Ethnobotany Research and Applications https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia in cooperation with Saving Knowledge / Ethnomont. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>ERA is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> Saving Knowledge, Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia en-US Ethnobotany Research and Applications 1547-3465 <p>All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.</p> Ethnobotany of fruit species native to paramos and cloud forests of Northern Peru https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4413 <p><em>Background</em>: This study was carried out in the paramos and cloud forests of the Andes of the department of Piura of Northern Peru, and aimed to document the native fruit species known and culturally used by the communities around these ecosystems.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The Use Value and Importance indices were applied. An intercultural communication approach was used to achieve the consensus of participation of community organizations in the registration of interviews and field collections based on the timing established by the communities to collect the species.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: For a total of 49 fruit species ecological zone, phenology, nutritional and ethnomedicinal use were described. Of these 39 (80%) were not traditionally commercialized in the markets and only used by the communities in their nutrition and/or treatment of diseases. Overall, 27 species (55%) had nutritional and medicinal use; and among the 39 non-traditional species, 22 had dual use.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The traditional knowledge of the communities around the paramos and cloud forests indicated the presence of 39 fruit species not known in the market, but with traditional consumption, which makes them promising native species for science, innovation, and ecologically sustainable profitable reforestation.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany, Andean fruit trees, paramos, cloud forests, reforestation, functional foods, nutraceuticals.</p> Fidel Ángel Torres-Guevara Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui Elena Mantilla-Rodriguez Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Fidel Ángel Torres-Guevara, Mayar Luis Ganoza-Yupanqui, Elena Mantilla-Rodriguez, Luz Angélica Suárez-Rebaza, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 25 1 15 Use value of indigenous range grass species in pastoral northern Kenya https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4377 <p><em>Background:</em> Land degradation is a major challenge facing the world today, with devastating effects particularly among communities inhabiting semi-arid rangelands who are more directly dependent on natural resources. Over the years, indigenous grasses have provided multiple economic, ecosystem and cultural benefits for many communities in Kenya. However, they have increasingly experienced declining abundance, diversity and productivity over the years, compromising their benefits. This study was conducted to assess use value and local knowledge of indigenous grasses among pastoral communities in Isiolo and Samburu Counties in northern Kenya.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical data were computed and ranked based on four use indices: relative frequency of citation, relative importance index, cultural value index and cultural importance index. Four key use-categories of the grasses were identified including livestock forage, erosion control, thatching and making hay for sale.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Top ranked grasses across these use-categories included <em>Pennisetum mezianum, Chrysopogon plumulosus, Heteropogon contortus</em> and <em>Sporobolus helvolus</em>. These are perennial grasses with multiple uses and are available in wet and dry sessions and in drought periods. While trend analysis revealed overall declining availability of indigenous grasses over recent decades, it strongly came out that the four above-mentioned most preferred species had highest declining availability as perceived by local communities.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> These findings indicate need for enhanced actions for conserving indigenous grasses considering their multiple benefits and declining availability. Practical local knowledge, traditional structures and their pasture management models are great opportunities for creating responsive actions for rehabilitating degraded critical grazing areas while conserving key indigenous grasses.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Biodiversity loss, community knowledge, drylands, ethnobotanical, indigenous grasses, Kenya</p> Erick Ouma Omollo Oliver Vivian Wasonga Evans L. Chimoita Copyright (c) 2023 Erick Ouma Omollo, Oliver Vivian Wasonga, Evans L. Chimoita 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 25 1 16 A study on different plant species of the Rosaceae family and their ethnobotanical uses among the local communities at Swat district, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4325 <p><em>Background:</em> The study area possess 55 plants of the family Rosaceae, which are widely used traditionally throughout the area. The family contains a range of plants that have high ethnobotanical and economical value. The family is well-known for its economically valuable fruits and medicinal plants. As a result, the purpose of this study was to collect ethnobotanical data of the Rosaceae family from Swat district in order to provide comprehensive documentation for future research. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The ethnobotanical data was collected from 2021 to 2022 from 80 respondents by using semi-structured questionnaires, open-ended questionnaires, and personal observations. The interviewed participants were mostly herbalists, farmers, folk healers, shepherds, and knowledgeable group members, age from 30 to 80 years. All the collected data was analyzed through Microsoft Excel (2016).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> There were 55 plant species of the family Rosaceae existing in the area, including 7 (13%) climbing shrubs, 19 (34%) herbs, 11 (20%) shrubs, and 18 (33%) tree species. Results of the present study showed that 85% of the plants in the family were utilized as medicinal in the area, followed by honeybees (44%), fuel wood (33%), foods (33%), fodder (31%), fencing (25%), ornamentals (14%), timber (7%), and (7%) plants were used for making agricultural tools. The most common part used as medicine was fruits (43%), followed by shoot (30%), leaves (13%), flowers (6%), roots (4%) and other parts were used (4%). Powder was the most commonly used preparation method (32%), followed by decoction (28%), direct consumption (19%), juice extraction (17%), and other methods (6%). Results of the present study indicated that plants of the family Rosaceae were highly economical for the native communities of the area.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This study provides awareness to the native community and the worldwide trend towards native information, regeneration and transmission of knowledge. Furthermore, this study of the family's ethnobotanical uses will provide a foundation for future research in the family.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotanical, Diversity, Family Rosaceae, Swat</p> Shujat Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Shujat Ali 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 16 Cross-cultural studies of important ethno-medicinal plants among four ethnic groups of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4309 <p><em>Background:</em> This study was carried out to measure cross-cultural variability of plant use knowledge and to understand the human-nature interface among Monpa, Miji, Aka and Bugun communities of district West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh, India. We compared ethnomedical knowledge, diversity of medicinal plants, use values and informant consensus in the selected ethnic societies.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>A total of 94 informants (53 men and 41 women) from 02 villages of each community agreed to participate in this cross-cultural ethnomedicinal study. They were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire and asked about the medicinal plants used for the management of prevalent ailments, mode of preparation and administration of traditionally prepared medicine.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Total 59 plant species from 52 genera and 43 families were recorded for their ethnomedicinal use by the selected communities. Zingiberaceae was the most common family with 03 genera and 05 spp., having high recommended use across the ethnic communities. <em>Curcuma amada </em>(1.85), <em>Curcuma longa </em>(1.60), <em>Zingiber officinalis </em>(1.48) of this family showed high cross-cultural use value as compared to other medicinal plants. The informant consensus factor for use of medicinal plants for management of cancer was high (0.99) indicating high prevalence of this ailment in this study area, availability and use of similar plants for its management.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The high consensus for plants used in management of most of the prevalent ailments indicate good cross-cultural interaction among Monpa, Miji, Aka and Bugun communities of district West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh, India<strong><em>.</em></strong> The medicinal plants with high use value and consensus need to be conserved and propagated for their sustained availability to the future generations. </p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Monpa, Miji, Aka, Bugun, Medicinal plants, Intercultural</p> Jopi Siram Nagaraj Hedge Rambir Singh Uttam Kumar Sahoo Copyright (c) 2023 Jopi Siram, Nagaraj Hedge, Rambir Singh, Uttam Kumar Sahoo 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 23 Large-scale ethnomedicinal inventory and therapeutic applications of medicinal and aromatic plants used extensively in folk medicine by the local population in the middle atlas and the plain of Saiss, Morocco https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4275 <p><em>Background</em>: In this work, we carried out a thorough ethnomedicinal investigation of the aromatic and therapeutic plants used in several Middle Atlas and the plain of Saiss provinces (central Morocco). Our goal was to gather data on the variety of plants used, their therapeutic applications, and the portions utilized by local inhabitants.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In eight provinces, including Azrou, Ifrane, Elhajeb, Immouzar, Sefrou, Fez, Meknes, and Mrirt, interviews were done during the 2018-2019 season. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to analyze the collected data. To assess the value of medicinal plant resources, we estimated the Family Use Value (FUV), Medicinal Use Value (MUV), and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). We next sought consensus among the participants on the reported cures for each category of disorders using the ICF.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 154 different kinds of aromatic and medicinal plants from 56 different families were discovered, and local people used them for therapeutic purposes. The most recorded family was Lamiaceae, with 14 species and FUV=0.47. <em>Urtica pilulifera</em> L, was the most frequently utilized species and had the highest RFC equal to 0.425. The most frequently utilized preparation techniques were decoction and brewing, and the most frequently administered portions were the leaves and leafy stems. Additionally, the ICF values per use category ranged from 0.53 to 0.97. Cancer was the category with the highest ICF value (0.97). Conclusions: By advancing knowledge of the medicinal flora and preserving ancestors’ wisdom in Morocco's Middle Atlas and the plain of Saiss, the current study could be of tremendous service.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicinal, medicinal plants, Middle Atlas, Plain of Saiss, Morocco, traditional medicine.</p> Wissal El Yaagoubi Lahsen El Ghadraoui Meriem Soussi Said Ezrari Saadia Belmalha Copyright (c) 2023 Wissal El Yaagoubi, Lahsen El Ghadraoui, Meriem Soussi, Said Ezrari, Saadia Belmalha 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 29 Ethno-medicinal plants of indigenous people: A case study in Khatling valley of Western Himalaya, India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4243 <p><em>Background:</em> Khatling valley is an unexplored and remote region located in the Uttarakhand state of Indian Himalaya, the area possesses rich medicinal flora, and local inhabitants using these plants since generations. The majority of primary health care depends upon traditional medicine due to the unavailability of a modern medicinal facility, however, the identity of medicinal plants is limited to traditional healers or elder people in the region thus the documentation of such important medicinal knowledge is a dire need for sustainable use. </p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in this region from 2018 to 2020. <em> </em>Ethnomedicinal data were collected from 82 informants through semi-structured questionnaires and group conversations. To check the popular and frequently used species URs and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated for the collected data.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The present study recorded 68 plants from 63 genera and 35 families utilized for treating various disorders. The dominant families were Asteraceae (7) and Rosaceae (6) followed by Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Polygonaceae, Zingiberiaceae (4 species each). The majority of the useful plants were herbaceous (78%) followed by trees (12%), shrubs (9%), and climbers were the least in number (1%). Most of the plant parts used were leaves and roots 25% each, followed by rhizome, aerial part and tuber (9% each), seeds, fruits, and whole plant (5% each), bark (4%) while, stem, flower, resin, and the bulb has less proportion (1% each). Five drug formulations were used by the local inhabitants of which paste was the most common (32%) followed by powder (31%), decoction (19%), raw (12%), and juice (6%). Some important medicinal plants based on use reports (URs) were <em>Valeriana jatamansi </em>Jones (300 URs and 5 uses), <em>Aconitum lethale </em>Griff. (275 URs and 5 uses), <em>Nardostachys jatamansi </em>(D. Don) DC (250 URs and 4 uses), <em>Solanum nigrum </em>(L.) (234 URs and 5 uses), <em>Paeonia emodi </em>Royle (230 URs and 4 uses). ICF values ranged between 0.96 and 1. The highest ICF value (1) was recorded for mental disorders (ICD code F) and epilepsy (ICD code G) while a minimum of 0.96 was recorded for blood problems (ICD code I).</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Ethnomedicinal plants having high URs and ICF can be a good source for novel phytoconstituents and novel drug discoveries, apart from this documentation of traditional knowledge will be helpful for the new generation, researchers, and policymakers for sustainable use of the species.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnomedicine; Indigenous knowledge; Medicinal plants<strong>;</strong> Remote region</p> Ankit Singh Jaffer Hussain J.P. Mehta Ajendra Singh Bagria Hardeep Singh M.C. Nautiyal Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Ankit Singh, Jaffer Hussain, J.P. Mehta, Ajendra Singh Bagria, Hardeep Singh, M.C. Nautiyal, Rainer W. Bussmann 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 19 Molecular and morphological analyses of plants with ethnomedicinal uses in northeastern Peru https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4169 <p><em>Background</em>: In Peru, ethnomedicinal plants have not been extensively assessed in the current context of DNA-based techniques. In the Amazonas region, medicinal plants use for diarrhea and fever treatment are mainly known by local or traditional names, while their phenotypic plasticity limits their proper morphological identification.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: In this regard, selected plants with ethnomedicinal uses in the Amazonas region were confirmed and characterized using morphology and multilocus phylogenies based on three molecular markers (ITS, <em>mat</em>K, and <em>rbc</em>L).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: This study reported four species with ethnomedicinal uses [<em>Disciphania ernstii</em> (Menispermaceae), <em>Psidium fulvum</em> (Myrtaceae), <em>Styloceras penninervium </em>(Buxaceae), <em>Ugni myricoides </em>(Myrtaceae)] distributed in humid forest, at 1,000–3,800 masl in the Amazonas region. The genetic markers that showed better resolution to distinguish species of the genera were ITS (<em>Disciphania</em>) and <em>mat</em>K (<em>Psidium</em>, <em>Ugni</em>, and<em> Styloceras</em>).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: An initial screening regarding the diversity of plants with ethnomedicinal uses in the Amazonas region was needed and should include DNA-based techniques using these molecular markers to correctly identify them. This approach will facilitate further evaluation of the ancestral knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in Peru.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Amazonas, Buxaceae, DNA barcoding, ethnomedicine, Myrtaceae, Ranunculaceae</p> Daniel Tineo Martha S. Calderon Danilo E. Bustamante Manuel Oliva Copyright (c) 2023 Daniel Tineo, Dr. Martha S. Calderon, Dr. Danilo E. Bustamante, Dr. Manuel Oliva 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 25 1 21 Comparative assessment of ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Nepal https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4395 <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. (Miracle tree) is traditionally used as food, vegetable and medicine in different parts of Nepal, to be precise in lowland Tarai. This study aimed at documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge regarding the use of <em>M. oleifera</em>, screening and testing the phytochemicals obtained from different parts (root, bark, leaves, and seeds) of the species and comparing the traditional and lab-based information for advancement in bioprospecting.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Assessment of ethnobotanical use of <em>M. oleifera</em> was carried out using questionnaire survey and informal meetings while the laboratory experiments were performed to appraise the chemical constituents and their activities. The crude methanolic extract of different plant parts of <em>M. oleifera</em> was prepared by cold percolation method and then qualitative phytochemical screening was done following standard protocols. The antibacterial activities of different plant parts were tested using agar-well diffusion method against five different human pathogenic bacteria namely <em>Bacillus subtilis,</em> <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and<em> Staphylococcus aureus.</em></p> <p><em>Results:</em> The plant is being used in 16 districts of lowland Tarai of Nepal for the treatment of 22 ailments including six potentially bacterial ailments: inflammation, tuberculosis, hysteria, diabetes, piles and tumors. Of the five useful plant parts, leaf, root, fruit/seed and bark were frequently harvested while the flower was least used. Analogous to the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical compounds of the plant, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and glycosides exhibited the strong antibacterial activities. The extract from bark showed the higher zone of inhibition followed by leaf and seed, revealing their high potentials for pharmacology. Bark showed the high antibacterial activity against <em>B. subtilis</em> followed by leaf, whereas seed shows its best against <em>S. aureus</em> and root against <em>E. coli</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> <em>M. oleifera</em> is a promising medicinal plant based on our ethnobotanical survey and laboratory assessment. More research on its ethnomedicinal and biochemical capabilities is needed. Documentation and comparative assessment of traditional knowledge and phytochemical findings might lead a consented and conscientious avenue for bio-prospecting and novel drug discovery.</p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong><em>Keywords:</em> Miracle tree, crude extracts, agar-well diffusion method<em>, </em>phytochemicals, ethnomedicine<strong>,</strong> bioprospecting.</p> Manisha Awasthi Chandra Pokhrel Young-Han You Sujan Balami Ripu Kunwar Santosh Thapa Eui-Joo Kim Ji-Won Park Jae-Hoon Park Jung-Min Lee Yoon-Seo Kim Copyright (c) 2023 Manisha Awasthi, Chandra Prasad Pokhrel, Young-Han You, Sujan Balami, Ripu Mardhan Kunwar, Santosh Thapa, Eui-Joo Kim, Ji-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Park, Jung-Min Lee, Yoon-Seo Kim 2023-01-19 2023-01-19 25 1 13 Ethnomedicinal and conservation evaluation of the traditional medicinal plant species employed by the Van Gujjar Tribe in the Dehradun Shivalik Hills, Uttarakhand, India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4333 <p><em>Background</em>: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative and conservation ethnomedicinal evaluation of the Van Gujjar Tribe inhabited in the Delhi-Dehradun Highway Shivalik hills Belt (DHSB). The study area is situated adjacent to biodiversity hotspot Rajaji National Park, Uttarakhand, which is an important part of Himalayan systems. The area is ecologically sensitive, increasing anthropogenic disturbance and overexploitation of medicinal herbs is also major concern. So, along with conventional ethnobotanical studies, conservation analysis of the area is important.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This ethnomedicinal study comprised extensive field surveys and repetitive interviews of 120 informants of the Van Gujjar tribe with different social and educational backgrounds. Procured data were analyzed using three different quantitative indices, i.e. the relative frequency of citations (RFC), informant consensus factor (ICF), and the fidelity level (FL%). Collected plant samples were identified by relevant flora literature and online plant databases. Identified species conservation status was derived from The IUCN online database.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 71 medicinal plant species from 67 genera and 41 families were documented from the study area. The most frequently used species, <em>Zingiber officinale Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss, and <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> L. were employed for multiple health issues, mainly for digestive and respiratory disorders. The highest RFC values are <em>Z. officinale </em>(RFC = 1.0), <em>A. indica</em> A. Juss. (0.99) and <em>A. conyzoides</em> L. (0.92. FL% of these species were 96%, 90% and 83 % viz. The highest ICF value is 0.98, which shares dental &amp; gum problems, digestive disorders and wounds categories. The IUCN status of 71 reported medicinal plant species indicated 28.1 % plant species were least concerned, 4.2 % critically endangered (<em>Chlorophytum borivilianum</em>,<em>Commiphora wightii, Nardostachys jatamansi </em>), 1.4 % near threatened and 1.4 % endangered, 2.8 % Data Deficient, while 61.9 % species status remained unknown as currently not available in IUCN Red data list. Highly utilized species IUCN status however under ‘least concerned’ category.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The study aids medicinal plant species data with current conservation status in the Delhi-Dehradun Highway Shivalik hills Belt. Medicinal plant species such as <em>Chlorophytum borivilianum</em>, <em>Commiphora wightii</em>, and <em>Nardostachys jatamansi</em> are critically endangered and others could be prone due to overexploitation. The present data could help to fill the previous conservation and quantitative ethnobotanical studies gaps in the study area. </p> <p> </p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Medicinal flora, Rajaji National Park<strong>, </strong>Himalaya, IUCN status<strong>, </strong>Critically Endangered Species, Traditional Knowledge,</p> Nishant Gupta Ashok Agarwal Virendra Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Nishant Gupta, Ashok Agarwal, Virendra Yadav 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 17 Microscopic evaluation, ethnobotanical and phytochemical profiling of a traditional drug Viola odorata L. from Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4317 <p><em>Background</em>: The present study encompassed a highly traded medicinal plant <em>Viola odorata</em> L. (Violaceae) for detailed Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy, ethnobotany and phytochemical evaluation. Phytochemical evaluation included ascorbic acid, nutritional, and phytochemical profile, and essential and fixed oil study. Even though each feature has its own limited taxonomic value but collectively these characteristics may be systematically important especially for the discrimination and identification of complex and problematic taxa.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The aim was to study microscopy, histology and phytochemical composition of <em>Viola odorata</em> on the basis of ethnobotanical information cited in the literature. Methods: The microscopy, and phytochemical composition of <em>V. odorata</em> was studied using standard methods.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Anatomy of the plant parts depicted dicot histology. Stomatal study under LM and SEM, revealed the presence of diacytic and anisocytic type of stomata. Stomata were numerous on the lower epidermis of the leaf. SEM of the powder drug showed the presence of trichomes, calcium-oxalate crystals, pitted vessels, fibers, trichomes, pollen grains, parenchyma cells, pith cells and root hair, but some unknown tissues were also seen. Ascorbic acid, nutritional, and phytochemical profile was investigated according to the standard methods. Different parts of the plant contained various chemical constituents such as alkaloids, mucilage, anthraquninone, saponins, tannins, fats and oil, protein and starch. Quantification of phytochemicals revealed mucilage and tannins to be the highest as compared to saponins and alkaloids. Leaves had 0.00143 % essential oil and 0.396 % fixed oil. Ascorbic acid, nutritional, and phytochemical profile, and oil study revealed vitamin C, proximate and phytochemical composition of <em>V. odorata</em>. Conclusion: Overall, this study can be helpful for plant taxonomists to further analyze the species for phytochemical isolation. This will improve the regulatory process and reduce the risk of a quality breach.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>: </strong>Ethnobotany, Histology, Morphology, Phytochemical evaluation, SEM, <em>Viola odorata</em> L.</p> Ghulam Dastagir Samra Bibi Noor Ul Uza Rainer W. Bussmann Imran Ahmad Samiullah Copyright (c) 2023 Ghulam Dastagir, Samra Bibi, Noor Ul Uza, Rainer W. Bussmann, Imran Ahmad, Samiullah 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 24 Ethnomedicinal plants uses for the treatment of respiratory disorders in tribal District North Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4297 <p><em>Background:</em> The current survey aimed to assess the traditional knowledge and use of therapeutic plants to treat various respiratory disorders by traditional healers. The local communities of District North Waziristan are reliant on therapeutic plant species for their primary health care needs.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews. A sum of 130 informants (107 male and 23 female) selected randomly. Ethnobotanical data was quantitatively analyzed by using Use Value (UV), Relative Citation of Frequency (RFC), and Fidelity Level (FL).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 56 plants related to 32 plant families were recorded which were used to cure 24 various respiratory disorders. Lamiaceae (7 species) was the most prevalent plant family, followed by Asteraceae (5 species), Moraceae and solanaceae (4 species) each, 8 families have (2 species each), while the remaining 20 families has only (1 species each).The dominant growth form was herbs (53.57%), while leaves (28.57%) were the leading plant part used in remedies preparation for respiratory disorders. The dominant method of medications preparation was decoctions (42.86%), which were all administered orally. The plant species with highest use values were <em>Ephedra procera</em> (0.87)<em>, </em>followed by<em> Morus nigra </em>(0.86), while the highest RFC values were recorded for <em>Ephedra procera </em>(0.36), followed <em>Cydonia oblonga</em> (0.35), <em>Morus nigra</em> (0.34). The therapeutic plant species with maximum use values reported in the survey may indicate the possible presence of important bioactive compounds which need a search for potential new drugs to treat various respiratory disorders.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The study accomplishes that indigenous communities yet prefer therapeutic plants species over allopathic drug for curing different disorders. However this valuable traditional information is limited to elder people. So, attention is required to conserve this traditional knowledge.</p> Sabith Rehman Zafar Iqbal Rahmatullah Qureshi Ghulam Mujtaba Shah Muhammad Irfan Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Irfan, Sabith Rehman, Zafar Iqbal, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 16 The diversity and traditional knowledge of wild edible fruits in Bengkulu, Indonesia https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4259 <p><em>Background:</em> Wild edible fruit plant species (WEFs) contribute significantly to human well-being. These plants have a high nutritional value and are a source of novel alleles/genes that are important in developing new and improved crop cultivars to promote sustainable food security. However, most WEFs are less well-known and underutilized. This study aimed to investigate wild edible fruit species diversity and their potential in the Bengkulu region, Indonesia.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight villages from four districts of Bengkulu province, Indonesia, i.e. Mukomuko, Lebong, Rejang Lebong, and Bengkulu Selatan. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out from July to September 2022 and included 383 randomly selected respondents. The ethnobotanical investigation uses semi-structured questionnaires to gather information on the traditional knowledge of WEFs. Plant specimens were collected and identified in herbarium ANDA, Universitas Andalas.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 73 wild edible fruit plant species belonging to 37 genera and 26 families were recorded in the study area. Most of the plant species were trees (87.7%), followed by shrubs (5.5%), climbers (4.1%), and herbs (2.7%). Forty-eight (79.5%) species were discovered in the forest, 7 (9.6%) in the farmlands, and 8 (11%) in both the forest and the farmlands. WEFs are mostly consumed as food. <em>Artocarpus integer, Mangifera odorata, Pometia pinnata, Flacourtia rukam, Durio oxleyanus, Baccaurea racemosa, Bellucia pentamera, Baccaurea macrocarpa, Baccaurea polyneura</em>, and <em>Mangifera foetida</em>. <em>Artocarpus integer </em>are the most preferred WEFs by their taste quality. Besides foods, WEFs have multi purposes including as traditional medicine, construction, agricultural tools, fuelwood, and fodder. Indigenous knowledge of WEFs was significantly associated with districts, age groups, and educational levels.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Bengkulu has a diverse range of WEFs, but only a small proportion has been used by local people, particularly as food. Promotion and domestication of WEFs should be a primary concern in Bengkulu in order to take advantage of their nutritional value and potential economic value. Moreover, integrating knowledge related to WEFs into the educational curriculum is critical for educating the next generation regarding the potential of WEFs in the future.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Bengkulu, biodiversity, local knowledge, wild fruits, underutilized plants</p> Adi Bejo Suwardi Syamsuardi Erizal Mukhtar Nurainas Copyright (c) 2023 Adi Bejo Suwardi, Syamsuardi, Erizal Mukhtar, Nurainas 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 25 1 17 Potential of wild edible fruits for nutrition in indigenous communities of Northwest Himalaya, India https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4231 <p><em>Background: </em>In the rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, poor and tribal people depend on a variety of wild plants, animals, and fungi for their own consumption and for income generation. Despite their role in bridging periods of food shortages and providing dietary variety, most of wild edible plants are not accessed for nutritional potential. This is particularly true for the district of Kinnaur (a predominantly tribal area) of Himachal Pradesh. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the nutrient content of ten wild edible fruit species growing in the district of Kinnaur. The species included <em>Berberis aristata</em>, <em>Elaeagnus umbellata</em>, <em>Hippophae salicifolia</em>, <em>Malus baccata</em>, <em>Prunus cornuta</em>, <em>Prunus persica</em>, <em>Pyrus pashia</em>, <em>Ramaria botrytis</em>, <em>Rosa webbiana</em> and <em>Viburnum cotinifolium</em>.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The samples collected from the identified plants were cleaned, dried, powdered and stored in airtight containers for laboratory analysis. Fresh fruit pulp was used for measurement of pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid. Fresh weight of fruit pulp was recorded by using a digital balance and the samples were later oven dried (60<sup>°</sup>C) for moisture content determination (AOAC, 2006). All the dried samples were pulverized in pestle and mortar into fine powder separately and stored in airtight containers, free from contamination till other parameters were determined. All the parameters were evaluated in triplicates, results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and reported as mean ± standard error.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The moisture content of the fruits varied from 58.76% to 89.75% while pH values ranged from 2.91 to 3.86. The crude protein of species varied between 0.38% - 4.58%. <em>Prunus cornuta </em>contained high amount of total soluble solids, TSS (18.53<sup>o </sup>Brix). The acidity in the fruits ranged between 0.47<strong>-</strong>2.73%. The total carbohydrate content varied between 19.52% and 78.40%. The highest sugars (7.60%) were observed in the fruits of <em>Viburnum cotinifolium</em>. Total phenols ranged in between 0.26-1.47%. The maximum ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity was recorded in fruits of <em>Hippophae </em><em>salicifolia</em>. These wild edible plants had also significant amounts of minerals.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The study shows that these wild edible plant species are good sources of nutrition for rural population. Keeping in view the nutritional values and commercial potential, these important species need to be conserved in their natural habitats and should be included in traditional agricultural systems. Domestication of these species will not only improve the economic condition of the local people but also aid in the conservation of biodiversity.</p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Key words:</em> Wild edible plants, nutritive values, domestication, conservation.</p> Zubair A. Malik Joginder Singh A. Rajasekaran A. K. Negi Nazir A. Pala Vijender P. Panwar Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2023 Zubair A. Malik, Joginder Singh, A. Rajasekaran, A. K. Negi, Nazir A. Pala, Vijender P. Panwar, Rainew W. Bussmann 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 15 Uses of Oldeania alpina (K. Schum.) Stapleton (Poaceae) and local perceptions of its spatio-temporal dynamics in Lubero cool highlands region (DR Congo) https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4051 <p><em>Background: </em>In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), <em>Oldeania alpina</em> (K. Schum.) Stapleton provides multiple goods and services to rural populations and is the keystone species of mountain forest ecosystems, most of which are in a very advanced state of degradation. The present study was carried out in Lubero cool highlands region, in the North-East of the DR Congo. It aims to highlight the knowledge of local populations on the uses of <em>O. alpina </em>as well as their perceptions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of this high-altitude bamboo species. </p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in five villages of the study area through semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with 245 people. The different forms of use of <em>O. alpina </em>organs and the local perceptions of its spatio-temporal dynamics were the key axes of the surveys. The software R version 4.1.5 was used to calculate the ethnobotanical indices and to carry out static analyses of the data.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The results showed that <em>O. alpina </em>is well known by the populations of the study area and is solicited in seven main categories of use, namely: fuelwood (22.5 %), construction (22 %), handicrafts (17 %), agriculture (14.5 %), pharmacopoeia (14 %), worship (8 %) and food (2 %). For these uses, the populations solicit the following organs: culms (59.2 %), blades (12.24 %), shoots (10.54 %), rhizomes (6.78 %), sheaths (6.56 %) and straw (4.68 %). Also, for the populations of the study area, the bamboo groves of <em>O. alpina</em> are in a regressive spatio-temporal dynamics.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: In Lubero cool highlands region, <em>O. alpina</em> is in constant degradation due to uncontrolled human exploitation. The results of this study provide reliable technical bases for developing conservation strategies for <em>O. alpina</em> in the study area.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Bamboo, <em>Oldeania alpina, </em>ecosystem services, multipurpose species, ethnobotany, threatened species, local conservation policy, multipurpose species, Congo Basin, Lubero, DR Congo.</p> Norbert Kambale Ndavaro Apollon Hegbe Muhindo Sahani Honoré Biaou Ramdan Dramani Armand Natta Copyright (c) 2023 Norbert Kambale Ndavaro, Apollon Hegbe, Muhindo Sahani, Honoré Biaou, Ramdan Dramani, Armand Natta 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 25 1 20 The Ethnobotanical and therapeutic application of plants with the altitudinal description of Lar Sadin and Bar Amadak, Tehsil Salarzai, Bajaur, Pakistan https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4029 <p><em>Background</em>: The ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies of an area provide the best possible pathway to conventional modern medicine and other conventional. This study was conducted to collect the traditional knowledge about plants from local people and then convey this knowledge to people of world.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The ethnobotanical information was collected through questionnaires, observations and interviews during 2018-2019. The main focus of interviews was to collect information about plants, local names, ethnobotanical uses, plant part uses, diseases treatment, mode of usage and administration. Collected plant specimens with informants were submitted to the Herbarium of University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Quantitative data of the result were analyzed through ethnobotanical indices.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The study reported a total of 209 plants of 180 genera and 64 families were utilized by the local people for various indigenous uses. The highest species belonged to Asteraceae with 21 genera and 25 species followed by Poaceae with 16 genera and 18 species. Out of these 209 plants, 152 species were used as medicinal, 48 as fodder species, 32 as fuel species, 25 species as ornamental, 18 species as vegetables, 13 species as fruits and 6 species as food. The selected area plants were medicinally important for stomachic, vermifuge, fevers, cholera, anthelmintic, diabetes, cancer, laxative, antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidants.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The study area has been extensively occupied by medicinal and non-medicinal plants that are being used for significant purposes. This study uncovered the traditional and ethnobotanical knowledge of study area. The unwritten ethnobotanical knowledge of local people about medicinal plants and altitudinal details must be preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany, Bajaur Salarzai, Afghan border, Medicinal plants, and Informants consensus.</p> Sajjad Ahmad Ghulam Dastagir Copyright (c) 2023 Sajjad Ahmad, Ghulam Dastagir 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 25 1 25 Anatomical and phytochemical studies and ethnomedicinal uses of Colchicum autumnale L. https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/4431 <p><em>Background</em>: In the world, great importance is attached to the intensification of plants. To date, most medicinal plants are only partially used. In case of <em>Colchicum autumnale</em> L. currently mainly the corms are used for the extraction of alkaloids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intensification of the use of this perspective plant reported from the study area. This article examines the anatomy and phytochemistry of leaf and corm of <em>C. autumnale</em>, which is grown as a medicinal crop in Uzbekistan.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The leaves were fixed in 70% ethanol according to the generally accepted method; transverse and paradermal sections were examined on the fixed material. When studying the anatomical features of the leaf, preparations was formed by manually cutting a transverse section of the leaf were observed by a MOTIC V1 microscope. The slides were stained with glycerin jelly having safranin. Cells and tissues were measured using a micrometer MOB-15. To determine the amount of alkaloids contained in the leaves and in corms, a chemical analysis was carried out in the laboratory of alkaloids of the Institute of Chemistry of Plant Substances.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: On the transverse section of the stomata of the leaves of <em>Colchicum autumnale</em> anomocytic type, 2-3 rows of parenchyma and palisade cells, the characteristic size of the stomata. The root structure of <em>C. autumnale</em> consists of 4-5 rows of corolla, 4 protoxylems and 1 metaxylem, and the presence of rhomboid calcium oxalate crystals in its parenchyma is a characteristic feature of the species. As a result of studying the chemical composition of the plant in the conditions of the Tashkent region, it was observed that the amount of alkaloids in the aerial part of the colchicum, in the leaves was 0.4% and in the corm 0.14%.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The current work sought to resolve taxonomic issues involving species that share the majority of their physical characteristics and to clarify relationships between important taxa by utilizing leaf epidermal characteristics. As a result of chemical analysis, it was revealed that the amount of alkaloids in the leaves of <em>Colchicum autumnale</em>, introduced in the conditions of the Tashkent region (Uzbekistan), is higher than in natural regions. This proves that in the conditions of Uzbekistan it is possible to grow <em>Colchicum</em> and obtain high-quality raw materials.</p> <p><em>Key words:</em> autumn crocus, meadow saffron, anatomy, phytochemistry, ethnomedicine.</p> Sarvar Boboev Trobjon Makhkamov Rainer W Bussmann Muhammad Zafar Akramjon Yuldashev Copyright (c) 2023 Sarvar Boboev, Trobjon Makhkamov, Rainer W Bussmann, Muhammad Muhammad , Akramjon Yuldashev 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 9