinal plants, Ankasa Forest Reserve, Traditional medicine practice</p> Paul Kwame Essandoh Gertrude Lucky Aku Dali Isaac Mbir Bryant Copyright (c) 2023 Paul Kwame Essandoh, Gertrude Lucky Aku Dali, Isaac Mbir Bryant 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 26 1 24 Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary phytochemical screening of Posa kumura: an uncharted ethnic food of Assam <p><em>Background</em>: India is a land of diverse ethnicity with plethora of ethnic foods. One of the ethnic foods is Posa kumura (a form prepared from matured fruit of <em>Benincasa hispida</em>) which is consumed in Assam. However, being not so popular, till date there is no written document to provide an evidence of its origin.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The present ethnobotanical study consists of both online (Google form) and offline (field visits and interviews) survey with 918 informers of the state having different gender, age groups and occupation through semi- structured questionnaires along with the preliminary phytochemical analysis.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The findings revealed that of 918 respondents (559 male, 358 female and 01 transgender) from 35 districts of Assam, 372 consumes Posa kumura in various forms. Of the 372 people, 75.81% opined that the matured <em>Benincasa hispida </em>(Thunb.) Cogn. is placed in shade for varying periods of time for conversion to Posa kumura. Though the production process reported is similar, it is different in terms of how people intend to consume. Frying of Posa kumura (49%) was the most favoured mode of consumption followed by curry (27%), dry (6%) and <em>pitha </em>(6%). The age-old health benefits claimed by the consumer of Posa kumura includes improved digestion, anti-diabetic, promotes weight loss, etc. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, coumarins. However, phenolics, tannins, phlobatannins, triterpenoids, lignins, quinones, anthraquinones, resins, fixed oils and fats were absent. Besides, Posa kumura also enhances milk production and helps prevent foot and mouth disease of cows.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Thus, it can be inferred that the functional ingredients of this food lead to improvement in health in a holistic way.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ash gourd; <em>Benincasa hispida </em>(Thunb.) Cogn.; Cucurbitaceae; ethnic food; ethnobotany; phytochemical analysis; Posa kumura.</p> Mrinal Kalita Sushil K Middha Debadin Bose Arvind K Goyal Copyright (c) 2023 Mrinal Kalita, Sushil K Middha, Debadin Bose, Arvind Goyal 2023-07-23 2023-07-23 26 1 19 Ethnobotanical study of Makra Hills district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> It is the first ethno-botanical study to preserve the ethno-flora of Makkra hills along with their different uses to document the indigenous knowledge. This study enumerated and highlighted the ethno-botanical significance of plants for different used categories by local people in unexplored and biodiversity rich region of Makkra hills AJ&amp;K, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A questionnaire method was adopted to conduct an ethno-medicinal study. A Questionnaire were filled by researcher during interviewing the local people in their native languages and data was analyzed by quantitative ethno-botanical indices such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Use Value (UV), and Relative Importance (RI).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Our findings revealed 68 plant species belonging to 64 genera of 36 families were used by the inhabitants of Makkra hills for various purposes. Angiosperms were leading in number with the contribution of 62 species of ethnoflora of study area. Herbaceous flora contributed 75% of ethnoflora of study area. Leading plant families were Poacceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. Classification of ethnoflora based on use categories revealed the most used category was medicinal with 57 plant species followed by food 26 species and 19 species with miscellaneous uses. Among plant parts usage leaves were most used parts with the representation of 26 plant species.</p> <p>Three quantitative matrices were used to calculate the important ethnobotanical species of study area with their versatility in uses. Based on Use Value index and Relative Frequency Citation, <em>Juglans regia </em>showed higher values of 2.62 and 0.84 respectively. <em>Berberis lycium</em> was the most versatile species of Makkra hills having a Relative Importance value of 1.80.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> We conclude that the people of Makkra hills are still harbouring a good knowledge due to their dependences on local flora. Conservation practices along with providence of basic facilities to the local inhabitants will be helpful to retain and recover the vegetation of Makkra hills in its original position.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> RFC<strong>=</strong>Relative Frequency Citation, UV=Used value, Mis= Miscellaneous, Traditonal knowledge, Ethnobotanical indices</p> Zaafran Mirzaman Sadaf Kayani Muhammad Manzoor Muhammad Azhar Jameel Muhammad Waheed Syed Waseem Gillani Choudhary Muhammad Babar Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Zaafran Mirzaman, Sadaf Kayani, Muhammad Manzoor , Muhammad Azhar Jameel , Muhammad Waheed, Syed Waseem Gillani , Choudhary Muhammad Babar, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 26 1 17 Ethnogynecological study of traditional therapeutic plants used by the indigenous communities: A case study from District Gujrat Punjab, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The present study aimed to evaluate the indigenous knowledge and use of medicinal plant species to treat different gynecological diseases by local people. Indigenous people use medicinal plants to treat various gynecological disorders.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnomedicinal data was collected from 110 randomly selected local informants through semi-structured questionnaires as well as face-to-face interviews. These data was quantitatively analyzed using various ethnobotanical indices such as family importance value, relative frequency of citation, use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (ICF), Jaccard index (JI), and ANOVA.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 59 plant species belonging to 24 families were recorded which were used to treat various 40 gynecological disorders. The informants documented the maximum number of plants used for irregular menstruation (15 spp.), followed by leucorrhea (11 spp.), gonorrhea (7 spp.), and abortion (5 spp.). The dominant family was Apiaceae (5 species). The dominant growth form was herbs (57.63%), while the common plant part used in remedies preparation was leaves (26%). Most people use medicinal plants in the form of extract (25 %), followed by decoction (17 %). The plant species with maximum use value was recorded for <em>Ricinus communis </em>(0.97), followed by <em>Mentha</em><em> viridis </em>(0.96), while the highest RFC value was reported for<em> Cuminum</em> <em>cyminum </em>(0.69). The maximum ICF value was reported for vomiting, emmenagogue, and sexual issues (0.99%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: This is the first-ever quantitative study focusing mainly on ethnoecological uses of medicinal plants from the district Gujrat, which emphasize the significance of traditional herbal plant remedies used for primary health care needs. The results of this study would serve as a baseline for advanced pharmacological and phytochemical screening pertaining to gynecological disorder.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Medicinal plants, gynecological disorders, Traditional knowledge, fidelity level; Gujrat, Pakistan</p> Salihah Khadim Khafsa Malik Rahmatullah Qureshi Misbah Sabith Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 Salihah Khadim, Khafsa Malik , Rahmatullah Qureshi, Misbah, Sabith Rehman 2023-06-18 2023-06-18 26 1 23 Ethnomedicinal utilization and conservation status of highland flora from Western Himalayas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: Ethnobotany is an interdisciplinary field that investigates the intricate relationship between plants and humans. The study was aimed to investigate the ethnomedicinal utilization and assessment of the conservation status of highland flora in the western Himalayan region of Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Pakistan. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The study was conducted from May to September during the years 2018 to 2020 in the blooming season of subalpine and alpine lacustrine wetlands-associated flora. Information was collected from local farmers, herb vendor and herbalist/ hakims for various usage and remedies. During the fieldwork, 80 respondents (50 male and 30 female) of different age groups were selected and personal observations were also recorded. Plants that have been recorded are given together with their indication, portion used, preparation method, and use value (UV). The informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) of the plants based on their utilization in relation to different disease categories were also determined through analysis of the results.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The current study has documented 47 medicinal plant species from 25 families used for the treatment of 25 different major and minor illnesses and conditions. The rhizome (22%), roots (18%) followed by leaves and whole plants (17%) were the most favored plants parts amongst the species. The highest RFC was recorded for <em>Aconitum chasmanthum </em>(0.61%) while <em>Iris hookeriana </em>and <em>Persicaria alpina </em>has the lowest (0.03%). The maximum used value was reported for <em>Thymus linearis </em>(0.63) and minimum for <em>Iris hookeriana </em>that is (0.01). The highest FL value was found in <em>Thymus linearis </em>(73.75%) and lowest was observed for <em>Lindelofia longiflora </em>(1.25%). The highest IAR value (1.00) against gout, tuberculosis and tonic while lowest value is 0.20 for kidney diseases. The most frequently used plant component was rhizome, and powder was found to be the primary method of preparation. Preparations are often either ingested or used topically. The conservation status showed that 57% species are vulnerable, 19% endangered, 13% critically endangered and 11% are threatened. </p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: This study contributes to the understanding of plant resource utilization patterns and the conservation status of high land flora in the western Himalaya region. The findings underscore the importance of implanting effective conservation measures to ensure the sustainable use of plant resources and the preservation of biodiversity in Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Medicinal plants, Highland flora, Western Himalayas, Conservation status</p> Muhammad Shakeel Awan Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar Karamit Hussain Shakeel Sabir Taskeen Iqbal Ansar Mehmood Tariq Habib Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Shakeel Awan, Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar, Karamit Hussain, Shakeel Sabir, Taskeen Iqbal, Ansar Mehmood, Tariq Habib 2023-09-02 2023-09-02 26 1 20 Ethnobotany of Dagestan <p><em>Background:</em> Dagestan is one of the most ethnically diverse regions of Russia, home to more than 17 indigenous ethnic groups. Geomorphologically, Dagestan is divided into four main physiographic provinces: Plain, Outer Mountain, Middle Mountain and High Mountain. The highlands are characterized by considerable depths of relief dissection and large height differences. The diversity of natural landscape, climate, flora, isolation of ethnic groups by inaccessible mountains, caused different specificity of cultural development of peoples, which was reflected in the peculiarities of the use of plants in folk life. This paper presents for the first time the results of a comprehensive ethnobotanical study, which was conducted to document wild plants used by indigenous ethnic groups of the Republic of Dagestan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical information of the region was collected in 2022-2023 by questionnaire survey of the data received from the population. More than 300 people were interviewed among different ethnic groups throughout the territory of the Dagestan Republic.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> 48 commonly utilized wild plants belonging to 25 families were recorded, of which 20 species were used for both food and medicinal purposes, 20 species were only for food, and 8 species were only for medicinal purposes. The most frequently used plants were from the family Rosaceae (8 species), 6 species were from the family Apiaceae, 4 species were from the family Lamiaceae, 3 species each were from the families Asteraceae and Alliaceae, 2 species each were from the families Boraginaceae, Fabaceae, Polygonaceae, Viburnaceae.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Studies have shown that the population of Dagestan currently continues to use the plants extensively for food, but medicinal use has decreased after the appearance of pharmacies in the region with preparations from the world pharmaceutical industry. To our opinion, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of plants used by Dagestan ethnic groups will allow to create promising medicines on their basis.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, Dagestan, North Caucasus, medicinal plants.</p> Aslan M. Aliev Ramazan A. Murtazaliev Fazina A. Vagabova Ziyarat A. Guseynova Baizanat A. Ramazanova Fatima I. Islamova Asiyat N. Alibegova Ruslan M. Osmanov Maxim M. Mallaliev Maina M. Mamalieva Gadzhi Radzhabov Djalaludin M. Anatov Rainer W Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Aslan M. Aliev, Ramazan A. Murtazaliev, Fazina A. Vagabova, Ziyarat A. Guseynova, Baizanat A. Ramazanova, Fatima I. Islamova, Asiyat N. Alibegova, Ruslan M. Osmanov, Maxim M. Mallaliev, Maina M. Mamalieva, Gadzhi Radzhabov, Djalaludin M. Anatov, Rainer W Bussmann 2023-11-18 2023-11-18 26 1 63 Medicinal plant utilization among three linguistic groups in selected districts of Jammu and Kashmir <p><em>Introduction: </em>A number of indigenous communities reside in the Himalayan belt of Kashmir, where absence of modern health care facilities represents crucial problems to their survival. This study was conducted with the aim to document the use of medicinal plants by Gujjar, Bakerwal and Kashmiri communities of three different districts Jammu and Kashmir.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>A total of 167 participants were selected through snowball sampling to collect the data using a semi-structured questionnaire. Among these, 44 were Kashmiri, 67 Gujjar and 56 Bakerwal between 24 and 80 years of age.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>During the study, 80 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented. The most dominant family in terms of number of taxa was Asteraceae (11 species). Herbaceous taxa were the most used life form, and leaves were the most commonly used plant part. Infusion was the most preferred method used in extracts preparation. The highest number of sixteen species (20%) were uniquely used by Kashmiri, while the Gujjar use the lowest number of thirteen species (16%). A cross-cultural evaluation of plant resources indicated that the three cultures possessed 14% of the comparable plants.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The rural and inaccessible communities still lay a considerable emphasis on medicinal plants as a viable cure for a diverse spectrum of illnesses. But the disappearance of this vital information is imminent. To assess and retain this native knowledge for the invention of innovative new treatments, more phytochemical and pharmacological research should be done on the plants that are reportedly utilized by all of the groups.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, Traditional knowledge, Gujjar, Bakerwal, Kashmiri</p> Tawseef Ahmad Mir Muatasim Jan Tuybia Bilal Hammad Ahmad Jan Rainer W Bussmann Neha Saini Copyright (c) 2023 Tawseef Ahmad Mir, Muatasim Jan, Tuybia Bilal, Hammad Ahmad Jan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Neha Saini 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 26 1 22 Ethnomedicinal Study of the Flora of Sellay Pattay Valley, District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p><em>Background: </em>Plants are the basic source of medicines to treat and remediate different health concerns. The current study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge of folk medicinal Flora in Sellay Pattay valley, district Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnomedicinal study was carried out to document the indigenous knowledge about the use of medicinal plants. The data was gathered through interviews with randomly chosen informants in the field. The obtained data from informants were analyzed through various statistical indices such as Frequency citation (RFC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use relative (UR), Use value (UV), Fidelity level (FL), and Informant consensus factor (ICF).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 111 plant species belonged to 58 families were documented, amongst them Lamiaceae was the leading family with 12 species. The highest use value (Uv) was recorded for <em>Justicia adhatoda </em>L. (0.98), while the lowest value (0.24) was recorded for<em> Myosotis alpestris </em>F.W.Schmidt. The highest frequency citation was reported for <em>Morus alba </em>L. with a value of 150 and the lowest was depicted for <em>Calotropis procera </em>(Aiton) Dryand. with a value of 28. The highest relative frequency citation was recorded for <em>Morus alba </em>L. 0.50, and lowest value for <em>Malvastrum coromandelianum </em>(L.) Garcke with 0.08. The plants including<em> Amaranthus viridis </em><em>L</em><em>.</em>, <em>Rumex hastatus </em>D. Don<em>, </em><em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em> Dehnh., <em>Justicia adhatoda </em>L., and <em>Ajuga bracteosa </em>Wall. ex Benth. had the highest FL with 98.88% against specific disorders and<em> Acacia modesta </em><em>Wall</em><em>., </em><em>Olea ferruginea</em> Wall. ex Aitch.,<em> Ziziphus oxyphylla</em> Edgew.,<em> Morus nigra </em>L., and <em>Dysphania botrys </em>(L.) Mosyakin &amp; Clemants were having more than 80% FL. Diabetes was the top ranked disease with a relatively higher Informant consensus factor (ICF) of 0.91, followed by muscular and sexual diseases with ICF of 0.88. It was observed that leaves of the plants play an important role in the treatment of various disorders and their percentage contribution was recorded as 66%.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Sellay Pattay valley has a huge diversity of medicinal plants. The maximum number of therapeutic taxa were used in the mode of decoction for effective work against specific disorders accounts for 54% percent of all medicinal plants. The dependency of people were relied on therapeutic plants due to easy availability and low prices. However, the use of these taxa showed no side effects with proper recipes.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal, Flora, Malakand, Pakistan, Traditional</p> Muhammad Ayub Ghulam Mujtaba Shah Muhammad Irfan Fazal Ullah Asad Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Ayub, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Muhammad Irfan, Fazal Ullah, Asad Ullah 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 26 1 17 Ethnobotanical statistics of disease groups treated by medicinal plants used in the province of Taza (northern Morocco) <p><em>Background</em>: The province of Taza (northern Morocco) constitutes one of the richest and most diversified ecological and floristic zones. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices can enhance the continuous propagation of local phytotherapeutic plants in this area.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The 91 taxa identified based on an ethnobotanical survey carried out between March and October 2021 in Taza province has been statistically valued. IBM-SPSS-Statistics-25 processed the results. Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL), Ranking Order Priority (ROP), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR) were calculated, and The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: These medicinal plants have 61 medicinal uses belonging to 14 disease groups. <em>Olea europaea</em> L. subsp. <em>Europaea</em> displayed highest values for RFC (0.294) and ROP (74.41), <em>Salvia officinalis</em> L. displayed highest UV (0.606) and 15 species displayed highest FL (100%). The classes of diseases where ICF and IAR are high are respectively endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (ICF=IAR=0.92) and Diseases of the digestive system (ICF=IAR=0.88). The PCA revealed that most of the variation was captured by the first component, showing the importance of the using Medicinal plants (79.48%), which grouped (ROP, RFC, IC, UV and T) whose most used species are <em>Salvia officinalis</em> L.. While for the second component (16.75%) showing the fidelity of use for a disease, <em>Cuminum cyminum</em> L. is the most faithful.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: These statistical results reflect the importance of medicinal plants in treating of diseases.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Medicinal uses; Disease group; Ethnobotanical indices; Taza (Morocco).</p> <p> </p> Issam Ghabbour Nabil Ghabbour Abdelmajid Khabbach Said Louahlia Khalil Hammani Copyright (c) 2023 Issam Ghabbour, Nabil Ghabbour, Abdelmajid Khabbach, Said Louahlia, Khalil Hammani 2023-11-21 2023-11-21 26 1 23 Cross-cultural ethnomedicinal study of the wild species of the genus Berberis used by the ethnic communities living along both sides of the Indo-Pak border in Kashmir <p><em>Background: </em>Plants have been the basis of human medical systems for thousands of years in Pakistan and India. This study was conducted to compare the traditional medicinal knowledge and species diversity of the genus <em>Berberis</em> that are widely distributed in the study area.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The data was collected through group discussion and face-to-face interviews from 2,368 participants during 2020–2022, using a semi-structured questionnaire.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>We collected a total of five species of the genus <em>Berberis</em>. Four species (<em>Berberis aristata</em>, <em>Berberis lycium</em>, <em>Berberis pseudumbellata</em>, and <em>Berberis vulgaris</em>) were documented from Kashmir Pakistan and four species (<em>Berberis aristata</em>, <em>Berberis kashmirana</em>, <em>Berberis lycium</em>, and <em>Berberis pseudumbellata</em>) from Kashmir India. The most commonly reported species in both areas was <em>Berberis lycium</em>. The most common group of diseases treated in Kashmir, India, was digestive diseases, and in Kashmir, Pakistan, liver and endocrine system diseases. The root was found to be the most used plant part in both regions (33% of all uses). The decoction was found to be used predominantly for the preparation of herbal remedies (26%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The results of this study clearly show that ethnomedicinal knowledge is still alive in the study area, but due to political restrictions, the local people cannot share the knowledge easily.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnomedicine; Genus <em>Berberis</em>; Cross-cultural study; Kashmir Pakistan; Kashmir India</p> Hammad Ahmad Jan Tawseef Ahmad Mir Rainer W. Bussmann Muatasim Jan Uzma Hanif Sher Wali Copyright (c) 2023 Hammad Ahmad Jan, Tawseef Ahmad Mir, Rainer W. Bussmann, Muatasim Jan, Uzma Hanif, Sher Wali 2023-06-18 2023-06-18 26 1 14 Quantitative ethnomedicinal studies of wild edible fruits used by the indigenous people of the Surghar Range, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> Surghar range is one of Pakistan's backward and less explored areas with numerous wild edible fruit species. Indigenous people lack basic medical facilities and mostly depend upon wild edible fruits for their food requirements and health care.</p> <p><em>Objectives:</em> The present research work was aimed to document and preserve the valuable pool of indigenous knowledge about the medicinal uses of wild edible fruits of the Surghar range, Pakistan. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnomedicinal information was collected from 55 respondents (aged 40-85 years) belonging to 16 different localities of the Surghar range, Pakistan. Research work was started in July 2021 and completed in January 2023. Compelling semi-structured interviews were conducted with the respondents, and complete data were recorded on questionnaires. Quantitative indices such as fidelity level (FL<strong>) </strong>and relative frequency of citation (RFC) were used to determine the medicinal significance of wild edible fruits of the Surghar range.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> This research work provided ethnomedicinal information about 43 wild edible fruits belonging to 16 families. These wild edible fruit species were used to treat 36 human and animal diseases in the Surghar range. Moraceae, with 7 species (16.27%), was recorded as the dominant dicot family. Arecaceae (6.97 %) was the dominant monocot family. The maximum RFC was reported for <em>Berberis lycium</em> (0.763), and the lowest value was calculated for <em>Morus macroura</em> (0.072). The highest FL was documented for<em> Grewia tenax </em>(69.23%), and the lowest was recorded for <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> (8.69%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Recent research work demonstrated that all the wild edible fruit plants had medicinal potential but <em>Berberis lycium</em>, <em>Grewia tenax, Tinospora cordifolia</em>, <em>Salvadora persica</em>, <em>Cordia myxa, </em>and <em>Sideroxylon mascatense</em> were recorded as highly medicinal in the Surghar range. This research work will be useful for the local inhabitants to conserve these medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Wild edible fruits, Relative frequency of citation, Fidelity level, Moraceae, Surghar range </p> Shahzad Hussain Faizan Ullah Amin Shah Ihsan Ullah Sultan Mehmood Iram Gul Sarvat Rahim Irfan Ali Shah Noor Ul Uza Copyright (c) 2023 Shahzad Hussain, Faizan Ullah, Amin Shah, Ihsan Ullah, Sultan Mehmood, Iram Gul, Sarvat Rahim, Irfan Ali Shah, Noor Ul Uza 2023-10-27 2023-10-27 26 1 17 Quantitative ethno-gynecological survey of traditional medicinal plants from Punjab province, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The purpose of the present study was to document quantitative indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used for treating various gynecological disorders by the herbalist (Hakeem) and traditional communities of selected rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Materials and Methods</em>: The study was conducted from February 2022 to January 2023. During the research work, the use of medicinal plants and their medicinal uses for curing gynecological disorders were recorded by interviewing 600 informants of different age groups (20-85 years) via semi-structured interviews.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In all, 60 therapeutic plants belonging to 15 families were recorded that were used by the <em>traditional communities</em> of study areas for the cure of various kinds of gynecological disorders. Among families, Asteraceae was the largest that contributed 17 species. The dominant life form was herbs (39 species) and the mostly used plant part was whole plant (14 species). The highest Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) was recorded for <em>Anethum graveolens </em>(0.96). Similarly, the highest Use Value (0.98) was recorded for <em>Amaranthus caudatu,s </em><em>Amaranthus angustifolius </em>and the lowest (0.33) for <em>Justicia adhatoda</em>. Likewise, the highest Fidelity Level (FL) was recorded for <em>Anaphalis nepalensis </em>(100%) which was used to treat leucorrhea, and the lowest FL was recorded for <em>Oxystelma esculentum </em>(41.94%) in treating gonorrhea. Family importance index (FIV) indicated that Asteraceae was the dominant (96.66) in the region for contributing medicinal plants, while Zingeberaceae was the lowest one (16.66).</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em><em>The selected sites being remote areas are devoid of basic health facilities, so the natives learnt about medicinal plants to treat human diseases including gynecological problems.</em> The current research work illustrated that the inhabitants have good knowledge about native plants for treating gynecological disorders. This research can be used as a benchmark for future pharmacological studies to discover novel herbal medicines.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Folk knowledge, Quantitative, Medicinal plants, Gynecological disorders, Punjab, Pakistan</p> Huma Zareef Fazli Sarim Rahmatullah Qureshi Copyright (c) 2023 Huma Zareef, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Fazli Malik Sarim 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 26 1 20 The diversity and traditional knowledge of wild edible vegetables in Aceh, Indonesia <p><em>Background</em>: Wild edible vegetables contribute significantly to human well-being. These plants have a high nutritional value and are a source of novel alleles/genes that are important in developing new and improved crop cultivars to promote sustainable food security. However, most wild edible vegetables are less well-known and underutilized. This study aimed to investigate wild edible vegetable species diversity and their potential in the Aceh region, Indonesi</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The ethnobotanical study was carried out in two districs, i.e. Aceh Selatan and Aceh barat Daya. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out from May to June 2023 and included 383 randomly selected respondents. The ethnobotanical investigation uses semi-structured questionnaires to gather information on the traditional knowledge of wild edible vegetables. Plant specimens were collected and identified in Universitas Samudra.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 86 wild species belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were documented as being consumed as vegetables by local people in the study area. In terms of frequency of citation, only 28 taxa were cited by 75% or more of the interviewed people, 17 (20%) vegetable taxa were commonly gathered and consumed, 35 (41.2%) were rarely cited - ranging from 5 to 20% of informants, and 5 were very rarely cited. <em>Artocarpus integer, Archidendron bubalinum, Etlingera elatior, Macrothelypteris torresiana, Stenochlaena palustris, Bambusa vulgaris, Colocasia esculenta, Pseudosasa japonica, Diplazium esculentum</em>, and <em>Ipomoea aquatica</em> are the ten most cited vegetables in the study area. Despite the fact that the study discovered a high diversity of wild edible vegetables, local people in Kluet Tengah only used an average of 31.11 ± 9.21 species out of 57 species recorded. Most of the reported vegetables were consumed cooked (74 species), eaten raw (2), both cooked and raw (3), and 5 species were added as a spice to the dish. Indigenous knowledge of wild edible vegetables was significantly associated with districts, age groups, and educational levels.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Aceh has a diverse range of wild edible vegetables, but only a small proportion has been used by local people, particularly as food. Promotion and domestication of wild edible vegetables should be a primary concern in Aceh in order to take advantage of their nutritional value and potential economic value. Moreover, integrating knowledge related to wild edible vegetables into the educational curriculum is critical for educating the next generation regarding the potential of wild edible vegetables in the future.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Aceh, biodiversity, local knowledge, wild vegetable, underutilized plants</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p><em>Latar Belakang</em>: Sayuran liar memberikan kontribusi signifikan terhadap kesejahteraan manusia. Tumbuhan ini memiliki nilai gizi yang tinggi dan merupakan sumber alel/gen baru yang penting dalam pengembangan kultivar tanaman baru dan lebih baik untuk meningkatkan ketahanan pangan berkelanjutan. Meskipun demikian, sebagian besar sayuran liar kurang dikenal dan kurang dimanfaatkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman sayuran liar dan potensinya di wilayah Aceh, Indonesia.</p> <p><em>Metode: </em>Penelitian dilakukan di dua kabupaten, yaitu Aceh Selatan dan Aceh Barat Daya. Survei etnobotani dilakukan pada bulan Mei hingga Juni 2023 dan melibatkan 383 responden yang dipilih secara acak. Koleksi data etnobotani menggunakan kuesioner semi-terstruktur untuk mengumpulkan informasi tentang pengetahuan tradisional tentang sayuran liar. Spesimen tumbuhan dikumpulkan dan diidentifikasi di Universitas Samudra.</p> <p><em>Hasil: </em>Sebanyak 86 spesies sayuran liar yang termasuk dalam 35 suku dan 67 marga ditemukan dikonsumsi sebagai sayuran oleh masyarakat lokal di lokasi penelitian. Meskipun demikian, hanya 28 taksa yang dikonsumsi oleh 75% orang atau lebih yang diwawancarai, 17 (20%) taksa sayuran yang umum dikonsumsi, 35 (41,2%) jarang dikonsumsi, dan 5 jenis sangat jarang dikonsumsi. <em>Artocarpus integer, Archidendron bubalinum, Etlingera elatior, Macrothelypteris torresiana, Stenochlaena palustris, Bambusa vulgaris, Colocasia esculenta, Pseudosasa japonica, Diplazium esculentum</em>, dan <em>Ipomoea aquatica</em> adalah sepuluh jenis sayuran yang paling banyak dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat di lokasi penelitian. Meskipun penelitian ini menemukan keanekaragaman jenis sayuran liar yang tinggi, masyarakat lokal di Kluet Tengah hanya memanfaatkan rata-rata 31.11 ± 9.21 jenis dari 57 jenis yang ditemukan. Sebagian besar sayuran dikonsumsi dalam bentuk dimasak (74 jenis), dimakan mentah (2 jenis), dimasak dan mentah (3 jenis), dan 5 jenis ditambahkan sebagai bumbu masakan. Pengetahuan masyarakat lokal mengenai sayuran liar yang dapat dimakan berhubungan secara signifikan dengan kabupaten, kelompok umur, dan tingkat pendidikan.</p> <p><em>Kesimpulan:</em> Aceh memiliki beragam jenis sayuran liar yang dapat dimakan, namun hanya sebagian kecil yang dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat setempat, khususnya sebagai makanan. Promosi dan budidaya sayuran liar harus menjadi perhatian utama di Aceh untuk memanfaatkan nilai gizi dan potensi nilai ekonominya. Selain itu, mengintegrasikan pengetahuan terkait sayuran liar ke dalam kurikulum pendidikan sangat penting untuk mendidik generasi berikutnya mengenai potensi sayuran liar di masa depan.</p> <p><em>Kata kunci: </em>Aceh, biodiversitas, pengetahuan lokal, sayuran liar, tumbuhan kurang termanfaatkan</p> Adnan Adnan Zidni Ilman Navia Muhammad Jamil Adi Bejo Suwardi Copyright (c) 2023 Adnan Adnan, Zidni Ilman Navia, Muhammad Jamil, Adi Bejo Suwardi 2023-10-24 2023-10-24 26 1 16 A quantitative ethnobotanical approach to assess knowledge richness on the use of plants among the Santal Medicine Men of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India <p><em>Background:</em> Documentation of folk tradition on the use of medicinal plants is being carried out by the ethnobotanist from different parts of the world. The present study aims to measure medicinal plant use-knowledge among the Santal tribal people of Birbhum district. In terms of quantitative ethnobotany, this study is the first attempt from the district of Birbhum, West Bengal. The quantitative analysis in this research work identifies potential medicinal plants and plants which demand priority for immediate conservation.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> This ethnomedicinal survey was done in the tribal pockets of Birbhum district from August 2019 to August 2021. In this study 31 tribal informants were selected employing purposive sampling method and interrogated by throwing semi-structured questionnaires. <em>In-situ</em> (Inventory interview, guided tour) and <em>ex-situ</em> (visual stimuli, photographic documentation of preserved herbal drugs along with questionnaire) methods were applied during data collection. Free and Prior Informed Consent (PIC) has been taken. Recorded data were analysed by conventional (qualitative) and quantitative ethnobotanical (Informants Consensus Factor, Relative Frequency of Citation and Fidelity Level) techniques. Finally, the IUCN Red List was scrutinized for the global status of the documented species and conservation aspects were highlighted based on quantitative techniques.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 40 ethnomedicinal plant species were recorded which belong to 33 families and 40 genera were recorded. These plants were formulated in curing about 34 different diseases and ailments of human and veterinary animals. Herbaceous plants (35%) were mostly used in remedy preparations. Decoction (N=22) is the preferred form of medication followed by poultice and ointment (N = 11), massage (N = 4), Chewing (N = 1), powder (N = 1). Commonly used plant parts were underground parts like roots, rhizome and pseudobulb (N=20) followed by leaf (N=10), stem bark (N=7), flower (N=2), whole plant (N=1). Fic value of 12 disease categories range from 0.31-0.764, among them respiratory disorders got the highest value. Quantitative analysis following Relative Frequency of Citation(RFC) and Fidelity Level(FL%) indices showed that some taxa were getting maximum Fidelity Level (100%) and RFC (1), namely <em>Euphorbia fusiformis</em>, <em>Madhuca longifolia </em>var. <em>latifolia</em>, <em>Cleistanthus collinus</em>, etc. The IUCN status of 40 reported medicinal plant species showed 5 % species are presently Vulnerable (<em>Jatropha nana</em>, <em>Cleistanthus collinus</em>),15 % Least Concern (<em>Eclipta prostrata, Hellinia speciosa, Litsea glutinosa, Pterospermum acerifolium, Rivea hypocrateriformis, Woodfordia fruticosa</em>), while the status is unknown for 80% of the documented species.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The study concluded that some important ethnomedicinal species like <em>Woodfordia fruticosa, Premna herbacea, Pterospermum acerifolium, Ruellia suffruticosa, Cleistanthus colliinus, Hellinia speciosa</em>, etc. are frequently used in tribal medicine of the Birbhum district as identified on basis of their high RFC and FL values. It caters for the scope of further study with these plants in the line of pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. There is also an urgent need to acknowledge Local Knowledge Holders and preservation of associated phytoresources of the study area which has not been addressed till date. Medicinal plant species such as <em>Jatropha nana</em> and <em>Cleistanthus collinus</em> are Vulnerable and many others could be included in the threatened category in near future due to overexploitation. So conservation priority and conservation measures should be set up through in-depth study of diversity and population of the medicinal plants which are unsustainably harvested.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal flora, Birbhum district, High Fidelity, crude drug, pharmacognosy, IUCN status, conservation</p> Bandana Pradhan Swarnendu Mondal Copyright (c) 2023 Swarnendu Mondal, Bandana Pradhan 2023-07-25 2023-07-25 26 1 21 Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used for treatment of urinary tract infections in Mara region, Tanzania <p><em>Background:</em> Medicinal plants (MPs) are a valuable inheritance for humanity, especially in most rural communities that rely on them for their primary healthcare needs. This study aims to document MPs used by Kuria Traditional Healers (KTH) in managing Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Mara region, Tanzania.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> This study was conducted in Tarime and Serengeti districts in Mara Region, Tanzania. Ethnobotanical information were collected using semi-structured interviews and field walks with 20 KTH from July 2021 to February 2022. The study focused on MPs' names, parts used, preparation, and administration of remedies. Descriptive statistics and inferential indices were performed to analyze the data, and conservation statuses of the recorded MPs were retrieved from IUCN RedList online database.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of twenty MPs belonging to 8 families were documented. The families with the higher number of MPs were Asteraceae (31.6%), followed by Lamiaceae (26.3%) and Fabaceae (15.8%). Most plants were shrubs (53%) and herbs (37%). Leaves (53%) and roots (29%) were the most preferred MPs parts for remedy formulation. Decoction (55%) and oral route (100%) were the most cited preparation and application of remedies, respectively. Among the recorded MPs, 35% fall within the least concern category in the IUCN database. Gender, age, education level, and experience significantly (p &lt; 0.05) affected traditional medicinal knowledge.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The study discloses that the KTHs have rich knowledge of MPs used to treat UTIs. Their expertise on MPs should be validated with phytochemical and pharmacological studies, and their knowledge and practices must be conserved for future generations.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicine, indigenous healers, infectious diseases, remedies, traditional medicines, UTIs</p> David Sylvester Kacholi Mary Zacharia Charwi Neema Gideon Mogha Copyright (c) 2023 David Sylvester Kacholi, Mary Zacharia Charwi, Neema Gideon Mogha 2023-09-03 2023-09-03 26 1 14 Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of neurological disorders in the Western Ghats region of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. <p><em>Background</em>: The incidence of neurological disorders has increased globally over last decade particularly in developing countries. People inhabiting in the remote regions of Dakshina Kannada district are often affected with several kinds of neurological disorders. No specific survey has been carried out for neurological disorders so far, hence the present study was undertaken to document the plants used to treat such disorders.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This study was conducted in Western Ghats region of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India, during 2018 -2022 to document the ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of neurological disorders by the tribal and ethnic groups of this region. This region is considered as a repository of ethnomedicinal wealth for treating various human ailments. Data was collected based on semi-structured questionnaire, interviews and discussions with traditional practitioners. Recorded data were analyzed by conventional methods as well as quantitative ethnobotanical parameters such as Use Value (UV), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Informants Consensus Factor (ICF).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study provides useful information on 143 plant species belonging to 61 families used to treat neurological disorders such as epilepsy, depression, insomnia, paralysis and psychosis. Among these species, 101 were wild and 42 cultivated. Leaves are widely utilized in the preparation of remedies. The most predominant family was Fabaceae (16 species), and growth form was the trees (56 species). The medicinal plant exhibited highest RFC (0.36) value is <em>Eclipta prostrata</em>. Higher informant consensus factor (ICF) value was reported for psychosis (ICF=0.35) followed by epilepsy (ICF=0.24), insomnia (ICF=0.22), depression (ICF=0.13) and least for paralysis (ICF=0).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The medicinal plants were documented with the focus on conserving the ethnic knowledge as documentary evidence for natural herbal product research. This study concluded that medicinal plant species such as <em>Cuminum cyminum</em>, <em>Cynodon dactylon</em>, <em>Rauvolfia serpentina</em>, <em>Vitex negundo</em> and <em>Withania somnifera</em> have been used to treat maximum number of ailments. IUCN status of 143 medicinal plant species showed that, 3 species are in near threatened (NT) category, 5 species vulnerable (VU), 3 species endangered (EN), 48 are in least concern (LC) category, 2 species are in data deficient (DD) category and the status is not evaluated (NE) for 82 species.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Folk medicine, Western Ghats, Neurological disorders, Tribal communities, Conservation status</p> Yogeesha A Krishnakumar G Copyright (c) 2023 Yogeesha A, Krishnakumar G 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 26 1 30 Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Uganda <p><em>Background:</em> Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasingly becoming a global health problem. In Uganda, DM prevalence rate has more than doubled in the last decade. Although management options for DM are various including conventional medicine, physical exercise and diet, use of traditional medicine has increasingly gained traction. However, there is little information about the medicinal plants used for managing DM in Uganda and it is against this background that this study was conducted.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the four regions of Uganda represented by 24 districts. Information was collected from 197 traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) who were selected using purposive and snowball sampling techniques and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Data was presented using descriptive statistics and quantitatively analysed using the use value (UV) and ANOVA and principal component analysis.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total 71 medicinal plant species belonging to 44 families were mentioned by the TMPs as being used in the management of DM. The Fabaceae and Moraceae accounted for the highest number of plant species. Although woody and wildly occurring plants accounted for the highest number of plants listed in the management of diabetes, the most frequently used plants were herbaceous and domesticated plant species. An indication that TMPs frequently use plants that are available and easy to access. There was high similarity in the plant species mentioned by TMPs in the Eastern-Northern regions and those in the Central-Western regions and this is perhaps due to the similarities in climatic and ethnic factors experienced by these regions.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This study contributes to the wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants used to manage DM in the world. It underscores the significance of plant species towards human health and ultimately the need to conserve them. Further research should be carried out to validate the antidiabetic potential of the mentioned medicinal plant species in this study.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Traditional Health Practitioners, Medicinal plants, Uganda.</p> Moreen Uwimbabazi Bernadette Kabonesa Samuel Ongarep Francis Omujal Hillary Agaba Copyright (c) 2023 Moreen Uwimbabazi, Ms., Mr., Francis Omujal, Dr. 2023-10-24 2023-10-24 26 1 14 Ethnomedicinal uses and conservation status of medicinal orchids from Western Himalayas of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan <p><em>Background: </em>The medicinal orchid species of the Himalaya are of great importance due to their various medicinal properties. These orchids have been used for centuries by the local communities in the region for their medicinal benefits. The Himalayan orchids are particularly unique because they have adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of the high altitude and harsh weather. Unfortunately, due to habitat loss and overharvesting for commercial purposes, many orchid species are now threatened with extinction. The main objective of this research was to identify, document ethnomedicinal uses and find conservation status of medicinal orchids used by local inhabitants of western Himalayas, Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Interviews were conducted with 80 residents (30 women and 50 men) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), informant agreement ratio (IAR), plant parts value (PPV) and conservation status were used to express the results.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The research area is home of 18 orchids that are significant from an ethnobotanical perspective. The tuber (40%) and root (30%), followed by the rhizome (15%), were the most favored plant parts amongst the species that were recorded. The highest RFC was recorded for <em>Habenaria intermedia</em> (0.69) while <em>Gymnadenia orchidis </em>had the lowest 0.05. The UV was between 0.04 to 0.56. <em>Habenaria intermedia </em>was found to possess the highest UV (UV 0.56) whereas <em>Cypripedium cordigerum</em> had the loweest UV (0.04). The highest FL was found in <em>Dactylorhiza</em><em> hatagirea </em>(68.75%) and <em>Goodyera repens</em> had the lowest FL (6.25%). The highest IAR value is 1.00, which contributes to digestive disorders, liver diseases, gout, urinary tract infection, antibacterial, analgesic, skin diseases, tuberculosis, and diabetes. <em>The main plant parts used by the locals for ethnomedicine are tuber, root, rhizome, and leaves. The conservation status showed that 61 % species are vulnerable, 31% are endangered and 6% are near to threatened.</em></p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> According to ethnobotanical study, the native people of the researched area are knowledgeable about the practices of orchids, and both the plants and the native knowledge need to be protected.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal Plants, Western Himalayas, Conservation Status, Endangered Species</p> Karamit Hussain Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar Ansar Mehmood Shakeel Sabir Muhammad Shakeel Awan Khawaja Shafique Ahmad Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Karamit Hussain, Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar, Ansar Mehmood, Shakeel Sabir, Muhammad Shakeel Awan, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-06-18 2023-06-18 26 1 13 Novel medicinal plants uses for the treatment of respiratory disorders - An overview from Madyan Swat, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: Rural people living in Madyan Valley, Swat, Pakistan, rely extensively on medicinal plants for treating respiratory chest infections, cough, cold, asthma and bronchitis. Therefore, the present aims to identify specific medicinal plants for the treatment of respiratory diseases and analysis of different types of preparation for relieving respiratory ailments.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Accordingly, men and women were interviewed using medicinal herb data sheets, supplemented with a transect walk. Uses, modes of preparation, storage and collection habitats of individual plants used for treating respiratory disorders were identified and recorded. Medicinal plants’ natural habitat provided a platform to further explore the active medicinal properties unknown to the community. Medicinal plant data were quantitatively measured using measurement models such as relative frequency citation (RFC); use value (UV) and fidelity level (FL).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study recorded fifty-one plant species belonging to 32 families used for relieving respiratory diseases. Lamiaceae was the largest family with six species followed by Asteraceae and Apiaceae. About 30% of women knew the active medicinal properties, compared to 53% of men. The elderly women who had a deeper knowledge of plant remedies dispensed the plants in infusions, decoctions, and syrups; however, the most common form of intake was sundried powder typically administered with water.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Herbal treatments in Northern Pakistan are reliable, inexpensive alternatives for treating respiratory conditions. We recommend appropriate management and the promotion of the cultivation and conservation of medicinal plants. In addition, raising awareness of the importance of medicinal plants for respiratory conditions must be established.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Medicinal plants, herbal preparations, respiratory diseases, traditional medicine, Northern Pakistan</p> Shazia Dilbar Hassan Sher Ahmad Ali Zahid Ullah Muhammad Shuaib Muhammad Yaseen Saraj Bahadur Copyright (c) 2023 Saraj Bahadur, Shazia Dilbar, Hassan Sher, Ahmad Ali, Zahid Ullah, Muhammad Shuaib, Muhammad Yaseen 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 26 1 15 Sustainability and socio-economic impacts of plant resources utilization in Valley Lalku, District Swat, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: Plants provide a variety of useful products such as food, wood for construction purposes, secondary metabolites with a huge range of commercial uses and raw materials for modern day pharmaceutical industry. These utilities place plants at the top of natural resources chart both ecologically and economically due to their prominent role in supporting the livelihood of man. In addition to this, common folk also benefit from sales and marketing of plants and plant products. Although these people-plant interactions play a vital role in poverty alleviation it is unfortunate that existing methods of plant resource utilization are unscientific, ill planned and lavish. These poor practices of resource overuse in developing countries have led to deforestation and removal of vegetation cover. Hence well-planned conservation centric studies are need of the day.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Present study was designed to document plant resources utilization and their socio-economic impacts in montane temperate ecosystems of Lalku valley, District Swat. The study aimed at documentation of ethnic knowledge regarding the medicinally and socio-economically important plant species in the locality. Data on plant resources was collected by using standardized surveys and purpose specific questionnaires.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study revealed that various ethnic groups of the locality were using 112 plants belonging to 63 families for multiples utilities. During survey it was found that the livelihood of rural populations was highly dependent upon these natural resources which provided a range of suitable products including timber, fuelwood, crude medicines, fruits and many other beneficial aspects for daily life. </p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: This research work concluded that people plant interactions in these montane temperate ecosystems are of huge value for the local folk ranging from wild edibles, timber, fuelwood and medicine as majority of the people belong to low-income classes. It was also noticed that plant resource utilization was heterogeneous which may lead to disastrous ecological consequences in years come. Hence, these plant resources are under the pressure of over collection on large scale. Moreover, the benefits obtained from the plant trade of commercially important plants are not sharing equally among the population, therefore there is a lack of interest in sustainable harvesting and sensible management. This has led to reduction in population density of valuable plant species. Current study will provide a baseline of information for future studies in this regard and will enable conservation biologists to lay down proper conservation strategies.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Plant resources, Sustainable harvesting, Socio-economic impacts.</p> Hazrat Sher Asghar Ali Hassan Sher Rainer W Bussmann Inayat Ur Rahman Hameed Ullah Ahmad Ali Zahid Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Hazrat Sher, Asghar Ali, Hassan Sher, Rainer W Bussmann, Inayat Ur Rahman, Hameed Ullah, Ahmad Ali, Zahid Ullah 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 26 1 18 Ethnobotany and quantitative analysis of medicinal plants used by the people of Malava sub-county, Western Kenya <p><em>Background</em>: This research aims to identify and document medicinal plants used by locals in Malava sub-county, Western Kenya, and explore their traditional knowledge and transmission. The ethnomedicinal knowledge in this area is on the brink of extinction due to the increasing prevalence and usage of modern medicine, changing livelihoods, rapid modernization, and urbanization.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The survey was conducted between July and December 2022, using semi-structured open-ended questionnaires and guided field walks. A total of 102 respondents, including Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs), participated. The quantitative analysis involved calculating the use value (UV), frequency of citation (FC), family use value (FUV), and informant agreement ratio (IAR) to assess the significance of each medicinal plant and understand its acceptance.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study documented 62 vascular medicinal plant species from 30 families. The most represented families were Asteraceae and Fabaceae, with seven species each (11.3%). Families with the highest FUV values were Xanthorrhoeaceae (0.235) and Meliaceae (0.612). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part (40%), while trees were the most prevalent plant form (39%). Crushing was the highest recorded mode of preparation (46.2%) with oral administration being common (76.9%). <em>Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss. was the most utilized plant species medicinally, with the highest use value (UV=0.25). The majority of plant species were used for curing stomachaches (18 species) and malaria (15 species).</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Conclusions</em>: The findings of this study underscore the urgent need to document traditional knowledge before it becomes lost with the decline of rural practitioners. Therefore, there is a pressing need for ethnobotanical research, policy initiatives, and community programs to protect the biocultural diversity associated with the traditional medical system and ensure the well-being of both the environment and human populations in this region.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, quantitative analysis, traditional medical practitioners, Malava sub-county, Western Kenya</p> Lindsay Sikuku Brian Njoroge Vincent Suba Emily Achieng Josephat Mbogo Yuelin Li Copyright (c) 2023 Lindsay Mwalati Sikuku, Mwangi Brian Njoroge, Vincent Ochieng Suba, Emily Achieng Oluoch, Josephat Rutere Mbogo, Li Yuelin 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 26 1 20 Afro-diasporic ethnobotany: Food plants and food sovereignty of Quilombos in Brazil <p><em>Background: </em>Traditional territories can safeguard a great diversity of food plants through local practices that can contribute to the food security of these traditional people. Urbanization can affect food biodiversity and agrobiodiversity by reducing cultivation areas, providing other labor and employment alternatives, and due to other combined effects. The remaining Quilombo populations are groups of traditional people with African ancestry in Brazil, and several Quilombolas groups have their food sovereignty dependent on local agrobiodiversity.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Through a bibliographic review, we described the richness of food plant resources reported by remaining Quilombo communities, verifying the importance and potential use of plants, both native and exotic, for Quilombola sovereignty from the north to the south of the country.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> We selected 24 publications from 1,189 articles, which covered 39 Quilombola communities, with a concentration of research efforts in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. A total of 234 plants were registered, and despite their similarities, these communities have specificities in their knowledge of food plants, especially the native ones.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The sovereignty of the Quilombola people goes through the recognition of their ways of life in different biomes and contexts of socio-biodiversity.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Afro-Brazilian territoriality; food security; biodiversity conservation.</p> Maiara Gonçalves Natalia Hanazaki Copyright (c) 2023 Maiara Gonçalves, Natalia Hanazaki 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 26 1 23 Ethnobotany, medicinal utilization and analysis of biogenic elements and flavonoids of Apium graveolens and Tussilago farfara from Uzbekistan <p><em>Background: </em>Plants are a rich source of both organic and inorganic substances that play a crucial role in determining their therapeutic effects. Within each medicinal plant, a diverse array of chemical compounds and trace elements can be found, contributing to its wide spectrum of healing properties. It is important to highlight that certain chemical element found in medicinal plants are essential for sustaining life processes. Elements such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), iron (Fe), silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) are involved in nearly all biochemical processes within the body. They play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism, primary and secondary metabolism, as well as hormonal regulation occurring within cells. This article examines the ethnobotany, medicinal utilization and analysis of biogenic elements and flavonoids of <em>Apium graveolens </em>and<em> Tussilago farfara </em>from Uzbekistan.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The determination of biogenic elements in food products has been carried out using the plasma inductively coupled mass spectrometry method (ICP-MS). The reagents employed in the process included Standard No. 3, which contains multiple elements (29 elements for mass spectrometry). Additionally, the standards encompassed mercury, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, bi-distilled water, and argon gas (with a purity of 99.995%). The samples were subjected to analysis using the Agilent-1200 HPLC method with a diode detector, operating in the isocratic elution mode. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer solution in a ratio of 70:30. The eluent flowed at a volumetric flow rate of -1.0 ml/min, and 10 µl of the sample was injected. Detection was performed at a wavelength of 254 nm. The chromatographic column used was the Eclipse XDB-C18, with dimensions of 5.0 microns and 4.6×250 mm. The thermostat temperature was maintained at 300°C.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results: </em>Analyzing the study results we observed that all samples contained more than 18 elements: Highest concentration of Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Iron, Copper, Zinc in the seeds of <em>Apium graveolens</em>, followed by <em>Tussilago farfara</em> and <em>A. graveolens</em> leaves. As a result of the analysis conducted on extracts of Tussilago farfara and Apium graveolens, six phenolic flavonoid compounds were successfully isolated. One particular flavonoid, apigenin, exhibits a retention time shift during analysis, indicating its presence. The relatively high concentrations of flavonoids such as rutin, quercetin, and dihydroquercetin further contribute to the significance of studying these plants.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The conducted studies focused on the analysis of nutrients and flavonoids present in plants such as <em>Tussilago farfara</em> and <em>Apium graveolens</em>. Additionally, these medicinal plants were found to be rich in essential elements such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron. Building upon these findings, the proposal was made to develop novel dietary supplements aimed at providing relief in the treatment of bone-related disorders, cardiovascular issues, and anemia.</p> <p><em> Key words</em>: celery<strong>, </strong>coltsfoot, ethnobotany, medicinal utilization, biogenic elements, flavonoids.</p> Saidaxon Islomova Ibrahimjon Asqarov Rainer W Bussmann Olim K. Khojimatov Muhammad Zafar Trobjon Makhkamov Copyright (c) 2023 Saidaxon Islomova, Trobjon Makhkamov, Ibrahimjon Asqarov, Rainer W Bussmann, Olim K. Khojimatov, Muhammad Zafar, Trobjon Makhkamov 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 26 1 12 Straw embroideries in Azores (Portugal) <p>Wheat or rye straw embroideries, typical of the island of Faial (Azores), are the ultimate representatives of a European craft very popular in the XIX century. Our investigation into the cultural use of plants in the Azores presents some examples of straw embroideries and information on the raw materials of plant origin used by the last embroideresses who keep this tradition alive.</p> Luis Carvalho Francisca Maria Fernandes Paula Nozes Sara Albquerque Maria de Fátima Nunes Copyright (c) 2023 Luis Carvalho, Francisca Maria Fernandes, Paula Nozes, Sara Albquerque, Maria de Fátima Nunes 2023-09-02 2023-09-02 26 1 7 Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) art in the Azores (Portugal) <p>The art made with white heartwood slices obtained from the young branches of the fig tree (<em>Ficus carica</em> L.) is found only in the Azores (Portugal). It probably began in the convents of nuns, during the XVII century, and soon after the secularization of these institutions continued to be done by artisans. This exquisite traditional art produces light and delicate pieces, and it is now kept by few artisans.</p> Luis Carvalho Francisca Fernandes Paula Nozes Ana Paula Figueira Maria de Fátima Nunes Sara Albquerque Copyright (c) 2023 Luis Carvalho, Francisca Fernandes, Paula Nozes, Ana Paula Figueira, Maria de Fátima Nunes, Sara Albquerque 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 26 1 6 Women and violets in France (1800-1920) – a visual journey <p>Violets were an important trade plant, sold in the streets and markets of European and North America cities throughout the nineteenth century up to the 1920’s, when they began to be out of fashion. France was a major producer of violets and many activities associated with them, such as picking and selling, were commonly done by women. Here we present a selection of photos from Beja Botanical Museum's collection that represents cultural interactions between women and violets during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.</p> Luis Carvalho Francisca Maria Fernandes Paula Nozes Ana Paula Figueira Sara a Maria de Fátima Nunes Copyright (c) 2023 Luis Carvalho, Francisca Maria Fernandes, Paula Nozes, Ana Paula Figueira, Sara Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Nunes 2023-10-24 2023-10-24 26 1 22 Vegetable ivory - the Beja Botanical Museum photo collection <p>Vegetable ivory is a raw material used to make small objects, such as buttons, adorns for personal use or home decorations. It comes mainly from the seed endosperm of species belonging to the genus <em>Phytelephas</em> Ruiz &amp; Pav.. The collection of Beja Botanical Museum includes a set of historical photos that show all the stages of vegetable ivory processing from seed to buttons, allowing us to have a more complete understanding of the raw materials and technologies used by this industry in the early 1930’s.</p> Luis Carvalho Francisca Fernandes Paula Nozes Sara Albquerque Fátima Nunes Copyright (c) 2023 Luis Mendonça de Carvalho, Francisca Maria Fernandes, Paula Nozes, Sara Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Nunes 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 26 1 19 Medicinal ethnobotany of the Yakkha community in eastern Nepal <p><em>Background:</em> In rural Nepal, a significant population relies on traditional medicinal treatments for their healthcare needs. However, little is known about the ethnobotanical practices of the Yakkha people, a distinct Tibeto-Burman ethnic group following the Kirati religion in Sankhuwasabha district in eastern Nepal. This study examines the use of medicinal plants by the Yakkha community in three remote villages and assesses the ethnobotanical significance of their traditional knowledge.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The research was conducted in three Yakkha communities with varying levels of modernization, and Yakkha ethnic concentration. Data collection included key informant interviews, informal and structured interviews, focus group discussions, as well as direct and participatory observations. The Informant consensus factor was used to validate knowledge homogeneity.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The study documented 200 medicinal plant species and one fungus species, from 174 genera and 87 families, utilized by the Yakkha people to treat 75 human ailments. Above-ground vegetative parts (34%), reproductive (32%), below-ground (27%), and whole plants (7%) were the main plant parts used for medicinal purposes, primarily administered orally. While no new medicinal plant species were discovered, a few species (n = 10) revealed novel uses. Informant consensus was high for Musculoskeletal, Circulatory, and Nervous system disorders.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The Yakkha community in Sankhuwasabha district possesses valuable traditional knowledge of medicinal plant utilization, with strong consensus among locals. The diverse range of medicinal plant use underscores their effectiveness in treating various ailments. Exploring the bioactive compounds in these plants could lead to the discovery of novel medicines for critical human diseases.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, Himalayan medicine, Kirat, Sankhuwasabha, Tibeto-Burman ethnic group.</p> Karun Dewan Nawal Shrestha Ramesh Sapkota Jeevan Rai Smritee Lama Bharat Babu Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Karun Dewan, Nawal Shrestha, Ramesh Sapkota, Jeevan, Smritee Lama, Bharat Babu Shrestha 2023-11-04 2023-11-04 26 1 34 Quantitative Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by the mountain population of the Kitab Region, Uzbekistan <p><em>Background:</em> This article examines the therapeutic use and quantitative ethnobotany</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Data were collected during the 2021 and 2022 surveys as a result of interviews, rapid assessments, and the collection of field materials. Interviews with the local population were conducted in the form of a questionnaire, with the consent of the informants.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: One hundred and seventeen species of 73 genera in 20 families, were used by the population of the Kitab district of Kashkadarya region for the treatment of various diseases.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The results of this study showed that the lack of sufficient knowledge of the local population on some diseases led to the lack of recognition of ethnobotanical analysis of plants. The main reason for this is the difficulty of recognizing such diseases in rural areas and the lack of ethnobotanical knowledge. It should be noted that in the remote villages of Kitab district, traditional treatment systems using medicinal plants are preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Kashkadarya, Kitab, ethnobotany, diseases, decoction, WHO, JASP, ArcGIS.</p> Zokir Z. Kosimov Olim K. Khojimatov Rainer W Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Zokir Z. Kosimov, Olim K. Khojimatov, Rainer W Bussmann 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 26 1 13 Global research progress on reproductive behavior and ethnobotany of the Saussurea genus: Literature review-based-bibliometric analysis <p><em>Background: Saussurea </em>is the most diverse genus of the Asteraceae family generally found in temperate areas of Eurasian countries. This genus comprises approximately 27 ethnologically important species such as <em>Saussurea </em><em>laniceps, S. costus, S. medusa, S. obvallata, S. involucrata</em>, etc. which are traditionally used for treatment of various ailments and also have aesthetic and religious importance.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>This study integrated two separate approaches for the literature review, first we reviewed research work conducted on ethnobotany, morphology, pollinators, breeding systems, and the development of fruits of the genus <em>Saussurea</em>. Second, bibliometric analysis for quantitative analysis of published documents on the Scopus database to identify research status and publication trends emerging in the field of reproductive biology and ethnobotany of the<em> Saussurea</em> genus.</p> <p><em>Results and Conclusion: </em>According to our findings, all <em>Saussurea </em>species use entomophily as their primary method of pollination. In this genus, outcrossing is typically observed, and this breeding system appears to have been responsible for the success in terms of ecology and evolution of this genus. India is one among the top nations having the most published literature on the reproductive biology of the <em>Saussurea </em>genus and its ethnobotanical uses. The top three journals where the manuscripts have been published are the “<em>Journal of Ethnopharmacology</em>”<em>, </em>“<em>Plos One</em>”<em>, </em>“<em>Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine</em>”. Research topics such as conservation, ethnopharmacology and <em>Saussurea lappa</em> are highly cited topics, indicating the usage of <em>Saussurea </em>species especially in the pharmaceutical industries. This study provides a snapshot of the research progress in the field of reproductive biology and ethnobotanical studies on the <em>Saussurea </em>genus at the global level and opens doors to future research.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <em>Saussurea, </em>pollen, breeding system, entomophily, phenology, pollinators.</p> Pooja Singh Babi Gargi Vijaylaxmi Trivedi Ashish Thapliyal Prabhakar Semwal Copyright (c) 2023 Prabhakar Semwal, Pooja Singh, Babi Gargi, Vijaylaxmi Trivedi, Ashish Thapliyal 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 26 1 15 Traditional use of Polypores in Georgia (the Caucasus) <p><em>Background</em>: This paper describes traditional uses of polypore fungi in Georgia (the South Caucasus).</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We used ethnomycological interviews collected in 2014–2017 in various regions of the country and available literature data.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The research revealed eight polypore species traditionally used Georgia: <em>Cerioporus squamosus, Daedalea quercina,</em> <em>Fistulina hepatica</em><em>,</em><em> Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis betulina, Laetiporus sulphureus, Panus rudis, Sparassis crispa</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Knowledge on medicinal uses of the species is lost in the population at present and can only be found in ethnographic/linguistic literature. The paper presents vernacular names of the polypore species with their Latin identifications and various uses (for food, medicine, decorations and tinder) with respective sources cited. </p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Ethnomycology, Polypores, Traditional knowledge, Georgia, the Caucasus</p> Angelina Jorjadze Rainer W Bussmann Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana Ketevan Batsatsashvili Eter Svanidze Copyright (c) 2023 Angelina Jorjadze, Rainer W Bussmann, Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana, Ketevan Batsatsashvili, Eter Svanidze 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 26 1 18 Three models to illustrate plant-people relationships in the medicinal plant hotspots of North East India <p><em>Background:</em> Many indigenous communities inhabit the forests on which they rely. In India, there are many tribe-level plant use records for health treatments but no systematic assessment of the species-level frequency of use or purposes of use across indigenous groups. This paper makes such assessments for North East India.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> We did a systematic review of published literature resulting in the identification of a final set of 255 publications for analysis and synthesis.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Medicinal plants used by the North East Indian communities in the Himalayan and Indo-Burma hotspots are often used to cure more than one ailment, with phytochemical analysis and clinical tests documenting the efficacy of many species. High-frequency used plant species across indigenous groups were <em>Ageratum conyzoides, Centella asiatica, Clerodendron colebrookianum,</em> <em>Houttuynia cordata, Oroxylum indicum, Spilanthes paniculata, Paederia foetida, Psidium guajava, </em>and<em> Zingiber officinale</em>. We also identified 51 lesser-used species common to more than one indigenous group. Delving into the relationships between plants, tribes, ailments, and locality allowed the identification of three models of people-plant relationships: Plant-Ailment-Tribe; Ailment-Plant-Tribe; and Plant-Locality-Tribe.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> A large number of indigenous groups using a large number of medicinal plants are found in North East India: uses across groups can be described in three models of people-plant relationships relevant to studying and understanding ethnobotanical realities in other locations.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal plants, frequency use classification, intercultural use, multi-therapeutic attributes</p> Kaushalendra Jha Carsten Smith-Hall Copyright (c) 2023 Kaushalendra Jha, Carsten Smith-Hall 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 26 1 48 Floral diversity expedition in Ladakh: An insight into the exploration, distribution pattern, ethnobotanical, phytochemical studies and conservation strategies <p><em>Background:</em> Ladakh, located in the Trans-Himalayan region, is characterized by a sparse distribution of plant and animal life that has adapted to the arid and high-altitude environment. Ladakh's unique vegetation provides various benefits to the local population, including medicine, phytochemicals, food, fodder, fuelwood, and many other vital services. Over the years, there have been significant developments and changes in the ethnobotanical knowledge in Ladakh. One of the most notable changes is the extensive documentation and research carried out by researchers to systematically record the traditional knowledge held by local communities. The present study aims to report the expedition of wild floral diversity in Ladakh for their exploration, distribution, ecosystem services, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical extraction, conservation strategies, challenges, and knowledge gaps in research.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> To compile the review paper, a comprehensive search was conducted on various web-based platforms, including Web of Science, Scopus, Mendeley, and Google Scholar, to gather relevant literature on the wild vegetation of Ladakh. Different combination of keywords pertaining to floral expedition in Ladakh were used as search string for literature survey on various internet databases. For instance, the search strings used for literature survey on Scopus comprises of keywords such as "Ladakh AND vegetation OR plant," "Phytochemical AND Ladakh," "Ethnobotanical* AND Ladakh," "Ladakh AND Flora AND Diversity," "Plant AND Distribution AND Ladakh," and "Medicinal AND Plants AND Ladakh."</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Researchers, both from India and abroad, have conducted extensive explorations of the floral diversity in the Ladakh region over the years. They have meticulously documented numerous plant species and conducted in-depth studies covering ethnobotanical significance, phytochemical analysis, distribution patterns, and conservation efforts. Much of this research has been dedicated to understanding the practical benefits of wild plants, including their roles as sources of food, medicine, animal fodder, and fuelwood. The Ladakh region hosts a remarkable diversity of plant species, with more than 150 plant species identified for their medicinal use. Similarly, over 30 species were analyzed for their phytochemical properties and extracted a variety of crucial phytochemicals such as terpenes, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and steroids. Plant distribution and diversity in Ladakh are strongly influenced by altitude, with harsh climatic conditions and high altitudes leading to reduced vegetation cover and species richness.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>Ladakh possesses a unique plant diversity in challenging terrains. Despite topographical and climatic hurdles, researchers from India and abroad have explored its rich flora. Plant distribution shifts with elevation and climate change, peaking at 4000 to 5800 meters and diminishing higher up. The extensive documentation and research conducted by scientists and researchers on the plant’s ethnobotanical significance, has led to the identification of a large number of plant species with medicinal and other significance. Unfortunately, threats to species survival, such as over-collection of underground parts, overgrazing, and exploitation of resources for fuelwood and fodder have been observed, but protective measures and preservation strategies are lacking.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>: </strong>Floral diversity, Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemicals, Ecosystem services, Conservation, Ladakh</p> Sabir Hussain Sheenu Sharma Ram Chand Bhatti Anand Narain Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Anand Narain Singh, Sabir Hussain, Sheenu Sharma, Ram Chand Bhatti 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 26 1 32