Ethnobotany Research and Applications https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia in cooperation with Saving Knowledge / Ethnomont. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>ERA is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> Saving Knowledge, Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia en-US Ethnobotany Research and Applications 1547-3465 <p>All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.</p> A Cross-cultural ethnobotanical knowledge comparison about local plants among Pashto, Punjabi and Saraiki communities living in Southwest Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3609 <p><em>Background: </em>The current work was conducted with the aim for the documentation of the indigenous uses of medicinal plants for food purposes across the three main indigenous communities in South-west Pakistan. Field work was conducted in 21 villages belonging to the three regions of the district D.I. Khan (Saraiki Community), district Zhob (Pashto Community) and district Mianwali (Punjabi Community), located in the Southwest Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Snowball sampling method was used to interview 93 informants (43 Pashto, 28 Punjabi and 22 Saraiki) using semi-structured questionnaire to document the uses of indigenous taxa as food, herbal tea and herbal juice/drinks purposes. Documented data was quantified by indices UV (use value) and CI (Cultural importance values).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Overall, 68 Plants species belonging to the 40 families were documented to be used in food, herbal tea and herbal juice/drinks. The most important species was <em>Limonium cabulicum</em> on the basis of use reports. Major ailments include stomach problems, hair loss, wounds, fever, weight loss and others treated with traditional food /drinks. The <em>Phyllanthus emblica </em>(0.31) has the highest UV. The highest cultural value was obtained for <em>Zingiber officinale</em> (0.28).</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The traditional communities still use medicinal plants. Cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies are fundamental among three ethnic communities in Southwest Pakistan not only for suggesting customs of using plant-based products, which could be exploited in sustainable local development projects (e.g. trade of wild medicinal herbs on small-scale, herbal products, food niche and also focusing on eco-tourism), but also for development relationship and reconciliation among diverse ethnic communities.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Cross-Cultural Ethnobotany, food plants, herbal tea, herbal juice/drinks, Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki</p> Shiekh Zain Ul Abdin Raees Khan Mushtaq Ahmad Hammad Ahmad Jan Muhammad Zafar Abdul Haleem Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Shiekh Zain Ul Abdin, Raees Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad, Hammad Ahmad Jan, Muhammad Zafar, Abdul Haleem Shah 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 23 1 16 Indigenous traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katsina State, Nigeria https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3577 <p><em>Background</em>: Medicinal plants are widely used for the management of many diseases including HIV / AIDS opportunistic infections in Katsina State, North-western part of Nigeria. The usage of those plants is, however, poorly documented.</p> <p><em>Method</em>: An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document medicinal plants used for the management of HIV / AIDS opportunistic infections in three Local Government Areas (one from each Senatorial Zone) of Katsina State, Nigeria. Information was obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 150 respondents comprising traditional healers, herbalists, farmers and HIV / AIDS patients.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The survey revealed 48 plant species distributed among 44 genera and 28 families. The highest Relative Frequency of Citation was observed in <em>Anogeissus leiocarpa</em> (DC.) Guill. and Perr (0.75). Fabaceae represented by 11 species appeared to be the most utilised family. Highest Informant Consensus factor was observed in abnormal vaginal discharge and genital ulcer. Most of the cited species are trees that are sourced from the wild and majority of medications are prepared in the form of decoction which is taken orally. The most used plant parts were leaves (40%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The study revealed substantial numbers and knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of HIV / AIDS related infections in Katsina State, Nigeria. Further investigations to establish the pharmacological potentials of the cited species with regard to the treatment of HIV / AIDS are highly recommended.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotanical survey; HIV / AIDS; Opportunistic infections; Medicinal plants; Katsina state</p> Sulaiman Sani Kankara Abubakar Ishaq Nuhu Kabir Abdullahi Bindawa Muhammad Rabi'u Haruna Abubakar Bello Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar Copyright (c) 2022 Sulaiman Sani Kankara, Abubakar Ishaq Nuhu, Kabir Abdullahi Bindawa, Muhammad Rabi'u Haruna, Abubakar Bello, Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar 2022-06-02 2022-06-02 23 1 17 The Potential for Sustainable Harvest of Common Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana L.) fruits at Pea Ridge National Military Park https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3317 <p><em>Background:</em> The large, sweet fruits of the Common Persimmon (<em>Diospyros virginiana </em>L.) have a long history as a wild-harvested food in the eastern United States, by both Indigenous people and European settlers. However, little is known about the sustainability of persimmon fruit harvest. Persimmon fruits are a culturally important food for the Osage Nation. Pea Ridge National Military Park (hereafter PERI) is within the Osage ancestral territory</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> We examine the sustainability of persimmon fruit harvest through field surveys of fruit production and the application of the United Plant Savers “At-Risk Assessment Tool”, which assesses the risk of overharvesting wild plants. Our field work to determine persimmon fruit yield was conducted at PERI in response to a National Park Service’s (NPS) 2016 rule which provides a pathway for Native American tribes, the Osage Nation in our case, to collect culturally important plants from NPS land if harvest is sustainable.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Combining our field surveys of fruit production with NPS data on persimmon tree density and potential persimmon habitat at PERI, we estimate annual fruit production of about 143,000 persimmon fruits, or about 1,990 kg (4100 lbs.) at PERI. Persimmon fruit harvest has a low risk of overharvest, with an At-Risk score of 19 on a scale with a max score of 96 (highest risk).</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> An annual harvest of 9-15 kgs (~20-30 lbs.) of persimmon fruit by the Osage at PERI (&lt; 1% of total estimated yield), would be sustainable and help promote traditional Osage practices of collecting, preserving, and eating persimmons.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>: </strong>persimmon, sustainable harvest, At-Risk assessment, Pea Ridge, ethnobotany</p> Jennifer Moody Kelly Kindscher Copyright (c) 2022 Jennifer Moody, Kelly Kindscher 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 23 1 16 Socio-economic appraisal about the importance and impacts of Anardana (Punica granatum L.) in District Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3499 <p><em>Background:</em> Present survey was conducted to explore the status, socio-economic importance and impact of Anardana (<em>Punica granatum</em> L.) by the inhabitants of Dir lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Method:</em> Different techniques like semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires and interviews, a field survey, and group discussions were undertaken in Dir lower better to understand socio-economic relevance and influence on local peoples. Indicators such as the relative frequency citation (RFC), usage value (UV percent) and fidelity level (FL) were used to statistically assess the data, which was gathered from 200 participants.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Quantitative indices revealed that the plant is mostly used to remedy urinary problems, stomach disease and dry cough. Furthermore, the RFC results show that the plant is frequently used for fuel (1.00), fruit (0.97), medicine (0.93), spices (0.89) and fencing (0.88) purposes. Moreover, the results declared that <em>P. granatum</em> is mostly used (UV %) as a remedy for dry cough (90.5%), stomach disorders (81 %), urinary troubles (79.5%), diuretic (72%), renal calculus (66.5%), and for fever tonic (62.5%). Out of 52 ailments, 16 ailments were identified with greater FL than 50 %. However, the highest FL values were recorded for the disease category of dry cough (100 %). The study naked that most of the informants agreed to <em>P. granatum</em> against as a tonic for fever that unveiled the highest fidelity level (100 %) in the study area.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Documentation of such ethnobotanical data will help conserve <em>P. granatum, </em>create awareness among the local community, and preserve the indigenous knowledge associated with medicinal plant species.</p> Nasrullah Khan Siraj Muhammad Irshad Copyright (c) 2022 Nasrullah Khan, Siraj, Muhammad Irshad 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 23 1 18 The palm trees choose the places - Popular knowledge associated with the use and conservation of butiá (Butia spp.) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3101 <p><em>Background: Butia</em> is a genus palm species from South America. Currently, the species of this genus are threatened with extinction in Brazil. This work aimed to understand the ethnobotanical relationships with <em>Butia </em>palm groves, how this process has been built, and how it contributes to the in situ conservation of its native genetic resources.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The methodology consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with an ethnobotanical emphasis. Statistical methods and informant indexes were applied, mixing theoretical discussions with data analysis to assist in understanding the results.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> 16 uses for <strong>butiá </strong>(the fruit of <em>Butia </em>palm) were cited by the interviewed. The most cited was the consumption of fresh fruit. The contact with the <em>Butia </em>palm groves varied between daily and seasonal. The activities associated with the <em>Butia </em>palm groves ecosystems were tourism and livestock. Proposals for their conservation refer to partnerships between private initiatives and public institutions associated with public policies and legal reserves.</p> <p><em>Discussion:</em> The <em>Butia </em>palm groves are integral to local communities' identities. Choices related to <em>Butia </em>palm groves impact communities, just as the <em>Butia</em> palm groves also impact local populations.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The <em>Butia</em> palm groves have great sociocultural and biological importance. The bond shared between people and the <em>Butia</em> palm groves goes beyond borders, and its conservation can be related to good practices of extraction,sustainable management and also through public policies and specific legislation aimed at protecting this environment.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>: </strong>ethnobotany, genetic resources, sociobiodiversity, <em>Butia</em> palm groves network, bioeconomy</p> Tatieli Silveira Periclés da Silva Godinho Marcia Kaster Portelinha Julia Maria Goliva Dias Jessica Gonsalez Cruz Julia Goetten Wagner Rosa Lia Barbieri Copyright (c) 2022 Tatieli Silveira, Periclés da Silva Godinho, Marcia Kaster Portelinha, Julia Maria Goliva Dias, Jessica Gonsalez Cruz, Julia Goetten Wagner, Rosa Lia Barbieri 2022-04-03 2022-04-03 23 1 16 Ethnobotanical importance of Asteraceae plants among Tharu tribe in Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3695 <p><em>Background: </em>Uttarakhand, a hilly state of northern India is gifted with unique natural beauty, rich biodiversity and great ethnic diversity. Asteraceae is the largest dicot family in the state and its several species are utilized by Tharu tribes for their livelihood. The present study was aimed to explore and document the ethnobotanical importance of Asteraceae plants used by Tharu community.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods: </em>The study area was visited frequently and a total of 104 Tharu informants from 11 villages were interviewed with the help of a semi structured questionnaire. Collected plant specimens were identified and processed for herbarium in the laboratory. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using Use value (UV) and Factor informant consensus (Fic).</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results: </em>A total of 51 plants belonging to 38 genera under 12 tribes of Asteraceae family were found to be useful among Tharu people. Most of the species (50.98%) were noted to be used for curing various diseases. They use several plants for fodder (33.33%), ornament (27.45%), veterinary medicines (9.80%), social ceremonies (5.88%), and other purposes (13.72%) too. Quantitative analysis of data shows that <em>Tagetes erecta</em> has the highest use value (0.9423) followed by <em>Ageratum</em> <em>houstonianum</em> (0.4615) and <em>Eclipta prostrata</em> (0.3653). Maximum homogeneity was recorded in constipation, earache, eye disorders, heat stroke, infertility, paralysis, fuel and food.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>The present study concludes that several Asteraceae plants have high use value and play an important role in Tharu’s daily life. The recorded precious ethnobotanical data with UV and Fic analysis will be useful to the future researchers for further phytochemical, pharmacological, conservation and other studies.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Asteraceae, Tharu, Ethnobotany, Udham Singh Nagar.</p> Sheetal Sharma Sneh Lata Copyright (c) 2022 Sheetal Sharma, Sneh Lata 2022-06-02 2022-06-02 23 1 17 Between tradition and modernity: the relationship among healers and medicinal plants in an urban center in southern Brazil. https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/2929 <p><em>Background</em>: Blessing (or <em>benzedura</em>) is a traditional health practice present in both rural and urban areas of Brazil. Several ethnobotanical studies demonstrate that practitioners have a vast knowledge of medicinal plants; however, it is still necessary to expand research to include the importance of the practice and the ways knowledge is transmitted when facing modernity. Thus, this study was conducted in an urban region of Florianopolis (SC) where we sought to investigate the diseases treated by blessings, the plants used in this practice, and the process of cultural transmission.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: We conducted interviews with eleven healers from the eastern region of Florianopolis. Information was collected through semi-structured protocols with a free list of plants, and the botanical collection and identification of mentioned plants. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 34 types of diseases and ailments that are treated through blessings were cited. For the treatment and cure of these ailments, the use of 24 species of medicinal plants was recorded, the most cited were <em>Ruta graveolens </em>(6 citations), <em>Rosmarinus officinalis </em>(3) and <em>Petiveria alliacea </em>(3). In terms of knowledge transmission, most respondents (46%) learned in childhood, 36% learned in adulthood through course, and 18% learned in adolescence. During the interviews, we noticed that new ways of transmitting knowledge are emerging, where courses and mobile applications are gaining importance.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The practice of blessing continues to play an important role in the health of communities in the eastern region of Santa Catarina Island, and it is undergoing modernizing adaptations. It is important that future studies investigate the effect of technologies on this practice and the possible implications for the resilience or vulnerability of these health systems.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Blessings, ethnobotany, health practices, local ecological knowledge, medicinal plants.</p> Camila Fabiana da Silva Sofia Zank Copyright (c) 2022 Camila Fabiana Silva, Sofia Zank 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 23 1 12 A Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants consumed during holy month of Ramadan in Chlef region, Algeria https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3461 <p><em>Background</em>: The fasting month of Ramadan is the fourth pillar of Islam. This religious practice is characterized by a specific style of life, culinary and phytotherapeutic habits in Muslim societies. The aim of this research is to document information about the traditional medicinal knowledge of herbal species used during the holy month of Ramadan in the region of Chlef, north-west Algeria.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This ethnobotanical survey was conducted during the holy month of Ramadan in 1442 Hijrah, corresponding to 13 April–12 Mai 2021. The information was gathered through semi-structured interviews with 100 fasting Muslim informants ranging in age from 18 to 71 years. The obtained data were analyzed using the following indices: Use Value (UV), Family Use Value (FUV) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: In the current and first Ramadanian ethnobotanical survey, 38 herbal species distributed into 22 families were recorded in the Chlef region, north-west Algeria. <em>Lamiaceae</em> was the dominant botanical family explored in phyto-folk medicine, with 8 species. Leaves and aerial parts (22.22% each) represent the main plant parts valorized. Decoction (32.35%) and infusion (27.94%) were the principal preparation methods adopted for making remedies from medicinal herbs. Species supported by Quran verses and prophetic orientation are widely consumed during the month of Ramadan and record UVs indexes superior to 0.5. The highest UV values were assigned to <em>Phoenix dactylifera</em> L. (0.98), <em>Hordeum vulgare</em> L. (0.92) and <em>Citrus limon</em> (L.) Osbeck (0.89). The analyses revealed a high and common ICF among the local population during the month of Ramadan for 14 disease categories due to the religious guidance of informants.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The month of Ramadan is characterized by a rich patrimony of herbal medicine and harmonious knowledge among informants based essentially on religious orientation. Further investigations into possible interactions between the health benefits of fasting and the therapeutic virtues of medicinal herbs are suggested in the future.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnomedicine, Iftar, Suhur, Ramadan, Prophetic medicine.</p> Abdelaziz Merouane Sara Fellag Moufida Touaibia Abdelmalek Beldi Copyright (c) 2022 Abdelaziz Merouane, Sara Fellag, Moufida Touaibia, Abdelmalek Beldi 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 23 1 14 Alleviation of Poverty through Sustainable Management and Market Promotion of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Swat, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3431 <p><em>Background:</em> <em>District</em> Swat, Pakistan is a potential hub of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) which can substantially contribute to social, economic and cultural uplift of local communities. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the market potential for MAPs in the study area.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Interviews were conducted with medicinal plant collectors, dealers and hakims to gather information about medicinal properties, pattern of collection and market status of MAPs in the study area. For this purpose, extensive field surveys were carried out in the study area and questionnaires were developed as a tool for interviews and data collection.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study reported 58, 38 and 64 plant species at collectors’, dealers’ and hakims’ level. These plants are being used as medicines by local inhabitants to overcome their health problems and traded to subsidize low income for their basic needs. However, it was revealed that collectors had very little marketing skills and were unaware of high market value of their products, therefore, received minimum financial reward in the trade chain of medicinal plants. Increasing pressure on natural resources and decreasing trend in availability of important MAPs was also observed.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: An urgent need to investigate links between overexploitation of species and quality of herbal medicines in the global market and to develop conservation strategies for MAPs is suggested. It is also recommended to develop training programs for collectors of medicinal plants in order to improve sustainability, trade monitoring and community participation in natural resource management.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>:</strong> Medicinal plants, herbal market, quality trade monitoring, resource management</p> Hazrat Sher Ahmad Ali Zahid Ullah Hassan Sher Copyright (c) 2022 Hazrat Sher, Ahmad Ali, Zahid Ullah, Hassan Sher 2022-03-07 2022-03-07 23 1 19 Traditional Methods for Treatment and Management of Measles in Northern Nigeria: Medicinal plants and their molecular docking https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3595 <p><em>Background</em>: Measles is one of the major causes of death among young children worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, measles affects more than 20 million people globally each year, with around 17 millions of them being children. In Nigeria, traditional herbal medicine has long been employed to treat this disease.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Purposive sampling was used with the aid of an open-ended interview guide, from March–December 2021. In addition, a literature search was carried out on the reported plants. Molecular docking-based virtual screening was employed to identify possible compounds with higher affinity to the target enzyme.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Twenty-four medicinal plants and three traditional methods were documented for the treatment and management of measles in Northern Nigeria. Cow dung and fermented <em>Sorghum</em> had the highest Fidelity Level at 100 %, respectively. Leaves were the most common plant part used for the treatment of measles, likely due to the presence of secondary metabolites. Decoction and oral application were the most effective methods of preparation and administration, respectively. The binding affinities of the investigated compounds ranged from -1.3 Kcal/mol to -9.3 Kcal/mol, respectively. From the molecular docking, Quinoline and Amyrin were identified to have the highest binding affinity of -9.3 Kcal/mol, respectively.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Conclusion</em>: This study adds to our understanding of the plants utilized by Northern Nigerians in the prevention and treatment of measles. These data may be used to further pharmacological research on these therapeutic plants, with a focus on safety, standardization, and effective dose.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: African Medicinal Plant, Measles, Medicinal plants, Nigeria, In Silico</p> Mahmoud Dogara Abdulrahman Sarwan W. Bradosty Saber W. Hamad Muhammad Tukur Ibrahim Abubakar Abdullahi Lema Namadi Sunusi Muhammad Usman Ibrahim Ashiru Nuraddeen Bello Ahmad Nuradeen Wada Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Mahmoud Dogara Abdulrahman, Sarwan W. Bradosty, Saber W. Hamad, Muhammad Tukur Ibrahim, Abubakar Abdullahi Lema, Namadi Sunusi, Muhammad Usman, Ibrahim Ashiru, Nuraddeen Bello Ahmad, Nuradeen Wada, Rainer W. Bussmann 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 23 1 18 Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plant Resources in Puranchaur Village, Kaski, Nepal https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3405 <p><em>Background:</em> Plants are being utilized worldwide as a primary health care need. The reliance is also prevalent in Nepal, aided by its high biological diversity. The rich floral composition in Puranchaur offers a remarkable opportunity for ethnomedicinal research. This study aimed to index the ethnomedicinal knowledge of plant species of Puranchaur of Kaski district.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Open-ended semi-structured questionnaires were conducted to collect data during October 2021 to November 2021 using Key Informant Interview (KII) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). The reported traditional uses were asked with traditional healers and cross-validated with previously published literature. Data were analyzed and represented in a tables, graphs, radar, and pie charts.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 131 medicinal plants, belonging to 67 families and 119 genera were recorded to treat 156 different ailments. Poaceae and Asteraceae families represent the maximum number of plants used (N=11). Herbs were most frequently used (N=67) among the different habits of plants. The most preferred form of medication was paste (N=56), followed by juice (N=54), raw (N=47), powder (N=34), decoction (N=19), and cooked (N=10). Leaf cured a large number of diseases (N=112). Commonly used plant parts were seed (N=67) followed by leaf (N=58), flower (N=32), root (N=31), stem (N=29), fruit (N=25), bark (N=22), whole plant (N=13), latex (N=7), tuber (N=6), rhizome (N=5), bulb (N=1), and cornsilk (N=1).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: This study concluded that documentation and preservation of biodiversity and its associated knowledge is necessary which could generate further research activities. <em>Ocimum sanctum</em> is the most frequently cited medicinal plant with Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) 0.44 followed by <em>Acorus calamus </em>L<em>. </em>(0.41), <em>Zingiber officinale </em>Roscoe (0.40), <em>Centella asiatica </em>(L.) Urb. (0.38), and <em>Mentha spicata </em>L. (0.37) and the Informant Consensus Factor (F<sub>ic</sub>) was found to be highest for digestive alignment category (0.8) and lowest for ear (0.00). The pharmacological and phytochemical studies of these medicinal plants should be carried out for their scientific validation<em>. </em></p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Diseases and ailments, Ethnomedicine, Indigenous knowledge, Medicinal plants, Puranchaur</p> Subash Gautam Sachin Timilsina Copyright (c) 2022 Subash Gautam, Sachin Timilsina 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 23 1 32 Quantitative study of the food flavoring spice mixtures used in the traditional markets of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3587 <p><em>Background:</em> The use of spices is as old as humanity itself, with spice production and trade often having influenced global politics and altering and modeling the very basics of our culture.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> This study offers the first documentation of the market value of spice taxa and associated spice recipes, based on interviews and group discussions with 120 participants (12.50% women and 87.50% men), using both semi-structured and open-ended questionnaires. </p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 15 spice mixtures were reported in which 26 spice taxa were used in various proportion, and the prices of each spice taxon were found different in different markets. The highest price per kg was asked for <em>Syzygium aromaticum </em>in Masala Mandi market (PKR 2200, US$ 14.1), while the lowest price per kg was for <em>Allium cepa</em> in Chuk market (PKR 75, US$ 0.4). The prices of each one spice mixtures at each market vary from each other. There was a clear-cut difference between the composition and in prices. Laki gate market was the most expensive market where 10 spice mixtures out of 15 had the highest market value. Chuk market was most inexpensive because 11 spice mixtures out of 15 had their lowest market price. The Biryani masala recipe is known to be the heaviest recipe with the highest number of spice taxa (14) followed by Qeema and Machli masala recipes with 11 spice taxa each. Rosh masala was the simplest spices mixture comprising only 5 species out of 26 spice taxa. The market-to-market comparison showed strong correlation between Tanchi and Masala Mandi markets (r = 0.97) and Laki Gate and Masala Mandi markets (r = 0.95). Spice mixtures to spice mixtures correlations showed strong correlation between Kabuli Pulao and Qeema masala recipes (r = 0.99) and Haleem and Garam masala recipes and Achar gosht and Haleem masala recipes (r = 0.98) each.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The study highlighted the consistent strong correlation between various markets i.e., Tanchi and Masala Mandi markets and spice mixture to spice mixture e.g., Kabuli Pulao and Qeema masala recipes. The study provides a base line for the sustainable use of recipes, and young researchers.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Spice taxa, spice mixtures composition, market value, correlation of markets, correlation of spice recipes, Bannu, Pakistan.</p> Adnan Shah Lal Badshah Rainer W. Bussmann Murad Muhammad Abdullah Abdullah Farman Ullah Sumbal Khan Naushad Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Adnan Shah, Lal Badshah, Rainer W. Bussmann, Murad Muhammad, Abdullah Abdullah, Farman Ullah, Sumbal Khan, Naushad Khan 2022-04-07 2022-04-07 23 1 33 Ethnobotanical inventory and therapeutic applications of plants traded in the Ho Central Market, Ghana https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3333 <p><em>Background</em>: For therapeutic purposes, local markets serve as the main trading center of medicinal plants for both traditional medicine practitioners and the general public. However, there is still limited information about the plant species and their derivatives traded outside larger markets in major cities. This study aimed to take inventory of the plant species traded for medicinal purposes in a traditional market outside a major city and determine their applications through vendors’ familiarization.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An inventory of plant species traded for medicinal purposes in the Ho Central Market was undertaken, coupled with a semi-structured interviews on their applications based on the vendor's familiarization. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were used to determine the most culturally important species.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 60 plant species from 37 families was documented to be traded in the Ho Central Market. The <em>Adansonia digitata</em>, <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> and<em> Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides</em> were recorded to have the highest frequency of citations. The highest use report (UR) and cultural importance (CI) values were recorded for <em>Z. zanthoxyloides</em>. Body pains, blood tonic (anemia), and abdominal pains were the most prominent conditions that traded plants were used to treat.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The study revealed a total of 60 medicinal plants which is commonly sold in the Ho Central Market and other major markets in the country, which was attributed to idiosyncrasy in cultural knowledge about the application of the plants. The market served as a venue for information exchange and learning, resulting in the high uniformity of vendors' familiarization with plant application and that of traditional medicine practitioners.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Local market, Medicinal plants, Trade, Cultural importance, Traditional medicine, Body pains</p> Maxwell Kwame Boakye Alfred Ofori Agyemang Bernard Kofi Turkson Edward Debrah Wiafe Michael Frimpong Baidoo Marcel Tunkumgnen Bayor Copyright (c) 2022 Maxwell Kwame Boakye, Alfred Ofori Agyemang, Bernard Kofi Turkson, Edward Debrah Wiafe, Michael Frimpong Baidoo, Marcel Tunkumgnen Bayor 2022-01-16 2022-01-16 23 1 20 Ancestral Traditions of the Future: Where is traditional knowledge and practice preservation directed? https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3315 <p><em>Background</em>: Traditional knowledge and practice prevalence is on an overall decline. In this study, we examine preservation strategies reported in the literature, follow-up measures, and categories of traditional knowledge and conservation practices that are being attempted by non-profit organizations.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: To answer these questions, we reviewed the literature for keywords related to TKP preservation and also searched databases of organizations with missions to preserve such knowledge. We found a range of traditional knowledge and practice preservation strategies that we categorized, and we provide a state of the current literature. The literature revealed anecdotal and qualitative follow-up measures with much emphasis on intellectual property rights.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The strongest argument we found came from anecdotal evidence showing the fundamental importance of experiential learning with elders on ancestral land for the purpose of passing traditions, ideas, and knowledge from one generation to the next. Further, non-profit organizations focused on policy and community education as predominant objectives in their mission statements. These results show the importance of follow-up measures (both quantitative and qualitative) on initiatives done in the field.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: TKP programs perform well when communities and local elders are consulted as they can foster culturally appropriate programs and provide a way to attract appreciation from the greater population. Overall, we recommend that both researchers and non-profit organizations assess these trends and caveats to help them form and direct their objectives to best conserve traditional knowledge and practices. Follow-up measurements, possibly based on museum-like surveys, would allow researchers to gain data for future initiatives.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Traditional knowledge and practices, ethnobiology, TKP, Indigenous Peoples’ Issues, Intellectual Property Rights, Preservation Strategies, ethno-education, protection of TKP, oral tradition, botanic gardens</p> Andrew J Semotiuk Exequiel Ezcurra Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín Latif Ahmad Alain Cuerrier Copyright (c) 2022 Andrew J Semotiuk, Exequiel Ezcurra, Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín, Latif Ahmad, Alain Cuerrier 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 23 1 23 The subalpine and alpine vegetation of the Georgian Caucasus - a first ethnobotanical and phytosociological synopsis https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3509 <p><em>Background:</em> The Republic of Georgia is part of the Caucasus biodiversity hotspot, and human agricultural plant use dates back at least 6000 years. Over the last years lots of ethnobotanical research on the area has been published. In this paper we analyze the use of food plants in the 80% of Georgia not occupied by Russian forces. We hypothesized that, (1) given the long tradition of plant use, and the isolation under Soviet rule, plant use both based on home gardens and wild harvesting would be more pronounced in Georgia than in the wider region, (2) food plant use knowledge would be widely and equally spread in most of Georgia, (3) there would still be incidence of knowledge loss despite wide plant use, especially in climatically favored agricultural regions in Western and Eastern Georgia. The alpine vegetation of the Caucasus hotspot has fascinated botanists for centuries. Given the very complicated biogeographic setting, a concise classification of vegetation communities has however eluded science so far.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The present work, based on 619 plots, is the first study to attempt a concise phytosociological classification. Even given this large number of samples a complete vegetation classification still proved difficult, and more releveés are needed for a detailed assessment, following Braun-Blanquet. It is also the first attempt to give an overview on plant uses in the alpine and subalpine areas of Georgia.</p> <p>For plant uses we employed the very large dataset that we gathered all over Georgia interviewing over 300 participants from 2014-2019. For the vegetation analysis we employed traditional phytosociological table work combined with an analysis based on species composition, coverage and abiotic factors using "R", compared to a classification using "Twinspan". From 2013 to 2019 we also interviewed over 380 participants in all regions of Georgia not occupied by Russian forces. All interviews were carried out in the participants’ homes and gardens by native speakers of Georgian and its dialects (Imeretian, Rachian, Lechkhumian, Tush, Khevsurian, Psavian, Kakhetian), other Kartvelian languages (Megrelian, Svan) and minority languages (Ossetian, Ude, Azeri, Armenian, Greek).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>We found that 183 species of the subalpine and alpine flora, representing about 33% of all species encountered in the vegetation survey, had reported uses. The usage of alpine and subalpine species in Georgia is mostly focused on the use of the plants as fodder, which is unsurprising. Green crops such as <em>Lactuca sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha x piperita, Allium cepa</em>, and <em>Artemisia dracunculus</em> are grown virtually everywhere. <em>Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Solanum melongena</em>, and <em>Zea mays</em>, all introduced species, were discovered to be popular elements in local cuisine. In human and veterinary medicine, however, <em>Matricaria chamomilla, Berberis vulgaris,</em> and <em>Juniperus hemisphaerica</em> are still used. There are two vegetation classes: <em>Bromopsis variegatae - Festucaetea ovinea</em> (Class. nov.) (Subalpine pastures), which has seven orders and twelve alliances/eighteen associations, and <em>Sympoholoma graveolensis - Saxifragetea exaratae</em> (Class. nov.) (Alpine pastures), which has one order, two alliances, and four associations.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The alpine and subalpine vegetation of the Greater Caucasus and its uses were assessed in detail for the first time, highlighting the still existing gaps in both phytosociological and ethnobotanical work. Given the establishment of borders in post-soviet independence, it will be interesting to see how long this original cross-cultural knowledge will remain, given that the actual use of the traditional knowledge, as well as cross-border high altitude pastoralism are declining.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Republic of Georgia, Caucasus, Traditional Knowledge</p> George Nakhutsrishvili Ketevan Batsatsashvili Rainer W Bussmann Inayat Ur Rahman Robbie E Hart Shiekh Marifatul Haq Copyright (c) 2022 George Nakhutsrishvili, Ketevan Batsatsashvili, Rainer W Bussmann, Inayat Ur Rahman, Robbie E Hart, Marifatul Haq 2022-02-05 2022-02-05 23 1 60 Traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in Sidi Bennour region (Central Morocco) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3173 <p><em>Background: </em>This study aimed to protect the knowledge related to the traditional uses of wild plant resources which constituted untapped potential as dietary supplements and therapeutic products</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>An ethnobotanical survey based on the Semi-Structured Interview method was carried out among the Sidi Bennour region from February 2019 to February 2020.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The results showed that a total of 56 plant species representing 56 genera and 27 families were used to make different food dishes and in the treatment of various diseases. The most cited wild edible plants (WEPs) families were Asteraceae (16%). The leaves (38%) and stems (32%) were the most parts commonly used in food. Four utilization categories were cited, vegetables, for seasoning, as a drink, and Other (plants used to decorate or flavor traditional dishes). The use of these WEPs as vegetables was the most cited mode of consumption (37.5%) by the local population. The leaves were the most commonly used part (35%) for medicinal uses of WEPs. Decoction (27.27%) was the most common method of preparing traditional medicines. The majority of preparations were administered orally (80.25%). The study results showed also that local people have sufficient information on the safe use of WEPs.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>The present study demonstrated that the people of the Sidi Bennour region, hold rich traditional knowledge of a large number of WEPs, however, the study population underlined the sharp decline in the consumption of most of the species recorded consequently the detailed documentation may effectively prevent knowledge loss through time.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> ethnobotanical survey, Wild edible plants, relative frequency index of citation, phytotherapy, <strong><em>beqoula</em></strong>, Sidi Bennour, Morocco</p> Abdelghani Aboukhalaf Manal Tbatou Adil Kalili Kaoutar Naciri Sara Moujabbir Khadija Sahel João Miguel Rocha Rekia Belahsen Copyright (c) 2022 A Aboukhalaf, M Tbatou, A Kalili, K Naciri, S Moujabbir, K Sahel, JMF Rocha, Rekia Belahsen 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 23 1 18 Brazilian cherry: identifying local knowledge and diversity of Eugenia involucrata in the countryside of Santa Catarina state/Brazil https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/2979 <p><em>Background:</em> <em>Eugenia involucrata </em>(<strong>cerejeira do mato</strong>) is a fruit species from the Atlantic Forest Biome, which presents several potential uses; however, it is considered an endangered species. An ethnobotanical survey and physical-chemical evaluations were carried out in order to characterize the local knowledge about <em>E. involucrata, </em>the variability maintained by local communities and identify fruits with agronomic traits of interest.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The study was conducted in the counties of Curitibanos, Frei Rogério, and Rio das Antas. Ethnographic research was used to gather ethnobotanical knowledge. Fruit samples from seven plants owned by family units were evaluated for diameter, height, pH, vitamin C, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Nineteen family units were interviewed, where eleven use purposes and fifteen agricultural management practices were mentioned for <em>Eugenia involucrata</em>. The main criteria indicated by people interviewed for<em> E. involucrata </em>selection were “sweeter fruits,” “darker fruits” and “larger fruits.”. There was variability among the seven accessions of<em> E. involucrata </em>evaluated. The accessions 3.D, 4.MI, 5.MII and 6.G were the ones that best met the selection criteria. The affective bond, related to familiar or childhood traditions has contributed to the conservation of <em>E. involucrata. </em></p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The family units interviewed share a cultural relationship with <em>E. involucrata, </em>which has been perpetuated over generations through the continuous use of the species. Among the genetic variability maintained by the family units, the accessions 3.D, 4.MI, 5.MII and 6.G were those which best attend the selection criteria established.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> cerejeira do Rio Grande, on-farm conservation, ethnobotany.</p> Julia Goetten Wagner Karine Louise Santos Dilma Budziak Rosa Lía Barbieri Copyright (c) 2022 Julia Goetten Wagner, Karine Louise Santos, Dilma Budziak, Rosa Lía Barbieri 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 23 1 21 Ethnomedicinal plants used by the local people of Changunarayan Municipality, central Nepal https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3673 <p><em>Background:</em> For centuries, the Changunarayan municipality has been inhabited by people who have a long tradition of using medicinal plants to treat human ailments. Habitat degradation and improper harvesting are the major threats to the medicinal plant species in this area. The present study aims at documenting and identifying plant-based ethnomedicinal knowledge of the local people in order to preserve the dwindling indigenous knowledge.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The primary information on the medicinal plants were collected through field observation, interviews, and a semi-structured questionnaire. A frequency index value was determined to compare the medicinal plants that were used frequently by the local people. Moreover, the factor of informant consensus (F<sub>IC</sub>) was determined for the assessment of homogeneity on the informants’ knowledge regarding medicinal plants. A Pearson correlation test and a simple linear regression were performed to evaluate the relationship between the age of respondents and plants described by them.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 96 medicinal plant species belonging to 56 families and 85 genera were used for the 40 different ailments documented in the municipality. Herbs (n = 47) occurred most frequently in the study area, and the most frequently used plant part was leaves (n = 30). The majority of the species were collected from the wild (57%). <em>Ocimum tenuiflorum</em> and <em>Curcuma longa</em> had the highest frequency index of 65%. The value of Chi-square test between genders and the number of plants described by them was determined to be significant (p-value &lt; 0.001). A positive correlation (r = 0.708) was found between the age groups of informants and the number of plants described by them. The F<sub>IC</sub> value in the study ranged from 0.4 (cardio-vascular) to 0.90 (fever).</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The medicinal plants have been playing an enormous role in the health care of the villagers, though the study area is very close to the capital city. The plants used in the study might open the way for the development of a scientifically verified botanical derivatives for modern medicine. Valuable traditional knowledge was limited to the older generation, which indicates a huge gap in knowledge transmission from the older to the younger generation.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ailments, Local interventions, Threats, Traditional knowledge</p> Kalpana Dulal Sujan Chaudhary Yadav Uprety Neera Shrestha Sudarshana Shakya Nabin Munankarmi Copyright (c) 2022 Kalpana Dulal, Sujan Chaudhary, Yadav Uprety, Neera Shrestha, Sudarshana Shakya, Nabin Munankarmi 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 23 1 27 Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the tribal communities of Central Kurram, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3477 <p><em>Background:</em> The use of plants for different ethnobotanical purposes is a common practice in the remote areas of developing countries, particularly in reference to human and animal healthcare. For this aim, it is important to document ethnomedicinal use of plants for human and livestock healthcare from unexplored regions.</p> <p><em>Objective:</em> The current study aimed to document the use of medicinal plants and to assess their conservation status. We hypothesized that Central Kurram, due to its remoteness and maintenance of traditions would show distinct differences in medicinal plant use in comparison to other areas of Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Method: </em>The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and &nbsp;was analyzed using various quantitative indices including use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (ICF) and family importance value (FIV). Plant samples were collected identified and then processed as voucher specimens following standard ethnobotanical practice.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> One hundred twenty participants including 80 men and 40 women were interviewed. The participants reported a total of 106 plant species, belonging to 96 genera and 50 families. There were two families of pteridophytes (2 species), 2 families of gymnosperm (4 species) and 100 species belonging to 46 families of angiosperms. The local population used therapeutic plants to heal 114 different diseases in 19 aliment categories in the study area. &nbsp;A total of 106 species belonging to 50 families were documented as used to treat different types of illness. The UV ranged from 0.01 (<em>Artemisia scoparia</em> and <em>Malva sylvestris</em>) to 0.75 (<em>Conyza canadensis</em>). The RFC varied from 0.025 (<em>Hyoscyamus niger</em> and <em>Senecio crysanthemoides</em>) to 1.992 (<em>Ephedra intermedia</em>). The species with 100% FL were <em>Astragalus stocksii</em> and <em>Artemisia scoparia</em>, while the FCI ranged from 0 to 1 for insecticides and acoustic disorders. The conservation assessment revealed that 49 plant species were vulnerable, followed by rare (34 spp.), infrequent (7 spp.), Dominant (5spp.) And 5 endangered species. &nbsp;</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The current study showed that Central Kurram has a significant diversity of medicinal plant, and the use of medicinal plants and plant-based remedies is still common in the area. A total of 106 medicinal plant species, belonging to 50 families were documented for the treatment of 114 disorders. <em>&nbsp;</em>&nbsp;The residents used medicinal plants in treatment of important diseases such as Covid-19, cancer, dysentery, as diuretic, wound healing, and sexual diseases.</p> Sayed Hussain Wahid Hussain Ashiq Nawaz Lal Badshah Ashgar Ali Shariat Ullah Maroof Ali Hidayat Hussain Rainer W Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Sayed Hussain, Wahid Hussain, Ashiq Nawaz, Lal Badshah, Ashgar Ali, Shariat Ullah, Maroof Ali, Hidayat Hussain, Rainer W Bussmann 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 23 1 31 Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes and hypertension used in communities near Fathala Forest, Senegal https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/2899 <p><em>Background:</em> Diabetes and hypertension are serious health issues, and both are predicted to increase, particularly in Africa. The objectives of this study are to (1) identify plants used to treat diabetes and hypertension and (2) characterize their therapeutic uses based on ethnobotanical information.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with traditional healers, patients, nurses and other actors near Fathala Classified Forest in western Senegal. Data were processed using content analysis. Citation frequency (CF) was used to determine importance of each species.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 38 species were used to treat diabetes and hypertension. These belong to 34 genera and 21 families. Eighteen species were used to treat both diabetes and hypertension, 12 were used to treat hypertension and eight to treat diabetes. The most used plant parts were leaves (56%) bark (10%) and roots (10%). Preparation of the medicine mainly consisted of decoction (45%), infusion (17%) and maceration (15%) and most medicines were taken as a drink (76%). The most used species in the treatment of diabetes are <em>Terminalia avicennioides</em> (FC= 69%), <em>Sclerocarya birrea </em>(FC=23 %) and <em>Cocos nucifera</em> (FC=15%). <em>Moringa oleifera</em> (FC=46,15%), <em>Oxytenanthera abyssinica</em> (FC=30,76%) and <em>Detarium microcarpum </em>(FC=23,07%) are mainly used against hypertension. Combretaceae (28,57%), Fabaceae (28,57%) and Anacardiaceae (19,05%), are most represented families. </p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: A diversity of native plants were used as antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicine. Ethnobotanical knowledge could constitute a foundation for identifying new active ingredients for developing new or improved medicine.</p> <p><em>Key words:</em> Africa, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge.</p> Mariama Diop Fatimata Niang-Diop Sara Danièle Dieng Abdoulaye Samb Gilberta Elisa Djidiambone Manga Ansoumana Papa Sané Mayacine Badara Sène Bienvenu Sambou Assane Goudiaby Eric Arnaud Diatta Copyright (c) 2022 Mariama Diop 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 23 1 15 Plants used for Socio-Magico-Religious purposes by the indigenous communities of Sub-Himalayan Tract, Uttarakhand https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3645 <p><em>Background: </em>Plants play an essential role in every rural society's cultural and religious ceremonies. The focus of the study was to document the use of plants by the indigenous communities of sub-Himalayan Tract, Uttarakhand in magico-religious practices.</p> <p><em>Method:</em> Information was extracted from eighty informants (50 men; 30 women) between 25 to 75 years of age. A semi-structured questionnaire, interviews, and participatory observations were made to collect data from the informants to meet the study's requirements.</p> <p><em>Results</em><em>:</em> The present study revealed 34 plants belonging to 31 genera and 25 families for the magico-religious practices. Fruits and whole plants are mainly used to conduct various social and religious practices, such as offerings in religious ceremonies. Herbs (59%) were the dominant forms, and wastelands (48%) were the dominant source of magico-religious plants. High Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) was recorded for the plants used in the sacred and religious rites (SAR) category. Species such as<em> Datura stramonium, </em><em>Ocimum tenuiflorum</em>, <em>Ficus benghalensis</em>, <em>Cynodon dactylon</em>, <em>Achyranthes aspera</em>, and <em>Calotropis procera</em> were culturally most important based on cultural index value.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The plant species play a vital role in practicing the religion and culture among the studied communities. Therefore, it is suggested that the indigenous communities of the sub-Himalayan region be monitored and contacted regularly about their beliefs. They must be informed and made aware of the importance of plant diversity and the significant loss that will occur if it is lost.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Uttarakhand, Indigenous communities, Magico-religious practices, Cultural Importance, Plants</p> Sumeet Gairola Kanwaljeet Singh Jyotsana Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Sumeet Gairola, Kanwaljeet Singh, Jyotsana Sharma 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 23 1 19 Traditional Knowledge of Wild Edible Plants Used by the People of Lawat, District Neelum, Azad Jammu & Kshmir, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3455 <p><em>Background:</em> Wild Food Plants (WFPs) are a natural source of food in many rural communities and potential source of local food security. However, over-harvesting and excessive utilization endanger their survival. This study was conducted to document the diversity of wild edible plants along with their customary food uses from Lawat area Neelum Valley, Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods:</em> Data on food uses was collected during 5 years observation (2015-2020) by conducting various surveys using semi-structured and freelisting interviews with 70 local participants and self-observations as well. Novelty was checked by comparing the gathered data with the published literature using Jaccard Index (JI). Use-value (UV) was used to check the relative importance of useful plants.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Results:</em> A total of 61 wild food plants belonging to thirty families were collected and identified. The edible parts of all reported species were consumed as fruits, cooked as vegetable and used in herbal tea or eaten raw. <em>Thirty-two species were used as vegetables, followed by 13 species as fruits, 10 species in herbal </em>tea, and 6 as condiments. Herbs were recorded with a major contribution of 72%; trees and shrubs contributed 11% each while 4.91% fern. A number of young parts (aerial part and leaves) of most species are used as vegetable. All reported parts of plants were frequently utilized by residents as food and maximum plants are available in the months of June-August. Most of the recorded WFPs belonged to Rosaceae (9 species), followed by Polygonaceae (8 species), Lamiaceae (5 species), Brassicaceae, and Amaryllidaceae (4 species each).</p> <p><em> </em><em>Conclusion:</em> WFPs still play an imperative role in the local food culture and are primary source of food for food insecure families in study area and traditional knowledge attached to them is astonishing in the region. In this study, many wild food plants along with their customary food uses were recorded for the first time in Lawat area with almost 72% of the species followed by 31% at district level and 23% species from Azad Kashmir.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Wild food plants, Ethnobotany, Indigenous knowledge, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir</p> Shabir Ijaz Anjum Perveen Saima Ashraf Roohi Abid Shazia Kousar Zaheer Abbas Muhammad Arslan Copyright (c) 2022 Mr Shabir Ijaz, Dr Anjum Perveen, Dr Saima Ashraf, Dr Roohi Abid, Dr Shazia Kousar, Dr Zaheer Abbas, Mr Muhammad Arslan 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 23 1 16 Medicinal plants species used in male circumcision among the Bagishu of Eastern Uganda https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3411 <p><em>Background:</em> Plants have long been used in traditional medicine and in cultural practices such as circumcision. Circumcision is one of the oldest and most widely performed procedures globally. Although male circumcision among the Bagishu in Eastern Uganda has been widely studied, these studies have focused on social and cultural aspects of the ritual. No study has ever investigated the medicinal plant species used during the process despite their widespread use and importance.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Sironko district, in Eastern Uganda, to document the medicinal plants used by the Bagishu during the male circumcision ritual. Semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. Fifteen traditional practitioners were identified using the snowball technique and interviewed.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Four medicinal plant were used in male circumcision, namely: <em>Cissampelos mucronata </em>A.Rich<em>, Conyza sumatrensis </em>(S.F.Blake) Pruski &amp; G.Sancho, <em>Dracaena fragrans </em>(L.) Ker Gawl<em>, </em>and <em>Urtica massaica </em>Mildbr. These herbs are either administered orally or applied topically on wounds. <em>C. mucronata </em>was the most frequently used plant for wound healing. It is also believed to give courage and embolden young men before circumcision.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The Bagishu use medicinal plants during circumcision rituals mainly for treating wounds and stopping bleeding. This knowledge is on the verge of being lost despite its potential economic and health benefits in terms of wound healing.</p> <p><em>Key words:</em> Traditional practitioners, male circumcision, medicinal plants, Uganda</p> Godwin Upoki Anywar Gloria Nakitende Copyright (c) 2022 Godwin Upoki Anywar, Gloria Nakitende 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 23 1 5 Prospects for the introduction of Ferula tadshikorum Pimenov in the conditions of the Tashkent region https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3397 <p><em>Background:</em> <em>Ferula</em> species are used for a wide variety of purposes from the Middle East to the Himalayas. This paper provides information on the biological features and ontogenesis of the promising medicinal plant <em>Ferula</em> <em>tadshikorum</em> Pimenov during the introduction in the conditions of the Tashkent Botanical Garden.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The features of morphological development of the studied ontogenetic states were recorded during similar periods of vegetation in 2019-2021 in two variants of treatment. Under the conditions of introduction, 2 growth periods (latent, virginal) and 4 age classes (seedlings, juvenile, immature and virginal plants) were documented in plant ontogenesis.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> According to our study, a rapid transition from one to the next age state was found in introduced specimens. This is an important factor for the establishment of agrocenoses needed to obtain raw material in a significantly shorter time. The results of the study show the success of the introduction of <em>Ferula tadshikorum</em> in the conditions of the Tashkent Botanical Garden, although the new growth conditions differed from natural soil and climatic characteristics. The collection of this species in the Garden can now serve as a basis for plantations in natural growing conditions. <em>Conclusion:</em> The obtained experimental data can be used as a basis for the development of agricultural techniques and technologies for growing this plant in introduced conditions.</p> Dilovar T. Khamraeva Olim Khojimatov Rainer W. Bussmann Alisher Khujanov Zokir Kosimov Copyright (c) 2022 Dilovar T. Khamraeva, Olim Khojimatov, Rainer W. Bussmann, Alisher Khujanov, Zokir Kosimov 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 23 1 9 "How I became an ethnobotanist" an interview with ERA Associate Editor Dr. Narel Paniagua Zambrana https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3551 <p><em>An interview with Narel Paniagua-Zambrana, Senior Scientist of the Department of Ethnobotany at the Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Georgia, Associated Researcher of Herbario Nacional de Bolivia and co-director of Saving Knowledge. Her work focuses on ethnobotanical research and the preservation of traditional knowledge, in the Andes, the Caucasus, and the Himalayas.</em></p> Maroof Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Maroof Ali 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 23 1 92 "Ad aspera ad astra - 40 years of (Ethno)botany": an interview with Rainer W. Bussmann, Co-Editor in Chief of ERA https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3627 <p>An interview with Rainer W. Bussmann, Full Professor of Ethnobotany and Head of the Department of Ethnobotany at the Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Georgia and co-director of Saving Knowledge. His work focuses on ethnobotanical research and the preservation of traditional knowledge, in the Andes, the Caucasus, and the Himalayas.</p> Maroof Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Maroof Ali 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 23 1 52 One more way to support Ukraine: Celebrating its endangered biocultural diversity https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3761 <p><em>Background:</em> Ukraine holds a rich reservoir of cultural and biological diversity due to its complex history and variegated landscapes. However, the current aggression poses threats to it, attacking its identity expressed through local ecological practices. Therefore, in this photo essay, we aim to celebrate the great reservoir of biocultural diversity that we observed during several field investigations in different areas of Ukraine.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> We selected photos taken during fieldworks conducted by the authors between 2015 and 2021 in ten oblasts (counties) of Ukraine. The pictures were selected based on their efficacy in conveying a story about a local (food) practice or landscape.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Two main aspects of food culture are relevant in Ukraine. First the foraging of wild plants and mushrooms for food and medicinal purposes in forestlands. Second, “babushka markets” where elderly sellers bring a few things they want to sell on the fringes of the official market. They often included preserved as pickles and jams, but also fresh products. In addition, the several traditional Ukrainian landscapes serve as reservoir of biocultural diversity expressed by small-scale farmers and livestock keepers.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> We illustrated several examples of the richness of the biological and cultural diversity of Ukraine. Nevertheless, freedom is essential for expressing identity through food practices and landscape management. We hope that such a reservoir can serve as a foundation stone for rebuilding destroyed areas and devastated communities.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Cultural diversity; Ethnobiology; Landscape; Political context; Resistance.</p> Nataliya Stryamets Igor Khomyn Giulia Mattalia Julia Prakofjewa Andrea Pieroni Renata Sõukand Copyright (c) 2022 Nataliya Stryamets, Nataliya Stryamets, Igor Khomyn, Giulia Mattalia, Julia Prakofjewa, Andrea Pieroni, Renata Sõukand 2022-05-15 2022-05-15 23 1 28 Ethnobiology of Mountain Communities in Asia -A Book Review https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3589 <p><strong>Ethnobiology of Mountain Communities in Asia, </strong>Abbasi, A. M., &amp; Bussmann, R. W. (Eds.). (2021) Springer Nature Switzerland. xiv + 439 pp. (Hardcover). EUR 149.99. ISBN: 978-3-030-55493-4; DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55494-1">https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55494-1</a></p> <p>The book under review (<em>Ethnobiology of Mountain Communities in Asia</em>) is a part of the book series, <em>Ethnobiology</em>. So far, twelve volumes of this series have been published since 2015 (<a href="https://www.springer.com/series/11551">https://www.springer.com/series/11551</a>). Ethnobiology is the study of the dynamic relationship between plants, animals, people, and the environment. Contemporary ethnobiological research is grounded in respect for all cultures, embracing the principles of prior informed consent, benefit sharing, and general mindfulness.</p> Zubair A. Malik Copyright (c) 2022 Zubair A. Malik 2022-02-20 2022-02-20 23 1 2 Ethnobotany of the Himalayas: A book Review https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3649 <p><strong>Ethnobotany of the Himalayas. </strong>Ripu M. Kunwar, Hassan Sher and Rainer W. Bussmann (Eds). Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021. xliv + 2185 pp. Price: € 899.99, Print ISBN 978-3-030-57407-9; Online ISBN 978-3-030-57408-6; doi: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57408-6">https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57408-6</a> </p> Zubair A. Malik Copyright (c) 2022 Zubair A. Malik 2022-03-19 2022-03-19 23 1 3 An ethnobotanical study on the wild edible plants used by forest dwellers in Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3275 <p><em>Background:</em> The study documented the wild edible plants (WEPs) used by forest dwellers in the Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary (YLWLS), Manipur, India. The inhabitants of YLWLS belong to the Thadou, Meitei, and Maring communities.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from March 2018 to February 2020. The elderly local people, local healers, forest staff, and vendors in local markets participated in the survey. The respondents were selected through snowball sampling method. The ethnobotanical information was gathered from the respondents, especially the elderly people, local healers, forest staff, and vendors through interviews. The questionnaire used was a semi-structured type. The data was collected on parameters such as vernacular name, botanical name, family, the life form or habit of the species, information on flowering and fruiting, the plant part used, mode of consumption, medicinal use, marketability, and price. The voucher specimens of the wild edible plants were collected and identified with the help of literature.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> One hundred and eight taxa belonging to 86 genera and 50 families of WEPs were documented. Zingiberaceae was the most dominant family with seven species used as WEPs. Herbs were most dominant with 42 species. Nine species bore flowers and fruits all year round. Maximum species (49 species) were consumed after cooking. Forty-nine species out of the 108 WEP species were consumed for their medicinal values. Sixty six species (61%) of WEPs were marketed. The highest-priced species were <em>Asparagus racemosus </em>(INR 180-220/kg; USD 2.41-2.95) and <em>Cinnamomum verum</em> (INR 150-200/kg; USD 2.01-2.68). The use of the pseudostem of <em>Ensete glaucum</em> as food is a new report for Manipur.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The forest dwellers depend on the WEPs for their food, medicine, traditional ceremonies, and source of livelihood. Some species of WEPs could be propagated for conservation, management, and sustainable utilization, which would help in generating additional income for the locals.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Wild edible plants, forest dwellers, Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur</p> Laishram Ricky Meitei Aparajita De Ashiho Asoshii Mao Copyright (c) 2022 Laishram Ricky Meitei, Aparajita De, Ashiho Asoshii Mao 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 23 1 22 Millennial traditions - Exploration of ethno-medicinal knowledge among different ethnic groups of Northern part Kashmir Himalaya, India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3493 <p><em>Background:</em> Traditional use of medicinal plants is an important aspect of Himalayan culture, and these approaches have evolved to include the primary health-care purpose and treatment of a wide range of ailments.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Snowball sampling method was used to interview 300 informants using semi-structured questionnaire to document the uses of indigenous species. Principal component analysis was used to analyze the data using PAST software ver.3.14.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The present study reported a total of 67 medicinal plants belonging to 44 families with Asteraceae as dominant family. The majority of the species were herbaceous (81%) followed by trees (10%) and shrubs (9%). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part accounting for (16%), followed by roots (10%). The medicinal plants were used to cure various ailments, especially intestinal problems, skin diseases, stomach problems, respiratory problems, diabetes, bone and joint problems. The majority of people preferred to prepare herbal medicines on their own rather than obtaining these from traditional health practitioners. 63.11%, 55.15%, 45.61% respondents believed that the medicinal plants were highly effective from the site I, II, III respectively.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> According to the findings of the current study, local people have a profound cultural link to the flora, as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses plays an important role in meeting the primary health care needs. Due to urbanization and exploitation, it has become imperative to preserve the traditional medicinal knowledge before it becomes extinct.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Health care, Knowledge, Medicinal plants, Traditional therapeutic use</p> Siyadat Farooq Aadil Gulzar Shiekh Marifatul Haq Musheerul Hassan Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Siyadat Farooq, Aadil Gulzar, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Musheerul Hassan, Rainer W. Bussmann 2022-03-12 2022-03-12 23 1 18 Traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in northern part of Kashmir Himalayas https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3495 <p><em>Background: </em>Treatment of gastrointestinal diseases with medicinal plants from the northern portion of the Kashmir Himalayas is widespread, because of effectiveness, ease of availability, lack of modern healthcare alternatives, cultural preferences, and century-old affinity with the plants. Thus this vast supply of traditional knowledge must be documented as soon as feasible if sustainable healthcare systems are to be developed.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>This survey was conducted from June 2020 to September 2021 to document the indigenous knowledge on plant resources of the tribal communities of the administrative district Kupwara, Kashmir Himalayas. The data was gathered through open-ended semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Various statistical indices (UV &amp; ICF) were used to further examine quantitative data.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 67 plant species representing 31 families are reported to treat different gastrointestinal diseases, with herbs being the most dominant used plants (93%). Leaves (36%) are most frequently used in the study area followed by roots (33%) with preparation being dominated by infusion. Present study revealed that abdominal pain (23.88%) is the dominant disease which is treated using quoted medicinal herbs followed by constipation (17.91%), stomachache (16.42%). The reported ICF is very high I.e. (0.91- 0.96) indicating that the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants used to cure gastrointestinal diseases in district Kupwara is very extensive. Highest UV has been reported for <em>Aconitum heterophyllum </em>(0.96) and the lowest UV is recorded for<em> Verbena officinales </em>(0.17).</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The goal of this study was to highlight the potential for medicinal plants to be used to treat a variety of gastrointestinal ailments. Ten medicinal plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal issues were discovered for the first time in this part of Himalaya. The phytochemical content and pharmacological effects of these should be explored and there is a need for more research for conservation strategies.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Keywords:</em> Gastrointestinal, Traditional Knowledge, Ethnomedicine, Kupwara, Medicinal plants.</p> Aadil Abdullah Khoja Syed Aasif Hussain Andrabi Rayees Afzal Mir Copyright (c) 2022 Aadil Abdullah Khoja, Syed Aasif Hussain Andrabi 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 23 1 17 Entre a tradição e a modernidade: a relação entre as benzedeiras e as plantas medicinais em um centro urbano no sul do Brasil https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3469 <p><em>Introdução</em>: A benzedura é uma prática tradicional de saúde presente tanto em áreas rurais quanto urbanas do Brasil. Diversos estudos etnobotânicos ressaltam que os praticantes possuem um vasto conhecimento sobre as plantas medicinais, porém ainda é necessário ampliar as investigações sobre a importância da prática e as formas de transmissão dos conhecimentos frente à modernidade.&nbsp; Neste contexto, este estudo foi realizado em uma região urbana de Florianópolis (SC) onde buscamos investigar as doenças tratadas por benzeduras, as plantas utilizadas nesta prática e o processo de transmissão cultural do conhecimento.</p> <p><em>Métodos</em>: Realizamos entrevistas com onze benzedeiras da região leste de Florianópolis. A coleta de informações foi realizada através de protocolos semi-estruturados com lista-livre de plantas, e a coleta e identificação botânica das plantas citadas. Os dados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva.</p> <p><em>Resultados</em>: Foram levantadas 34 tipos de doenças e males que são tratados através de benzeduras. Para o tratamento e cura desses males foi registrado o uso de 24 espécies de plantas medicinais, sendo as mais citadas: <em>Ruta graveolens </em>(6 citações), <em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> (3) e <em>Petiveria alliacea </em>(3). Sobre as formas de transmissão do conhecimento, a maioria das entrevistadas (46%) aprenderam na infância, 36% na fase adulta através de cursos e 18% na juventude. Ao longo das entrevistas percebemos que estão surgindo novas formas de transmitir os conhecimentos, onde os cursos e os aplicativos de celulares estão ganhando importância.</p> <p><em>Conclusões</em>: A prática da benzedura continua exercendo um papel importante na saúde das comunidades da região leste da Ilha de Santa Catarina e está passando por adaptações frente à modernidade. É importante que estudos futuros investiguem o efeito das tecnologias nesta prática e as possíveis implicações na resiliência ou vulnerabilidade destes sistemas de saúde.</p> <p><em>Palavras-chave</em><strong>:</strong> Benzedeiras, etnobotânica, práticas de saúde, conhecimento ecológico local, plantas medicinais.</p> Camila Fabiana da Silva Sofia Zank Copyright (c) 2022 Sofia Zank, Camila Fabiana da Silva 2022-01-08 2022-01-08 23 1 12 "Cómo me convertí en etnobotánica" una entrevista con el Editor Asociado de ERA Dr. Narel Paniagua-Zambrana https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3553 <p>Una entrevista con Narel Paniagua-Zambrana, investigadora principal del Departamento de Etnobotánica del Instituto de Botánica de la Universidad Estatal de Ilia, Georgia, investigadora asociado del Herbario Nacional de Bolivia y co-directora de Saving Knowledge. Su trabajo se centra en la investigación etnobotánica y la preservación del conocimiento tradicional en los Andes, el Cáucaso y el Himalaya.</p> Maroof Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Maroof Ali 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 23 1 94 ერთიანობა მრავალფეროვნებაში - საქართველოს საკვები მცენარეები და სოკოები https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3463 <p>Bussmann, RW; Paniagua Zambrana, NY; Ur Rahman, I; Kikvidze, Z; Sikharulidze, S; Kikodze, D; Tchelidze, D; Khutsishvili, M; Batsatsashvili, K (2021). Unity in diversity - Food plants and fungi of Sakartvelo (Republic of Georgia), Caucasus. <em>Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine</em> 17(72). doi: 10.1186/s13002-021-00490-9</p> <p><em>შესავალი</em>: საქართველო ეკუთვნის კავკასიის ბიომრავალფეროვნების კერას, სადაც ადამიანების მიერ სამიწათმოქმედო მცენარეების გამოყენება სულ ცოტა 6000 წელს ითვლის. ბოლო წლებში ამ რეგიონიდან ბევრი შრომა გამოქვეყნდა. ამ სტატიაში ჩვენ ვაანალიზებთ საკვებ მცენარეებს საქართველოს ტერიტორიის იმ 80% პროცენტიდან, რომელიც რუსულ საოკუპაციო ჯარებს არ უკავიათ. ჩვენი ჰიპოთეზით: (1) მცენარეების გამოყენების ხანგრძლივი ტრადიციისა და საბჭოთა წლებში ქვეყნის იზოლაციის გამო, როგორც ბაღბოსტანში მოყვანილი, ისე ტყეში შეგროვილი მცენარეების გამოყენება უფრო გამოხატული იქნებოდა საქართველოში, ვიდრე მის გარეთ ამ რეგიონში, (2) მცენარეებისა და მათი გამოყენების ცოდნა ფართოდ და თანაბრად იქნებოდა გავრცელებული საქართველოს უდიდეს ნაწილში და (3) მიუხედავად მცენარეების ფართო გამოყენებისა, მაინც იქნებოდა ამ ცოდნის კარგვის შემთხვევები, განსაკუთრებით აღმოსავლეთ და დასავლეთ საქართველოს კლიმატურად ხელსაყრელ სამიწათმოქმედო რეგიონებში.</p> <p><em>მეთოდები</em><em>:</em> 2013-2019 წწ. გამოვკითხეთ 380 რესპონდენტი საქართველოს ყველა მხარეში, გარდა რუსეთის შეიარაღებული ძალების მიერ ოკუპირებული ტერიტორიებისა და ჩავიწერეთ 19800-ზე მეტი საკვები მცენარის გამოყენება. ყველა გამოკითხვა ჩატარდა მონაწილეთა სახლსა და ბაღ-ბოსტნებში ქართულსა და მის დიალექტებზე (იმერული, რაჭული, ლეჩხუმური, თუშური, ხევსურული, ფშაური, კახური), ასევე სხვა ქართველურ ენებსა (სვანური, მეგრული) და უმცირესობათა ენებზე (ოსური, უდიური, აზერბაიჯანული, სომხური, ბერძნული).</p> <p><em>შედეგები</em><em>:</em> სამხარეო დაყოფა უპირველესად საქართველოს ისტორიული პროვინციების მიხედვით ხდებოდა, რაც ხშირად ახლანდელ ადმინისტრაციულ საზღვრებს ემთხვეოდა. ტაქსონების ჯამურმა რაოდენობამ 527 შეადგინა, რომელთა უმრავლესობა სახეობამდე იქნა გარკვეული. ტაქსონომიურად, სხვაობა საკვებ მცენარეთა ორ ჯგუფს - ბაღბოსტნისა და ველურის - მკაფიოდ გამოიხატა ოჯახების დონეზეც კი. ბაღბოსტნის მცენარეთა ოჯახების სიმდიდრე იყო 65, ხოლო ველურისა 97, თანაც სხვაობა მაღალმნიშვნელოვანი იყო. სხვა ინდექსებიც ცალსახად მიუთითებდნენ ველური მცენარეების ოჯახების გაცილებით უფრო მრავალფეროვან შემადგენლობას ბაღბოსტნის მცენარეებთან შედარებით, იმდენად, რამდენადაც ყველა გამოყენებულმა ინდექსმა მაღალმნიშვნელოვანი სხვაობა აჩვენა.</p> <p>განსაკუთრებულ ინტერესს იწვევს ფხალი და მწნილები. ზოგიერთი მცენარე შხამიანია დიდი რაოდენობით და, როგორც რესპონდენტებმა აღნიშნეს, საკვებად მომზადებას სიფრთხილე სჭირდება. ავტორებმა ცალსახად გადაწყვიტეს ასეთი რეცეპტების არ გამოქვეყნება, რადგან ბევრი ამ მცენარეთაგანი ფართოდაა გავრცელებული, ხოლო ნაერთების შემადგენლობა და, შესაძლოა, მათი ტოქსიკური ეფექტი ცვლებადობს გავრცელების არეალში. ამიტომ მეთოდი, რომელიც ეფექტურია კავკასიაში, შეიძლება არ გამოდგეს ამ რეგიონის გარეთ.</p> <p><em>დასკვნები</em><em>:</em> ველურად მზარდი მცენარეების შემთხვევაში, მხარეებს შორის სხვაობები უფრო მკაფიოდ ჩანს. მეზობელი მხარეები ერთად ჯგუფდებიან (ქვემო რაჭა, ზემო რაჭა და ზემო იმერეთი; სამეგრელო, გურია, აჭარა, ლეჩხუმი, ზემო და ქვემო სვანეთი; მესხეთი, ჯავახეთი, ქვემო ქართლი, მთიულეთი, კახეთი, ხევსურეთი, თუშეთი). ისევე, როგორც ბაღბოსტნის მცენარეების შემთხვევაში, ჩაწერილი ველური საკვები სახეობების მრავალფეროვნება ძლიერ ცვალებადობდა. ამ ცვალებადობაში როლს ალბათ ჰავის სიმკაცრე და ველური მცენარეების გამოყენების ტრადიციები თამაშობენ. მთლიანობაში, მცენარეების ცოდნა ფართოდაა გავრცელებული და ნარჩუნდება მთელს საქართველოში.</p> <p>გასაღები სიტყვები: <em>საქართველო</em><em>, </em><em>კავკასია</em><em>, </em><em>ტრადიციული</em> <em>ცოდნა</em><em>, </em><em>ცოდნის</em> <em>კარგვა</em><em>, </em><em>საკვები</em> <em>მცენარეები</em><em>, </em><em>კონსერვაცია</em></p> Rainer W Bussmann Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana Inayat Ur Rahman Zaal Kikvidze Shalva Sikharulidze David Kikodze Davit Tchelidze Manana Khutsishvili Ketevan Batsatsashvili Copyright (c) 2022 რაინერ ვ. ბუსმან, ნარელ ი. პანიაგუა სამბრანა, ინაიატ ურ რაჰმან, ზაალ კიკვიძე, შალვა სიხარულიძე, დავით ქიქოძე, დავით ჭელიძე, მანანა ხუციშვილი, ქეთევან ბაცაცაშვილი 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 23 1 69 „Ad aspera ad astra – 40 Jahre (Ethno-)Botanik“: Ein Interview mit Rainer W. Bussmann, ERA Co-Editor in Chief https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3629 <p>Ein Interview mit Rainer W. Bussmann, Professor der Ethnobotanik und Direktor des Ethnobotanik Lehrstuhls am Botanischen Institut, Ilia-State-University, Tiflis, Georgien und Co-Direktor von Saving Knowledge. Schwerpunkte seiner Arbeit sind die ethnobotanische Forschung und die Bewahrung traditionellen Wissens in den Anden, im Kaukasus und im Himalaya.</p> Maroof Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Maroof Ali 2022-03-07 2022-03-07 23 1 55 Review of phytochemical, pharmacological and socio-economic properties of Albertisia delagoensis (N.E.Br.) Forman (Menispermaceae) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/3631 <p><em>Background:</em> <em>Albertisia delagoensis</em> is a small shrub or liana which naturally occurs in open wooded grasslands in southern Africa. A critical appraisal of the phytochemical, pharmacological and socio-economic properties of <em>A. delagoensis</em> are provided.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Research articles focusing on the phytochemical, pharmacological and socio-economic properties of <em>A. delagoensis</em> were mined from online databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO and SpringerLink. No time limit was set for the search and all research outputs that aligned with the scope of the review were included.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> <em>Albertisia delagoensis</em> has diverse uses as a food plant and also medicinal uses such as anthelmintic, improve sexual performance in men, and traditional medicine for back pain, body pains, chest pains, diarrhoea, hypertension, influenza, menstrual pain, sores and vomiting. <em>Albertisia delagoensis</em> exert biological activities such as antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity, and several phytochemical compounds such as cocsoline, cocsuline, cycleanine, dicentrine, O-methylcocsoline, roemrefidine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, allantoic acid, nicotinic acid, phthalic acid and <em>proto</em>-quercitol have been isolated from the species.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Many applications of <em>A. delagoensis</em> as source of food and herbal medicines as well as its phytochemistry and pharmarcological properties need further investigations.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <em>Albertisia delagoensis</em>, ethnomedicinal uses, indigenous knowledge, Menispermaceae, moonseed family</p> Alfred Maroyi Copyright (c) 2022 Alfred Maroyi 2022-05-09 2022-05-09 23 1 12