Ethnobotany Research and Applications <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia in cooperation with Saving Knowledge / Ethnomont. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>ERA is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> en-US <p>All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.</p> (Rainer W. Bussmann) (Rainer W. Bussmann) Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:33:21 -0700 OJS 60 Folklore use of wild fruits by the Oraon tribe of Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh, India <p><em>Background</em>: Forests and trees are the major resources sustainably utilized by the tribals for their livelihood. The tribals communities have lived in and known the forests in an intimate manner and have also gathered information about possible use and conservation of forests and trees. In present times, however, the indigenous knowledge base that the tribals have gathered and preserved yet far has been endangered due to sociocultural hybridization as a result of modernization and globalization. This situation, hence, calls for an urgent need to device strategies to conserve tribal knowledge through various means. In this-respects, the present study attempts to survey, document and preserve the knowledge regarding the wild edible fruits consumed by Oraon tribes of Surguja district of Chhattisgarh and the Current status of the tribe concerning the interest towards the wild fruit collection, consumption and conservation.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The study was undertaken during December 2019-July 2020. The information was obtained through semi-structured schedule. The importance of wild edible fruits as ethnomedicine was expressed through Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 26 wild fruit species, considered by the Oraon tribe to have medical values and ability to impart health benefits have been reported in this study. The reported fruit species belongs to 16 different families. Moraceae was the dominant family amongst the reported fruit species, the highest informant consensus factor (ICF) value was 0.94 for Liver related problems followed by Inflammation (0.91), Pain and Skin related disease as (0.86).The most frequently used fruit species were <em>Morus alba </em>(0.86), followed by <em>Syzygium cumini </em>(0.84), <em>Diospyros melanoxylon</em>, <em>Madhuca longifolia </em>and <em>Neolamarckia cadamba </em>(0.82) each, <em>Ficus religiosa </em>and <em>Ziziphus mauritiana </em>(0.80) each based on <em>Relative frequency of citation</em>.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Furthermore, the documentation of diverse therapeutic practices of wild fruit species by the Oraon and several other tribes shall support further pharmacological research to develop novel future generation drug molecules.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Dietary nutrition, Folklore uses, Indigenous technical knowledge, Wild edible fruits.</p> Amrita Kumari Panda, Satpal Singh Bisht, Shashi Lakra, Ashish Kumar, Aseem Kerketta, Rojita Mishra, Koustava Kumar Panda, Satpal Singh Bisht, Sushma Kerketta Copyright (c) 2022 Amrita Kumari Panda, Satpal Singh Bisht, Shashi Lakra, Ashish Kumar, Aseem Kerketta, Rojita Mishra, Koustava Kumar Panda, Satpal Singh Bisht, Sushma Kerketta Sun, 14 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Ethnobotanical study on traditional medicinal plants used by Oromo ethnic people of Goro district, Bale zone of Oromia region, Ethiopia <p><em>Background</em>: An ethnobotanical study was conducted among Oromo people in Goro district, Oromia region, Ethiopia to document ethnomedicinal uses of plants.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and field walks were used to collect data on medicinal plants and demography during October 2017- September 2018 from 369 non-traditional and 24 traditional medicine practitioners. Descriptive statistics and quantitative indices viz. Independent t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), multiple regression analysis, Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Fidelity Level (FL), Preference Ranking (PR) and Direct Matrix Ranking (DMR) were performed to analyze the data.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 84 medicinal plants belonging to 45 families were documented. The family Asteraceae was represented by six species. Most of the plants were herbs (30). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (39.36%) followed by roots (19.18%). Oral route was frequently (62.26%) cited way of remedy application. Gastrointestinal and Dermatological illnesses had the highest ICF value (0.80), whereas the least ICF value was for Parasitic infections (0.47).The highest FL (100%) was recorded for <em>Aloe ruspoliana </em>and <em>Nicotiana tabacum </em>for Wound and Leech repulsion, respectively. <em>Achyranthes aspera </em>was top-ranked plant to treat stomachache. The analysis of DMR revealed <em>Cordia africana </em>as top-ranked multipurpose plant. Gender, age and educational status significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) affected the traditional medicinal knowledge. Results of multiple linear regression showed that age and educational status predicted traditional medicinal knowledge.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Our study explored the profound indigenous knowledge of the Oromo people of the study area. Their traditional knowledge on the medicinal plants must be validated with phytochemical and pharmacological studies and the knowledge needs to be preserved.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Direct matrix ranking, Fidelity level, Goro district, Informant consensus factor, Preference ranking, Traditional medicine</p> Kedir Adem Usman, Meseret C. Egigu, J. Sasikumar Mahalingam Copyright (c) 2022 Kedir Adem Usman, Meseret C. Egigu, J. Sasikumar Mahalingam Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Phytochemical analysis and ethnomedicinal uses of Oroxylum indicum in Nepal <p><em>Background:</em> Plant natural products have a long history of usage as a source of therapeutic agents. <em>Oroxylum indicum </em>(L.) Kurz is a prominent therapeutic plant in South Asia, comprising several phytochemicals with substantial medical significance, including the treatment of COVID-19.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Herein, we documented the medicinal importance of <em>O. indicum</em> throughout Nepal using a questionnaire-based survey and and validated the findings through biochemical analyses.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>All fractions (water, hexane and dichloromethane) obtained from different extraction solvents revealed a high abundance of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, and carbohydrates that is consistent with its vast ethnomedicinal uses generated through the questionnaire survey.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> In a nutshell, <em>O. indicum</em> is a promising medicinal plant based on our current experiment, and more research on ethnomedicinal and plant biochemical capabilities might lead to new scientific avenues and novel drug discoveries. It further paves the scope of documentation of traditional knowledge for the benefit of local and national communities.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> antioxidant activity, COVID-19, drug discovery, <em>Oroxylum indicum</em>.</p> Keshab Bhattarai, Ripu Kunwar, Bikash Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Bikash Baral, Keshab Bhattarai, Ripu Kunwar Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Traditional usage of plant resources in Ethnoveterinary practices in Spiti valley of Himachal Pradesh, North western Himalayas India <p><em>Background:</em> To best of our knowledge it is first quantitative study of ethnoveterinary practices from Spiti valley of Northwestern Himalayas. Spiti valley lies in cold arid zone of Himachal Pradesh and most of the high-altitude villages in this region remains cut off from rest of the world during a major part of the year (November-May).</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> A total of 48 respondents, 45-80 years old and including farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists familiar with livestock problems and use of conventional recipes, were interviewed and their responses recorded in detail. The data was analyzed by using three different quantitative indices <em>viz</em>. Use value (UV), Informant consensus factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL %).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 26 species were used in ethnoveterinary practices, distributed among 17 families and 25 genera. The UV was found to be highest in <em>Brassica campestris </em>(UV=0.95) followed by <em>Lactuca macrorhiza</em> (UV=0.62). The FL was found to be highest (100%) in <em>Bunium persicum,</em> <em>Oxytropis lapponica,</em> <em>Sassurea bractaeta, Lactuca macrorhiza</em> and <em>Cousinia thomsonii </em>for its use in treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, wound healing<em>, </em>neck sore, as a galactagogue and for the treatment of local swellings. Highest ICF was found in case of anestrus, animal bite followed by galactagogue.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Study concluded that 26 plant species used in ethnoveterinary practices to cure the various ailments. Scientific validation of different plant species with high UV and FL should be conducted in future for the optimum utilization of these species in animal health care.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Amchis, Cold desert, Ethnoveterinary, Medicinal plants, Spiti valley</p> Rohit Bishist, Deachen Wangmo, Bhupender Dutt, Krishan Lal Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Rohit Bishist, Deachen Wangmo, Bhupender Dutt, Krishan Lal Gautam Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Ethno-veterinary practice for the treatment of cattle diseases in the eastern highlands of Nigeria <p><em>Background:</em> Cattle rearing is the main means of livelihood for the Fulani people in the highlands of Gashaka Gumti National Park in Nigeria, however the remote location and inaccessible terrain prevent access to modern veterinary care. This puts both livestock and their keepers at risk. To survive, the inhabitants of this area rely on traditional methods to heal their animals. Regrettably, the Ethno-veterinary Medicine (EVM) knowledge in this region is jeopardized by the locals changing their preferences due to rapid socio-economic, environmental and technological changes taking place all over the world. Therefore, documenting the therapeutic knowledge of the medicinal plant is imperative to prevent it from being lost.</p> <p><em>Materials and Methods:</em> We conducted repeated field surveys and data were collected from sixty community members using semi-structured questionnaires through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and rapid rural appraisal (RRA) approach. </p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of eighty-eight (88) plant species belonging to 73 genera and 37 families, were recorded for the treatment of 24 cattle diseases. The most represented families were Fabaceae (17 species), and Asteraceae (7 species). Trees were the dominant plants recorded (49 species). <em>Pterocarpus erinaceous </em>was the most widely used therapeutic plant species. Leaves (27%) were the most widely used plant parts, followed by the whole plant (22%), stem bark (14%), and others. The most frequent route of medicinal administration was oral, followed by topical application. Out of the 24 ailments recorded, Bovine tuberculosis was the most reported ailments followed by Pneumonia.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Together, these data show that the Fulani people in the study area have a vast knowledge of medicinal plants useful for effective treatment of cattle illness where traditional veterinary care is unavailable. It is pertinent to say that our study has made an important contribution towards the preservation of EVM knowledge of the study area. Therefore, subjecting the most utilized species to a phytochemical and pharmacological investigation is imperative for possible novel discovery and the production of cheap drugs.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Gashaka Gumti National Park, Chabbal Hendu, Afromontane, Fulani, Tuberculosis</p> Isaac Nodza Nodza, Temitope Onuminya, Aramide Dolapo Igbari, Temitayo Oluwatoyin Ogundipe; Ahmad Abdulhameed Copyright (c) 2022 Isaac Nodza Nodza, Temitope Onuminya, Aramide Dolapo Igbari, Temitayo Oluwatoyin Ogundipe; Ahmad Abdulhameed Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Ethnopharmacological preparations used for digestive system disorders in Talassemtane National Park (North of Morocco) <p><em>Background:</em> The present ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological study of plants used to treat ailments of the digestive system was carried out in the north of Morocco. The study aims to collect data on the plants used, their vernacular names, the parts used, and their modes of preparation and administration.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Surveys and interviews were carried between 2014 and 2017 in Talassemtane National Park, North of Morocco. Data were collected through open semi structured interviews with the informants. A sample of 200 people aged from 20 to 60 years, including 24 herbalists and 28 traditional healers were included.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> We identified 96 taxa belonging to 33 botanical families. With a total of 3270 use reports, we have identified 20 medicinal uses to treat 174 conditions or symptoms classified in digestive diseases according to the international classification of primary care (ICPC-2). The main families used in this pathological group are: Lamiaceae (24 species), Asteraceae (13 species), Apiaceae (11 species), Fabaceae (8 species). Most remedies are prepared as a decoction (48%), the most used parts of the plant are: leaves (29%), fruits (16%), seeds (11%) and the most common mode of administration is oral (84%).</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat acute digestive system problems was common. All the local population used medicinal plants as a first choice to deal with the illness. This study represents a useful inventory to preserve and spread this knowledge.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotanical survey; Digestive system problems; Medicinal plants; Talassemtane National Park.</p> Fatima Zahrae Redouan, Cheikh Yebouk, Alessandro Crisafulli, Rosa Maria Picone, Abderrahmane Merzouki Copyright (c) 2022 Fatima Zahrae Redouan, Cheikh Yebouk, Alessandro Crisafulli, Rosa Maria Picone, Abderrahmane Merzouki Mon, 15 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Tuberous plants with active compounds against helminths in livestock: A systematic review <p><strong>Background</strong>: The rise in drug-resistant to helminths has posed a challenge on conventional techniques of controlling parasitic illnesses in livestock. Using less conventional approaches such as plant extracts on the other hand, is encouraged. This research explored tuberous plants used in developing anthelmintics and identified active compounds associated with the plants.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> From October 2020 to February 2021, a comprehensive literature search was conducted using search engines such as Google Scholar, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository, NCBI, Taylor and Francis Online, Wiley Online Libraries, Science Direct, ResearchGate, and Springer Link. This evaluation included only ethnobotanical papers that showed tuberous plants with anthelmintic properties.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;Forty-eight ethnobotanical investigations recorded plants with tuber portions that were utilized to combat helminths. There were 43 plants identified, divided into 24 families. seven plants were found to be the most culturally important plants in the management of helminths; these were <em>Dioscorea deltoidea, Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata</em>, <em>Gloriosa superba, Curcuma longa, Dioscorea pentaphylla, </em>and <em>Cyperus rotundus. </em><em>The common phytochemical classes were phytosterols, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, essential oils, flavonoids, and terpenoids.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: <em>Dioscorea deltoidea, Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata,</em><em> Gloriosa superba,</em> <em>Curcuma longa, Dioscorea pentaphylla, </em>and <em>Cyperus rotundus</em> were shown to be the most culturally important plants for helminth control. These plants are mostly found in India and Nepal. There is need to investigate other tuberous plants to identify unique compounds that are active against helminths to develop more robust anthelminthic drugs and reduce anthelmintic resistance levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anthelmintic, ethnobotanical, tubers, active compound, anthelmintic resistance, livestock</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mellisa Mpofu, Grace Mugumbate, Calvin Gomo, Arnold Bray Mashingaidze, Zedius Chikwambi, Chrispen Murungweni Copyright (c) 2022 Mellisa Mpofu, Grace Mugumbate, Calvin Gomo, Arnold Bray Mashingaidze, Zedius Chikwambi, Chrispen Murungweni Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700 The applicability of indices of similarity coefficients in an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from three localities in Yunga district, Moquegua region, Peru <p><em>Background:</em> From ethnobotanical research carried out in the southern region of Peru, the need for further investigation is evident, especially in Moquegua; given this, an ethnobotanical exploration is presented that includes a validation of medicinal plants through the reports of three focus groups and the analysis of similarity or concordance of medicinal species from three nearby localities in the district of Yunga, Moquegua, using two coefficients already known and one new in ethnobotany.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Medicinal plants were collected with the help of experts, which were shown to three separate focus groups (Exchaje, La Pampilla and Yunga), whose composition was representative and decided by local authorities, who established the medicinal quality of the collected plants. For agreement analysis, two similarity coefficients were used, Jaccard (Cj) and Sørensen (Cs), and the use of the Cohen kappa Index (CKI) and Fleiss (FKI) is incorporated and proposed, for which purpose the validation of medicinal species was written in binary; statistical analysis was done using Stata 15 software.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Of 61 species of plant collected from experts, 36 were validated as medicinal by the focus groups, naming a total of 127 use reports. The Asteraceae are the most abundant with 18 species, followed by Lamiaceae with three, among others. The medicinal bush yareta (<em>Azorella compacta, </em>Apiaceae) presented 11 reports of use. The predominant habit of validated medicinal species was shrub (47.2%). The so-called warm plants were the most abundant (58%) compared to the cold and temperate ones. Digestive system disorders are the category with the most reports (27). La Pampilla and Yunga presented the highest values of similarity (Cj=0.61; Cs=0.76; CKI =0.6) and the FKI showed a concordance value of 53% for the three localities.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants still exists in Yunga, Moquegua. This is evidenced through the use of medicinal species identified by experts. Interesting ancestral conceptions are observed around the quality of plants, about their thermal properties, such as hot, cold and temperate plants; with Digestive System Disorders being those most frequently reported. The Kappa Index is a suitable tool to show the level of agreement between localities, whose values, compared through a scale, allow greater objectivity in the analysis, in comparison with the Jaccard and Sorensen coefficients. The concordances between the evaluated localities becomes almost perfect (values closer to one) when they are influenced by factors such as their proximity, and social and cultural interrelation.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Agreement, ethnobotany, Jaccard, kappa, medicinal plants, similarity, Sørensen, traditional medicine, Yunga, Moquegua.</p> <p><strong>Resumen</strong></p> <p><em>Introducción</em>: De las investigaciones etnobotánicas realizadas en la región sur del Perú, se evidencia la necesidad de mayor investigación, especialmente en Moquegua; ante esto, se presenta una exploración etnobotánica que incluye una validación de plantas medicinales a través de los reportes de tres grupos focales y el análisis de similitud o concordancia de especies medicinales de tres localidades cercanas en el distrito de Yunga, Moquegua, utilizando dos coeficientes ya conocidos y uno novedoso en etnobotánica.</p> <p><em>Métodos</em>: Se procedió a colectar plantas medicinales con ayuda de expertos, las cuales fueron mostradas a tres grupos focales por separado (Exchaje, La Pampilla and Yunga), cuya conformación fue representativa y estuvo a cargo de las autoridades locales, quienes establecieron la calidad de medicinal de las plantas colectadas. Para el análisis de similitud se emplearon dos coeficientes de similitud, de Jaccard (Cj) y de Sørensen (Cs) y se incorpora y propone el uso del Índice kappa de Cohen (IKC) y Fleiss (IKF), para cuyo fin se procedió a escribir en binario la validación de especies medicinales; el análisis estadístico fue hecho utilizando el software Stata 15.</p> <p><em>Resultados</em>: De 61 plantas colectadas con expertos, 36 fueron validadas como medicinales por los grupos focales, nombrándose un total de 127 reportes de uso. Las Asteraceae son las más abundantes con 18 especies, seguida de Lamiaceae con tres, entre otras. El arbusto medicinal yareta (<em>Azorella compacta, </em>Apiaceae) presentó 11 reportes de uso y los géneros <em>Baccharis</em>, <em>Caiophora</em> y <em>Senecio </em>fueron los más representados<em>.</em> El hábito predominante fue el arbustivo (47.2%) frente a las hierbas y sub arbustos. Las plantas denominadas cálidas fueron las más abundantes (58%) en comparación a las frías y templadas. Los Trastornos del Sistema Digestivo es la categoría con más reportes (27). La Pampilla y Yunga presentaron los valores más altos de similitud (Cj=0.61; Cs=0.76; IKC=0.6) y el IKF mostró un valor de concordancia de 53% para las tres localidades.</p> <p><em>Conclusiones</em>: El conocimiento tradicional sobre las plantas medicinales está vigente en Yunga, Moquegua. Esto se evidencia a través del uso de especies medicinales identificadas por expertos. Se observan interesantes concepciones ancestrales en torno a la calidad de las plantas, sobre sus propiedades térmicas, como plantas calientes, frías y templadas; siendo los Trastornos del Sistema Digestivo los más frecuentemente reportados. El Índice Kappa es una herramienta adecuada para mostrar el nivel de concordancia entre localidades, cuyos valores, comparados a través de una escala, permiten una mayor objetividad en el análisis, en comparación con los coeficientes de Jaccard y Sørensen. Las concordancias entre las localidades evaluadas se vuelven casi perfectas (valores más cercanos a uno) cuando están influenciadas por factores como su proximidad e interrelación social y cultural.</p> <p><em>Palabras clave</em>: Concordancia, etnobotánica, Jaccard, kappa, medicina tradicional, plantas medicinales, similitud, Sørensen, Yunga, Moquegua.</p> Jorge Luis Cabrera Meléndez, Domingo Iparraguirre León, Michael Way, Félix Valenzuela Oré Copyright (c) 2022 Jorge Luis Cabrera Meléndez, Domingo Iparraguirre León, Michael Way, Félix Valenzuela Oré Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Utilizations, vulnerability and conservation practices of Saba senegalensis (A. DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae), a high value local species in Burkina Faso Utilisations, vulnérabilité et practiques de conservation de Saba senegalensis (A. DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae), une espèce locale à haute valeur socio-économique au Burkina Faso <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Saba senegalensis </em>is a woody liana that provides medicinal products, food, income and ecological benefit (soil and water conservation) to the populations in sub-Saharan Africa. In Burkina Faso, the species is mismanaged by the local population, but few studies have been conducted on its uses. This study seeks to understand the local knowledge of <em>S. senegalensis </em>uses and its vulnerability.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in the provinces characterized by slightly (Houet), moderately (Mouhoun) and severely (Yatenga) dry climate in Burkina Faso. A total of 180 randomly selected individuals responded to the questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the informants, the plant parts used, and the categories of uses were recorded. Analyses included an index of uses and vulnerability, importance values of plant parts used, and frequency calculations.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Local knowledge of <em>S. senegalensis</em> uses varied according to the locality and informant age. Seven use categories were identified: traditional medicine, food, construction, fodder, handicrafts, domestic energy, and magic. All vegetative organs of <em>S. senegalensis</em> are used. The species’ vulnerability index (IV=2.75) is higher than 2.50, making it vulnerable. The leaves and tendrils plant are the most common plant parts used in traditional medicines. Generally, crude drugs are used in the form of decoction, followed by infusion forms. The diversity of medicinal uses of <em>S. senegalensis</em> highlights the need for future ethno-pharmacological studies of the species. Exploitation of the fruits of the species contributes substantially to food and nutritional security and to improving the living conditions of local populations.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Our findings provide essential information for decision-making for effective domestication initiatives for <em>S. senegalensis</em>. The findings also provide a baseline for future research into the development of value chains for the species. They also draw attention to the need for conservation measures for the plant.<strong> </strong></p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Local knowledge; wild fruit tree; goose liana; forest products; use category; metric index; vulnerability index.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Resumé</strong></p> <p><em>Contexte</em> : La liane goïne (<em>Saba senegalensis</em>) est une liane ligneuse qui fournit des médicaments, de la nourriture, des revenus et des avantages écologiques (conservation des sols et de l'eau) aux populations d'Afrique subsaharienne. Au Burkina Faso, l’espèce est mal exploitée par les populations locales alors que peu d’études se sont intéressées sur ses usages. L’objectif de la présente étude est d’appréhender les connaissances locales sur <em>S. senegalensis</em> et les pratiques qui sont source de sa vulnérabilité.</p> <p><em>Méthodes</em>: La collecte des données s’est faite au moyen d’interviews semi-structurées conduites dans les provinces caractérisées par un climat légèrement (Houet), modérément (Mouhoun) et sévèrement (Yatenga) sec au Burkina Faso. Au total, 180 personnes choisies de manière aléatoire ont répondu au questionnaire. Les caractéristiques sociodémographiques des informateurs, les organes utilisés de la plante et les domaines d’utilisation ont été recensés. Le traitement des données a consisté en des calculs de fréquences et des indices de valeurs d’usage, d’importance et de vulnérabilité (IV) des organes de l’espèce.</p> <p><em>Résultats</em> : Les résultats ont montré que les connaissances locales relatives aux usages de <em>S. senegalensis</em> varient suivant les localités et l’âge des répondants. L’espèce est sollicitée dans sept domaines d’usage que sont : la médecine traditionnelle, l’alimentation, la construction, le fourrage, l’artisanat, l’énergie domestique et socio-culturel. Tous les organes de la plante sont utilisés. L’indice de vulnérabilité (IV = 2,75) est supérieur à 2,50 classant ainsi l’espèce comme très vulnérable. Les feuilles et les vrilles sont les organes les plus couramment utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle. Généralement, les médicaments à l’état brut sont utilisés sous forme de décoction, suivie de formes d'infusion. La diversité des usages médicinaux de l’espèce constitue un atout pour la valorisation de ses propriétés médicinales à travers des études ethno-pharmacologiques. En plus des usages médicinaux, l’exploitation des fruits de l’espèce contribue substantiellement à l’amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle et des revenus des populations locales.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Nos résultats fournissent des information de base pours des recherches futures en vue du développement de chaînes de valeur de l’espèce à travers la mise en place d’une véritable filière. Aussi, ils attirent l’attention sur la nécessité de prise de mesures pour la conservation de la plante.</p> <p><em>Mots clés:</em> Connaissances locales, fruitier sauvage, liane goïne, Produits forestiers, domaine d’usage, indice métrique, indice de vulnérabilité.</p> Sata Diawara, Patrice Savadogo, Lassina Sanou, Amadé Ouédraogo, Blaise Kabre Copyright (c) 2022 Sata Diawara, Patrice Savadogo, Lassina Sanou, Amadé Ouédraogo, Blaise Kabre Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Multifunctional plants used in the diet of Quilombolas in the Castainho Community (Garanhuns, Pernambuco). <p><em>Background</em>: The rich flora of Brazilian biomes includes a potentially high amount of species capable of both nourishing and helping to prevent or treat diseases whose potential is still little explored. This study aims to provide information about the knowledge richness of multifunctional plants among quilombolas, generating information that can be used to improve the quality of life in the rural community of Castainho (Garanhuns, Pernambuco).</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured interviews were conducted, associated with guided tours to collect the cited plants. The data obtained were analyzed using the Use value index (UV) for the species and Knowledge richness index (KRI) for the informants.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 52 botany families, 117 genera, and 136 species were catalogued. Most species 47% (64) were used as medicine only, 21% (29) as food only, and 32% (43) were multifunctional plants, the latter being 12 natives to Brazil, 11 naturalized, and 20 exotic cultivated plants whose medicinal and nutritional properties were perceived by the interviewees. The inclusion of species native to Brazil, naturalized species, and exotic, but non-African species in the diet and medicinal flora of the quilombolas of Castainho attests to the cultural and environmental adaptations through which they have gone to survive and diversify their traditions.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany; African descendants; Medicinal plants; Food plants; Rural communities; Maroons.</p> Marleny Prada de la Cruz, Alissandra Trajano Nunes, Antônio Fernando Morais Oliveira, Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti Copyright (c) 2022 Marleny Prada de la Cruz, Alissandra Trajano Nunes, Antônio Fernando Morais Oliveira, Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Wild Edible Plants of Purmandal block of District Samba, J&K (UT), India <p><em>Background</em>: Edible plants that are neither cultivated nor domesticated but can be found in their natural habitat are known as wild edible plants (WEPs). In times of food scarcity, WEPs give a valuable natural nutritional supply as food, diet, and nutrients.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: An ethnobotanical field study was conducted in eleven villages of Purmandal using focused group discussions, and interviews through semi-structured questionnaires. Information was gathered from a total of 153 informants (115 females and 38 males). Informants were briefed about the objectives of the study and Prior Informed Consent (PIC) was obtained as per Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The various uses of WEPs were quantified as use-reports, and Cultural Importance Value (CI) and Factor informant consensus (F<sub>ic</sub>) were calculated.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Altogether 58 plants belonging to 51 genera and 34 families were used as WEPs. Cucurbitaceae and Rutaceae (5 species each) were the most represented families, and leaves and fruits were the most frequently used plant parts. The contribution of herbs, shrubs, and climbers were 36.2%, 37.9%, and 15.5%, respectively. The maximum CI was recorded for <em>Mangifera indica </em>L., <em>Phyllanthus emblica</em> L., and <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> (L). Benth. The values of F<sub>ic</sub> varied between 0.95 (medicinal usage) and 0.99 (<em>chutney</em> preparation).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Locals of Purmandal have good knowledge of WEPs. Traditional products made from WEPs like <em>Mangifera indica</em>, <em>Phyllanthus emblica</em> and <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> can be commercialized to improve the economic status of the locals. Furthermore, the nutritive values of important species may be studied.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Wild edible plants, Purmandal, Food security, Sustainable agriculture.</p> R.K. Manhas, Nisha Bhagat, Hina Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 R.K. Manhas, Nisha Bhagat, Hina Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Quantitative ethnobotanical appraisal of medicinal plants used by indigenous communities of District Malakand, Pakistan <p><em>Background: </em>Medicinal plants are the only possible solution to facilitate and treat different complications of human beings. The local residents of District Malakand are dependent on medicinal plants for their primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to document medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge of District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>The area was frequently visited from March to August in 2018-2019, during the peak flowering season for the collection of specimens and semi-structured interviews on the uses of medicinal plants. A total of 150 participants selected randomly and the demographic information (age, gender) and status of conservation was aggregated using a semi-structured questionnaire collected from each site. Informants were interviewed in their local language (Pashto).</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 62 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families were recorded. A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species were used for gastro-intestinal disorders. Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) ranged from 0.48 to 0.3. The highest RFC value was registered for <em>Jasminum officinale</em> 0.48<em>. </em>Similarly, the UV (Use Value) range from 0.92 to 0.35, with highest values for <em>Citrus medica</em> (0.92), <em>Lagenaria siceraria</em> (0.55), and <em>Lycopersicum esculentum </em>(0.5). Older participants from 55-70 years of age showed higher knowledge about plants, followed by the age group 45–55.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em><em>: </em>In the present study, some plants were of key importance i.e.,<em> Citrus medica, </em><em>Lagenaria siceraria, Lycopersicum esculentum, </em><em>Lactuca sativa </em>and<em> Brassica rapa. </em>This documentation of medicinal plants and their uses shows the rich tradition in ethno-medicinal knowledge of the District Malakand, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Indigenous community, Quantitative ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Malakand, Pakistan</p> Nazil, Hussan Ara Begum, Muhammad Hamayun, Asif Khan, Tabassum Yaseem, Rainer W Bussmann, Waheed Murad Copyright (c) 2022 Nazil, Hussan Ara Begum, Muhammad Hamayun, Asif Khan, Tabassum Yaseem, Rainer W Bussmann, Waheed Murad Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700 What is the métier of ethnobiology or why should this science be busy? <div><span lang="EN">Ethnobiologists have been guiding their research from different approaches and disciplinary lenses. There are those who defend a scientifically-oriented ethnobiology while others believe in an engaged ethnobiology (or an ethnobiology of action) aimed at learning from ancestral wisdom and, simultaneously, supporting the holders of this wisdom in different demands. But what then would be the job of ethnobiologists? From a narrative, briefly centered on our academic trajectory, I argue how ethnobiology can constitute an epistemological umbrella under which there would be space for epistemic and theoretical diversities.</span></div> Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Copyright (c) 2022 Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 How to become an ethnobiologist: against the cultural monopoly <p>In this note, I construct a narrative that defends the interdisciplinary aspect of ethnobiology based on my experience as ethnobiologist. While I point out the criticisms that the discipline receives, I undertake an exercise of self-criticism, defending that the divergences that exist in the discipline can be overcome with a real understanding of its nature.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Brazilian anthropology, ethnobiology, ethnoscience.</p> Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Copyright (c) 2022 Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Sat, 20 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Folk therapeutic uses of ethnomedicinal plants to cure gynaecological disorders in tribal communities of West Bengal, India- A Meta-Analysis <p><em>Background</em>. The present paper is an ethnopharmacological review of plants used to treat gynecological ailments by the indigenous communities of West Bengal. The review abridged the data collected on the plants used to treat gynecological ailments, the plant parts used, and their modes of preparation and administration documented by reviewing the past studies from West Bengal, India. </p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods</em>. Systematic review of published literature was done to catalogue, collate and synthesize all available documented evidence on the topic through standardized methods of systematic review protocol. We have reviewed different scientific literature published from 2003 to 2021 related to ethnomedicinal plants used for treating gynecological ailments by the indigenous communities of West Bengal state in India. Only those references where field-based surveys reporting first-hand information on ethno-medicinal plants used to treat human ailments were reviewed. In total we retrieved 50 research papers on ethnomedicinal plants of West Bengal and finally after screening 26 research papers were selected which had references of gynecological disorders/problems for analysis.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Result</em>. A total of 114 plant species represented by 63 families and 107 genera were found documented for their traditional therapeutic uses against gynecological ailments by the indigenous communities in the state. Among all the plant parts, roots were the most frequently utilized plant part and herbal remedies for the gynecological ailments were prepared as paste, extract or as solution.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Conclusion. </em>Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat gynecological ailments in West Bengal is not very common. However, the review is a useful inventory highlighting the medicinal plants particularly for gynecological ailments which can be used as reference for future documentation and research on formulation of new drugs.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>. Gynecological problems; Ethnomedicinal plants; Traditional knowledge; West Bengal</p> Vineeta, Gopal Shukla, Jahangeer Ahmad Bhat, Sumit Chakravarty, Sumit Chakravarty Copyright (c) 2022 Vineeta, Gopal Shukla, Jahangeer Ahmad Bhat, Sumit Chakravarty, Sumit Chakravarty Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Ethnomedicinal and traditional application of Allium wallichii Kunth (Himalayan Onion): An unexplored and underutilized nutraceutical plant foods from Himalayan regions. <p><em>Background: Allium wallichii</em> Kunth (Family: Amaryllidaceae), commonly known as “Himalayan onion” is well recorded as popular ethnomedicine for medicinal and nutritional uses by different people and communities native to Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Southwestern China.</p> <p><em> </em><em>Methods:</em> Despite the wide ethnomedicinal and pharmacological studies on <em>A. wallichii</em>, there are no concise elaborated article comprising reviews of published literature. So, herein we designed this review article to discuss the potential health benefit in both traditional ethnopharmacology and modern pharmacology. To achieve this exhaustive literature searches using <em>A. wallichii</em> as keywords for screening of relevant information online databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO, Scopus and SpringerLink were performed.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Only few published studies relevant to our objective was found and presented under different section of the current work. It was observed that different parts of <em>A. wallichii</em> was recorded in different regions of the Asia for health, economical and nutraceutical benefits such as dysentery, cholera, cold, cough, blood cholesterol levels, itching, to remove maggots from wounds, leech remover, antidote, cut, wounds (finger and toe infections), gastric problems, bile complaints, moth repellent, bodyache, sinusitis, carminative, dizziness, mumps, hypertension, intestinal pain, liver diseases, indigestion for children, high altitude sickness, condiment for curries, pickles, soup and vegetable source for cash income. Major bioactive phytochemicals such as 1,2 bis (methylthio) ethene, diosgenin, 2,4 dimethyl thiophene, tigogenin, dimethyl disulfide and trisulfide were reported. However, in modern pharmacology anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer activities was established.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>It was concluded that <em>A. wallichii</em> need special attention for protected cultivation and conservation in near future for maximum output and utilization are required. Moreover, <em>A. wallichii</em> could be considered as an excellent source of safe and effective medicinal and nutritional herbal remedies for human and animal consumption after only careful investigation.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <em>Allium wallichii</em>, Himalayan onion, Nutraceuticals, Anti-cancer</p> Vijay Singh Rana, Neeraj Sethiya, Manisha Duseja, Rupa Gupta, Dheeraj Bisht, Avinash Gangal Copyright (c) 2022 Vijay Singh Rana, Neeraj Sethiya, Manisha Duseja, Rupa Gupta, Dheeraj Bisht, Avinash Gangal Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Plant-based veterinary practices in Jammu and Kashmir: A review of the trends, transfer and conservation of traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge <p><em>Background:</em> Traditional veterinary phytotherapy refers to the use of plants for promoting health and curing diseases of livestock. Animal rearing is the major occupation of the tribal communities in Jammu and Kashmir and is thus an important part of their economy. Due to the inaccessibility of modern facilities and allopathic drugs, these communities mainly rely on the local flora to cure common ailments prevalent in livestock, developing a rich knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices. These practices are still prevalent despite the advent of modern allopathic drugs as they are easily accessible, effective, and economic. To date, a plethora of studies have been carried out on ethnoveterinary plants in different regions of India, however few of these are available in Jammu and Kashmir itself. The aim of this review was to collate and analyze the traditional phyto<strong>-</strong>remedies against livestock ailments in Jammu and Kashmir.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An extensive review of the published literature was carried out using various online databases like Academia, Google Scholar, PubMed, Researchgate, Sci-Finder, Scopus, Science direct, and other allied published literature.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A total of 18 research articles from the year 1989-2021 were selected which were exclusively related to the ethnoveterinary importance of plants. It was found that Jammu province was explored more as compared to Kashmir, as 10 studies were exclusively done from Jammu province and major attention was given to the ailments of cattle, sheep, and goats.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The present review indicates that the medicinal plants reported need detailed biochemical assays to ascertain their therapeutical profiles that can contribute to the discovery of novel compounds to the existing drug pool. The integration of the reported plants into the biodiversity registers and promotion of this traditional heritage by the concerned government institutions and stakeholders involved in conservation is the utmost need of the hour which will ultimately result in the conservation of both the traditional knowledge and biodiversity.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnoveterinary, Jammu and Kashmir, tribal, livestock, phyto<strong>-</strong>remedies</p> <p> </p> Abhishek Dutta, Yash Pal Sharma, Bikarma Singh Bikarma, Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2022 Yash Pal Sharma, Abhishek Dutta, Bikarma Singh Bikarma, Rainer W. Bussmann Sat, 20 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0700