Ethnobotany Research and Applications <p><strong><em>Ethnobotany Research and Applications</em> </strong>is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research in any areas related to Ethnobiology. The journal is currently published by the Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia. The journal seeks manuscripts that are novel, integrative and written in ways that are accessible to a wide audience. This includes an array of disciplines (Biological and Social Sciences) concerned particularly with theoretical questions in the field of Ethnobiology that leads to practical applications. Articles can also be based on the perspectives of cultural practitioners and others with insights into plants, people and applied research. Database papers, Ethnobiological inventories, Ethnobotanical Notes, Methodology reviews, Education studies and Theoretical discussions are also published.</p> <p>Papers that are primarily agronomic or horticultural, and those concerned mainly with analytical data on the chemical constituents of plants, or bioassays are out of scope for ERA and should be submitted elsewhere.</p> <p>Ethnobotany Research and Applications is indexed in Scopus and Crossref.</p> <p>Ethnobotany Research and Applications (ISSN 1547-3465) is owned and published online by Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.</p> en-US <p>All articles are copyrighted by the first author and are published online by license from the first author. Articles are intended for free public distribution and discussion without charge. Accuracy of the content is the responsibility of the authors.</p> (Rainer W. Bussmann) (Rainer W. Bussmann) Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Indigenous utilization of medicinal plants in Kalasha tribes, District Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: Indigenous people residing in the remote localities have practicing knowledge about the utilization of herbal resources to cure different ailments. Current study was conducted in Kalash valley District Chitral (Lower), Pakistan to investigate the indigenous medicinal plants, their local names, uses, etc. The valley inhabits peoples with unique culture and costumes and considered as the descendants of Alexander the great having their own way of plant utilization for medication.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Data was collected by interviewing through questionnaires. During the fieldwork, 133 respondents (99 men and 34 women) of different age groups were selected and personal observations were also recorded. Data was analyzed by using parameters like Use Report (UR), Use Values (UV), Frequency of Citations (FC), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Relative Frequency of Citations (RFC). The plants were provided with voucher numbers after collection and identification.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: 90 medicinal plant species from 44 families and 75 genera used to treat 23 illnesses. Rosaceae was leading family with 13 species (14.45%) followed by Asteraceae with 07 species (7.80%) and Lamiaceae 06 (6.70%) species. The most frequently used plant component was fruit (34.44%) followed by leaves (26.66 %) and powder was found to be the primary method of preparations and are often either ingested or used topically. The maximum used value was reported for <em>Allium cepa</em> (0.92) and minimum (0.06) for <em>Carum carvi</em>. The digestive system disorders showed highest Informant Census Factor (ICF) values (0.71) followed by the Anti-microbial diseases having ICF value of 0.68, while the evil-eyes repellent plants showed least ICF (0.40) values. The highest RFC was recorded for <em>Cannabis sativa</em> (0.40) while <em>Cedrus deodara</em> has the lowest (0.10).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The present findings revealed that the Kalash valley has diverse plant resources used for various human aliments. The current work will provide useful information for future studies on various aspects of botanical sciences from the area. </p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Medicinal uses, plant resources, Kalash Valley, Hindukush Range, Pakistan</p> Fazal Hadi, Omer Kılıc, Saqib Ullah, Alia Gul, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Shumaila Noreen, Rainer W Bussmann Copyright (c) 2024 Fazal Hadi, Omer Kılıc, Saqib Ullah, Alia Gul, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Shumaila Noreen, Rainer W Bussmann Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Palatability status and animals preferences of forage plants in Koh Valley, Chitral, Hindu Kush Range Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> The different plants of the Koh area provide food and fodder to the cattle of the resident. The preferences of livestock and their nutritional requirements are quantified by the palatability of different plants. The current research work is the first attempt to document the palatability status of plant resources of Koh Valley.</p> <p><em>Objectives:</em> The objective of this investigation was to assess the palatability of the flora and the preferences of grazing and browsing animals in the Koh valley Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Frequent field visits were carried out in order to gather information from local people and nomads of the research locality in different seasons. The palatability status of plant resources were also obtained through interviews, corner meeting, group discussion and visual observations about grazing animals.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The flora of the research area is freely grazed by goats, sheep and cows. Some 482 species of plants were assessed for its palatability classes during the survey. Out of them 140 plants assessed as rarely palatable followed by 115 mostly palatable, 91 highly palatable, 89 species less palatable and 47 were identified as non-palatable. On the basis of plant parts used, leaves top the list with 232 plants followed by whole plant having 193 plant species. Among cattle goats mostly utilized plants for grazing and browsing having 390 species followed by cows with 229 and sheep with 220 plant species.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> It was concluded that the research area had very rich palatable plants diversity. Different plant parts were consumed by livestock in Koh valley. Local inhabitants mostly depend on their cattle for survival. Several variables affect the palatability such as morphology, phenology and chemical nature of plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em><strong>:</strong> Palatability, grazing, browsing, Hindukush region, Koh valley.</p> Zahid Fazal, Lal Badshah Copyright (c) 2024 Zahid Fazal, Lal Badshah Tue, 16 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Leuwiliang (Bogor), Indonesia <p><em>Background: </em>Bogor, a suburban area of Jakarta, harbors a rich diversity of plants traditionally used for medicinal purposes, one of them is Leuwiliang. Furthermore, comprehensive documentation regarding the use of these plants as traditional medicine is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to identify the medicinal plants, their uses, and conservation efforts.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>This study involved interviews with users of plant-based medicine. The researchers interviewed thirty respondents from 11 villages. The inquiries encompassed characteristics of both the respondents and the medicinal plants. Additionally, the researchers also conducted exploration, and identification.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 101 species belonging to 44 families were identified as potential medicinal plants for treating various ailments prevalent in the Leuwiliang community. The family Zingiberaceae emerged as the most commonly used for medicinal purposes, followed by Asteraceae and other families. Degenerative diseases like diabetes and hypertension were found to be the most prevalent among the Leuwiliang community. Most of the plants used originated from Malesian region, and their conservation status is largely secure, given that most are herbaceous. The community in Leuwiliang practices cultivation of medicinal plants in their home gardens as a conservation effort to prevent these plants from becoming endangered.</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>The abundance of reported medicinal plants underscores the rich traditional knowledge within the Leuwiliang community. However, knowledge regarding the application of these medicinal plants is gradually waning due to the effects of climate change and modernization.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> local wisdom, medicinal plants, plant diversity, traditional knowledge, traditional medicine</p> Mentari Purti Pratami, Anisa Anggraeni, Wawan Sujarwo Copyright (c) 2024 Mentari Purti Pratami, Anisa Anggraeni, Wawan Sujarwo Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnopharmacology of Karo Oil as Traditional Medicine by Karo Ethnic Group in Berastagi (North Sumatra), Indonesia <p><em>Background</em>: The Karo ethnic group in Berastagi, North Sumatra, Indonesia, relies on traditional remedies like Karo oil for various health purposes. However, scientific documentation of its medicinal properties is lacking. This study aimed to document its traditional use, medicinal plants, and community-based development efforts.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight knowledgeable Karo informants. Non-probability sampling ensured selection aligned with research objectives and cultural context. Data were analyzed using the Miles and Huberman Model, exploring medicinal plants and calculating quantitative indices.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study identified 39 plant families and 84 medicinal plants used in Karo oil. Common families were Zingiberaceae, Lamiaceae, Arecaceae, Rutaceae, and Apiaceae. The production involves collecting raw materials, separation, grinding, heating, filtering, and packaging. Karo oil treats muscle and joint disorders, skin conditions, indigestion, fever, and aids in postnatal recovery. Native plant species, like <em>Vitis gracilis </em>and <em>Anoectochilus reinwardtii </em>play a crucial role in traditional medicine.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The Karo community possesses rich traditional knowledge of medicinal plants specially for oil production. However, modernization and a lack of successors threaten this knowledge. Conservation efforts are crucial for preserving this valuable cultural heritage.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Community health, Cultural heritage, Local wisdom, Natural remedies, Traditional healing</p> Anggi Chatie Yunida Aritonang, Muhammad Fauzan Lubis, Wawan Sujarwo Copyright (c) 2024 Anggi Chatie Yunida Aritonang, Muhammad Fauzan Lubis, Wawan Sujarwo Tue, 04 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Conservation Value and Medicinal Potential of Wild Herbaceous Flora in the Sanghar Mountains of District Bhimber, AJK, Pakistan <p><em>Background: </em>The current research aimed to explore the conservation status, ethnobotanical and traditional ethnomedicinal uses of wild flora in the Sanghar mountains of District Bhimber, Pakistan, with a focus on discovering novelty and potential drugs.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>This study was conducted in 2018-19 and involved interactions with indigenous communities, with informants ranging in age from 40 to 100 years. Open-ended and closed-ended interview protocols were employed to gather information. Conservation status was determined using a semi-structured questionnaire covering anthropology.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Among the 248 plant species studied, 47 were trees, 42 were shrubs, and 159 were herbs, all of which were utilized in traditional ecological medicines and ethnobotany. Out of the 248 plant species, 120 (48.38%) were annual, 6 (2.44%) were biennial, and 122 (49.18%) were perennial plants. Poaceae and Asteraceae stood out as the most prevalent families in the region, with 33 and 14 plant species respectively. These plants served various purposes, with 30% utilized as fodder, 24% as fuel sources, and smaller percentages employed for ethnoveterinary medicines, home construction, cosmetics, and honeybee cultivation. The traditional applications of these plants encompassed the treatment of a wide range of ailments, including fever, cough, jaundice, skin diseases, diabetes, snake bites, and dental issues. Among the 248 plant species studied, 4.64% were dominant, 5.24% endangered, 43.54% vulnerable, 38.70% rarely distributed, and 6.85% infrequent, indicating the urgent need for focused conservation efforts.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The research underscores the potential for drug discovery within traditional ethnomedicinal practices, emphasizing the conservation of the flora from the study area.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Ethnobotany, plant biodiversity, medicinal plants, botanical composition, drug discovery</p> Humaira Khanum, Muhammad Ishtiaq , Mehwish Maqbool, Iqbal Hussain, Khizer Hayat Bhatti, Muhammad Waqas Mazhar, Alia Gul Copyright (c) 2024 Humaira Khanum, Muhammad Ishtiaq , Mehwish Maqbool, Iqbal Hussain, Khizer Hayat Bhatti, Muhammad Waqas Mazhar, Alia Gul Thu, 28 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnobotanical study of the Chơ Ro minority in Dong Nai Culture and Nature Reserve, Vietnam <p><em>Background</em>: The Chơ Ro ethnic community in Dong Nai Culture and Nature Reserve has diverse traditional knowledge of plants, but it has disappeared at an alarming rate for various reasons.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: An ethnobotanical study was conducted from March to June 2022 in Ly Lich 1 hamlet, Phu Ly commune, through semi-structured interviews and field surveys involving seven key informants. The aim was to compile an inventory of useful plants utilized by the local community. Additionally, focus groups were employed to identify priority species based on community perception.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 118 taxa, belonging to 57 plant families, were identified as being utilized by the community across eight main categories. Among these, food comprised the largest group, accounting for 66.0% of total use reports, with various plant parts being utilized. Using three techniques of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach, including free-listing, direct ranking, and pair-wise ranking, it was determined that <em>Gnetum gnemon</em> L. and <em>Lasia spinosa</em> (L.) Thwaites were the most important species for the Chơ Ro people. Consequently, distribution maps for these species within the study site were created based on field surveys.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The study's findings contribute significantly to the preservation of Chơ Ro's indigenous knowledge and provide essential data for biodiversity conservation and the sustainable development of local resources.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany; Chơ Ro; Indigenous knowledge; Priority species</p> Xuan-Minh-Ai Nguyen, Thi-Mai-Anh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2024 Xuan-Minh-Ai Nguyen, Thi-Mai-Anh Nguyen Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Diversity of medicinal flora and traditional knowledge of Muzaffargarh District Punjab Province, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> Ethnomedicine is an important part of different cultures across the globe. It has a central role in providing new medicinal plants to phytochemical exploration and effective drug discoveries for centuries.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted to collect the ethnobotanical knowledge. We used a snowball technique for respondents sampling. Semi-structured interviews were for ethnobotanical data collection. Relative frequency citation (RFCs), fidelity level (Fl), Use value (UV), and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were used to analyze the data.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 68 medicinal taxa belonging to 64 genera and 39 families. Fabaceae was the dominant family with (7 species,9.7%) followed by Moraceae (5 species, 6.9%) and Myrtaceae, and Cucurbitaceae with (4 species, 5.5%) each. In utilization trees (26) were dominant. Regarding part used leaves (23.61%) were frequently utilized. In Powder was ranked first in crude drug formulation using in (30 medications. In quantitative analysis, the maximum RFCs value was calculated for<em> Azadirachta indica </em>A.Juss. and<em> Phyla nodiflora </em>(L.) Greene. Highest FL100 was % totaled for <em>Capparis decidua </em>Edgew and <em>Triticum aestivum </em>L. Similarly, <em>Jasminum officinale </em>L. <em>and Leptadenia pyrotechnica </em>(Forssk.) Decne<em>. </em>Scored highest UV values<em>. </em>Maximum ICF was recorded for Dental and dermal disorders respectively.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The plant-based knowledge of the area is substantial but limited to aged people. Saturating allopathic drugs and rapidly changing life trends have strikingly declined the importance of ethnobotanical resources. Hence, the study urges for the revival and conservation of the ethnobotanical heritage at emergency basis. </p> <p><em>Key words:</em> medicinal plants, indigenous knowledge, arid lands, phytotherapy, ethnobotany</p> Muhammad Afzal, Zaheer Abbas, Zahra Noreen, Gul Nawaz, Muhammad Sajjad, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Abdullah, Nida Harun, Affiefa Yawer Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Afzal, Zaheer Abbas, Zahra Noreen, Gul Nawaz, Muhammad Sajjad, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Abdullah, Nida Harun, Affiefa Yawer Mon, 17 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used by the Melanau Igan Community of Sarawak <p><em>Background</em>: The Melanau Igan community is a distinctive subgroup of the larger Melanau ethnic group. What sets the Melanau Igan apart from other Melanau communities is their unique dialect and cultural characteristics. The present study was conducted to document the herbal medicinal plants used by this community, and the cultural, geographical, and historical dimensions that shape this ethnomedicinal system.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: A total of 71 respondents from five Melanau Igan villages were interviewed in this study. The results were evaluated based on the plant’s total use-reports, number of respondents citing the plant, and use-reports by ailment category. Moreover, the similarity with other neighboring ethnic groups were calculated.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The 71 respondents in this study cited 72 plant species with a total of 596 use reports. Fever, headaches, skin issues, diabetes, and hypertension are the most common ailments treated with traditional medicine in the Melanau Igan community. <em>Hibiscus rosa-sinensis</em>, <em>Citrus aurantifolia</em>, <em>Psidium guajava</em>, <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> and <em>Citrus limon</em> play prominent roles in the traditional medicine of the community, being the top five plants with the most respondent citations.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: A distinctive feature of the Melanau Igan community's ethnomedicine is the significant role of women in traditional healing due to their household and caregiving responsibilities. The uniqueness of the community’s traditional medicine is influenced by historical and cultural factors, while geographical proximity does not guarantee similarity. Their coastal lifestyle, historical associations, and cultural ties with Malays shape their ethnomedicinal practices, underscoring the importance of considering these contexts when studying traditional medicine in Borneo.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany; Tropical forest herbs; Borneo; Southeast Asia; Traditional medicine</p> Keeren Sundara Rajoo; Nurul Azwany Umayrah; Philip Lepun Copyright (c) 2024 Keeren Sundara Rajoo; Nurul Azwany Umayrah; Philip Lepun Tue, 16 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sharing the ecological knowledge of plants used in handicrafts as a survival strategy of rural communities of Dera Ghazi Khan district, Pakistan <p><em>Background:</em> Craftwork is one of the vital components of phyto-culture worldwide. It offers a livelihood to marginalized communities in the rapidly changing environmental conditions with the preservation of cultural diversity. This study aimed to evaluate the indigenous knowledge about the utilization and cultural importance of plant-based handicrafts in the rural communities of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> In order to collect the desired data preliminary, surveys and field trips were carried out in sixteen remote sites of the study area from September 2021 to May 2022. Altogether, 105 respondents were sampled via snow-boll sampling techniques. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were employed after getting verbal consent. The participants were evaluated for their ethnicity, age, language, education, and livelihood. The status, challenges and transmission of traditional knowledge were also assessed.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Five plant taxa were recorded for craftwork, i.e., <em>Saccharum bengalense </em>Retz<em>.</em>(Poaceae), <em>Phoenix dactylifera </em>L.<em>, Nannorrhops ritchieana </em>(Griff.) Aitch<em>. </em>(Arecaceae), <em>Typha latifolia </em>L. (Typhaceae), and <em>Tamarix aphylla </em>(L.) H.Karst. (Tamaricaceae). These species grow around wetlands and only <em>Phoenix dactylifera </em>L. was cultivated species. The participants cited 49 handicraft products manufactured from the reported species. Maximum products (14. 28%) were made from the raw materials of <em>Phoenix dactylifera </em>L. followed by <em>Nannorrhops ritchieana </em>(Griff.) Aitch<em>.</em> (12, 24%), <em>Typha latifolia </em>L. (9, 18%), and <em>Saccharum bengalense Retz.(</em>8, 16%) and <em>Tamarix aphylla </em>(L.) H.Karst. (6, 12%). All these handicraft products were in rough and limited marketing loop. The documented species were also valued for traditional therapies of 25 diseases related to respiratory, digestive, urinary, dermal and cardiovascular systems. Relative frequency citations (RFCs) were ranged from 0.17 – 0.24 for calculated for <em>Nannorrhops ritchieana </em>(Griff.) Aitch<em>. </em>and <em>Phoenix dactylifera </em>L. respectively.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Similarly, in the current era of modernization, the traditional knowledge of crafting plants is seemingly underappreciated. Although it is still in practice with subjection to limitation, fragmentation, and eroding. In this regard, social discouragement, harsh socio-ecology, modern life patterns and shifting earning trends are potential factors for its depletion. Inclusion of this valued knowledge in school syllabi, development of vocational centers, and devising of a proper market chain could be game changers for revitalization and achievement of sustainable development goals for these impoverished but professional communities.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Phytoculture, marginalized communities, craftworks, livelihood, modernization</p> Muhammad Sajjad, Zaheer Abbas, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Abdullah Abdullah, Sunghoon Yoo, Heesup Han, António Raposo, Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Sajjad, Zaheer Abbas, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Abdullah Abdullah, Sunghoon Yoo, Heesup Han, António Raposo, Rainer W. Bussmann Thu, 28 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Indigenous practices for cultivation of fruit plants in Kampung Dukuh, West Java, Indonesia <p><em>Background</em>: Fruit is underrepresented as a source of nutrition owing to high production challenges and a lack of successful domesticating techniques. However, this issue can be addressed if an effective indigenous practice can be identified, and then the techniques can be promoted and shared with other communities. This research aims to document: (1) the landscape and land classification in <em>Kampung Dukuh</em>, (2) the fruit plants found in <em>Kampung Dukuh</em>, and (3) the cultivation technique practiced by indigenous people.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The research was conducted through field observations at 162 sites within the village and in-depth interviews with 30 informants selected using the purposive sampling method. Data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman Models.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: (1) Indigenous people have traditional practices in understanding their living environment and have divided the living area into five zones, viz., cover land<em>, </em>deposit land<em>, </em>arable land<em>, </em>forbidden land, and reserve land (2) a high fruit plant diversity of 587 plants belonging to 90 species and 38 families were present in <em>Kampung Dukuh</em>. The most dominant family is Moraceae (13.33%), followed by Anacardiaceae (10%) and Rutaceae (8.89%) (3) The fruit plant cultivation technique involves a series of processes from site preparation, planting, tree caring, and fruit harvesting.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Indigenous people divide their land into five zones and cultivate 90 species of fruit plants. Their cultivation techniques, from site preparation to harvesting, underscore the value of indigenous knowledge and highlight the area's rich fruit plant diversity. These practices offer valuable insights for sustainable fruit cultivation in similar contexts.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: traditional methods, cultivation technique, indigenous people</p> Anisa Anggraeni, Eisya Hanina Hidayati, Ratna Yuniati, Yong Kien-Thai, Wawan Sujarwo Copyright (c) 2024 Anisa Anggraeni, Eisya Hanina Hidayati, Ratna Yuniati, Yong Kien-Thai, Wawan Sujarwo Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 People and plants - close relationships at the crossroads of the Silk Roads: the case of Tajikistan <p><em>Background:</em> This study examines the spatial relationship between human populations, livestock and wild useful plants in Tajikistan, a key area along the ancient Silk Roads. It aims to understand how the distribution of these plants correlates with the presence of humans and livestock.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> The study uses statistical analyses, including the LSVM model, to assess the distribution of 4269 plant species, of which 1823 are identified as useful. Various factors such as bioclimatic conditions and plant use categories are taken into account.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The results indicate a significant correlation between the distribution of useful plants and human population, especially in urbanised areas, which cover 7.4% of Tajikistan. In particular, flora functionality significantly influences human population distribution.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> The research highlights the importance of spatial relationships between humans and useful flora in population distribution. It suggests that these relationships should be included in models predicting human settlement patterns based on environmental factors.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> useful plants, human population distribution, Tajikistan, Middle Asia, spatial relationship, ethnobotany, support vector machines, supervised learning models.</p> Marcin Kotowski, Sebastian Świerszcz, Marcin Nobis, Murodbek Laldjebaev, Barfiya Palavonshanbieva, Arkadiusz Nowak Copyright (c) 2024 Marcin Kotowski, Sebastian Świerszcz, Marcin Nobis, Murodbek Laldjebaev, Barfiya Palavonshanbieva, Arkadiusz Nowak Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Study on magico-religious plants in Paddari tribe of Jammu and Kashmir, India <p><em>Background</em>: The present study was carried out in Paddar region of Jammu and Kashmir to investigate and document the plant species used by the Paddari tribe in socio-magico-religious purposes.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ninety-eight informants (55 males and 43 females) in the age of 21 to 80 years were included in the study. Purposive, snowball and random sampling methods were used to choose the informants. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, group discussions, and field visits. Data was quantitatively analyzed using Relative Frequency of citations (RFCs), Cultural Importance (CI), Family important value (FIV), Informant consensus factor (ICF), Jaccard’s Index (JI).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The study documented 32 plants of 31 genera from 19 families for magico-religious purposes. Herbs (47%) were the dominant plant forms and stem (23%) is the mostly used part used in magico-religious practices. <em>Pyrus malus</em> L. and <em>Brassica campestris</em> L. have high relative frequency of citation (RFC) as well as cultural importance (CI). MAG had the highest informant consensus factor (ICF=0.968). Magico-religious use of <em>Rosa moschata</em> Herrm., <em>Desmodium elegans</em> DC., <em>Achillea millefolium</em> L., <em>Angelica glauca</em> Edgew., <em>Indigofera tinctoria</em> L., <em>Prunus persica</em>, <em>Rosa webbiana</em> Wall. ex Royle are reported for the first time.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The people of Paddar have rich traditional knowledge of employing plants in magico-religious practices. It is critical to maintain this traditional knowledge by proper documentation and identification to ensure their sustainable use. It is recommended that the study area's inhabitants must be educated on the value of plant diversity and monitored and contacted on a regular basis regarding their beliefs.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Magico-religious beliefs, Sacred Plants, Cultural beliefs, Paddari tribe, Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir</p> Kanwaljeet Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Bushan Kumar, Sumeet Gairola Copyright (c) 2024 Kanwaljeet Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Bushan Kumar, Sumeet Gairola Thu, 11 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnomedicinal Potential of indigenous plants of the Northern Balochistan, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: The Pakistani region of Balochistan lies within the borders of three countries (Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan) and is a large, arid and mountainous province that makes up a large part of the country's land area. It is called a sacred land by the locals as it has different ecological conditions such as attractive landscapes, magnificent forests and a variety of unique flora and fauna. This study, the medicinal use of plants in the Northern region of Balochistan province in Pakistan was documented.</p> <p><em>Methods: </em>During the field research conducted in 2021-2023, an open-ended survey was prepared to record and document the ethnomedicinal use of high-value medicinal plants in the study area. The ethnomedicinal data was collected by administering the prepared questionnaire to local people, pansars, judges, local midwives and old wise men (both men and women).</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 93 ethomedicinally important plant species from 40 families are reported from the northern Balochistan. Out of the 93 species, 1 species (1.07 %) was a gymnosperm, 11 species (11.82 %) belonging to 6 families were monocotyledons and the remaining 81 species (87.09 %) belonging to 33 families were of dicotyledons. Papilionaceae was the leading family in terms of species diversity, represented by 14 medicinal plant species (15.05 %) belonging to 9 genera (9.67 %), followed by Asteraceae with 9 species (9.67 %) belonging to 9 genera (9.67 %), Apiaceae with 7 species (7.52 %) belonging to 7 genera (7.52 %), Brassicaceae with 5 species (5.37 %) belonging to 5 genera (5.37 %) and Lamiaceae with 5 species (5.37 %) belonging to 4 genera (4.30 %). The remaining 36 families had less than 5 species each (5.37 %). According to habit, most medicinal plants were herbs with 55 species (59 %), followed by shrubby plants with 33 species (36 %) and trees were represented by 5 species (5 %). The most common and important plant part used in the preparation of recipe was the whole plant, 37 species (39.78 %), followed by leaves, 14 species (15.05 %) and seeds, 10 species (10.75 %). Oral ingestion was the main route of administration with 74 (79%) species, followed by topical application with 9 species (10 %), while 10 species (11 %) were used both topically and orally. The ethnomedicinal study revealed a total of ninety-three species most important for therapeutic use. The bulb of <em>Allium griffithianum</em> is used orally for mouth ulcers, while the whole plant of <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> is used for coughs and rheumatism. Therefore, some species are also used for multiple purposes (<em>Berberis baluchistanica</em>, <em>Onosma hispida</em>, <em>Citrullus colocynthis, Ephedra intermedia,</em> <em>Acacia nilotica</em>, <em>Astragalus khalifatensis</em>, <em>Berchemia pakistanica</em>, <em>Ziziphus mauritiana</em> and <em>Withania coagulans</em>), while only a few plants in this area have a single therapeutic use (<em>Achillea</em><em> wilhelmsii</em>, <em>Iphiona grantioides</em>, <em>Matricaria aurea</em>, <em>Microcephala lamellate</em>, <em>Heliotropium baluchistanicum</em>, <em>Cardaria chalepense</em>, <em>Sisymbrium irio</em>, <em>Tetracme stocksii</em>, <em>Acanthophyllum grandiflorum</em>, <em>Convolvulus spinosus</em>, <em>Cuscuta pulchella</em>, <em>Euphorbia granulata</em>, <em>Ricinus communis</em>, <em>Iris stocksii</em>, <em>Alhagi maurorum</em>, <em>Caragana brachyantha</em>, <em>Parkinsonia aculeata</em>, <em>Papaver pavoninum</em>, <em>Sorghum halepense</em>, and <em>Ranunculus falcatusi</em>).</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Since the species have medicinal value, the results of our study provide important scientific as well as practical insights. In this context, we believe that the species used by local people in traditional treatment will be important for the protection of social health.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnomedicinal plants; Herbal recipes; Northern Balochistan; Pakistan</p> Rafiq Ullah, Nadeem Ahmed, Ghulam Jelani, Muhammad Nauman Khan, Alevcan Kaplan, Sana Wahab Copyright (c) 2024 Rafiq Ullah, Nadeem Ahmed, Ghulam Jelani, Muhammad Nauman Khan, Alevcan Kaplan, Sana Wahab Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An ethnobotanical study of traditionally used medicinal plants: Case study from Assam, India <p><em>Background</em>: Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants, their application, and conservation is very likely to be disappearing. From the perspective of conservation planning and management, it is crucial to assemble information about the use of medicinal herbs by various ethnic groups and at various spatial scales. Therefore, with this viewpoint in mind, this study was carried out, which included the ethnobotanical analysis of medicinal plants in Dimoria, Assam, which contributed to the locally based traditional healthcare system of the people living there.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The study was conducted with 140 traditional knowledgeable people (78 male and 62 female) being interviewed purposively. Household questionnaire surveys (HQS), key informant interviews (KII), and focus group discussions (FGD) were used for data collection. The use value (UV) score of species, informant consensus factor (ICF), and fidelity level (FL) were computed as standard ethnobotanical data analytical methods.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The current study compiled information on the traditional use of 80 plant species from 45 different botanical groups to treat 56 distinct human diseases. The families that have the most species were Fabaceae followed by Rutaceae, Lamiaceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, etc. Leaves (60%) were found the most commonly used plant parts for the treatment of various health ailments. The average UV score was found to be 0.64 (0.40 – 0.89). Based on UV scores, the most used species was <em>Zingiber officinale</em> (UV 0.89) and the least used species were <em>Cereus repandus</em> (UV 0.40). The FL of plant species ranged from 67.09 % to 94.44 % for the eleven categories chosen in the study area. The maximum FL of 94.44 % was found for <em>Azadirachta indica</em> for the dermatological disorder category. In our study, ICF factors for each category of usage ranged from 0.69 to 0.94, with cardiovascular disorder exhibiting the highest ICF value of 0.94.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The results of the study demonstrated that Dimoria is a repository for indigenous knowledge and a highly varied range of reliable plant species. Furthermore, additional research is required to determine the safety and efficacy of described ethnomedicinal plants in treating a variety of diseases, as the findings presented in this paper are preliminary in nature. As a result, the study highlights the potential of ethnomedical research as well as the significance of recording customary knowledge about the use of medicinal plants by the community for the benefit of all people.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Ethnobotany; Indigenous; Medicinal plants; Traditional knowledge; Assam</p> Meghali Kalita, Saklain Mustak Alam, Shah Nawaz Jelil Copyright (c) 2024 Meghali Kalita, Saklain Mustak Alam, Shah Nawaz Jelil Sun, 26 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The role of plants in traditional medicine and current therapy: A case study from North part of Kashmir Himalaya <p><em>Background</em>: In many rural areas, especially in developing nations, medicinal plants serve as the main source of the healthcare systems. The purpose of this study was to document the therapeutic plants used by the local population in the Kashmir Himalayas.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire was used to conduct one-on-one interviews and group discussions with selected informants. Use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and informant consensus factor (ICF) were three quantitative indicators used to assess the homogeneity of the ethnobotanical data.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 72 medicinal plants belonging to 41 different families were reported. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Polygonaceae were the dominant families. Leaves were the most commonly plant part used and infusion the dominant plant preparation. Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary conditions, followed by dermatological disorders and musculoskeletal conditions were treated by highest number of plant species. Highest UV was reported for <em>Artemisia absinthium </em>(0.65), <em>Rheum webbianum</em> (0.59) and highest RFC is reported for <em>Arnebia benthamii</em> (0.61), <em>Taraxacum officinale </em>(0.59). The highest IFC values are reported for Gynecological disorders (0.99), Muscular and joint diseases (0.98) disease categories. Out of 72 medicinal plants reported 59 medicinal plants were used for different ethno-biological uses other than medicinal values. A total of 8 medicinal plants were exotic species, and 14 were reported in IUCN red list.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Due to increasing human activity and environmental degradation, traditional knowledge on plant use is slowly disappearing in many regions. The promotion of the transmission of traditional knowledge requires immediate action. In order to boost local economic development and uphold the principle of biodiversity protection, it is also necessary to ensure the sustainable use of medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>; Kashmir, local communities, Medicinal plants, Traditional therapies.</p> Aadil Abdullah Khoja, Muhammad Waheed, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Rainer W. Bussmann Copyright (c) 2024 Aadil Abdullah Khoja, Muhammad Waheed, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Rainer W. Bussmann Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A quantitative exploration of traditional medicinal plants of Koh Valley Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan <p><em>Background</em>: This is the first quantitative study on the traditional use of important medicinal plants in Koh Valley Chitral, Hindukush range, Pakistan. This research explores the relationship between local communities and medicinal plants in their daily lives and provides practical knowledge for maintaining health.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: A total of 160 informants were interviewed, including inhabitants of the study area of both genders and traditional healers. Visual assessment and rural appraisal methods were used together with semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires. The data collected were analyzed quantitatively using the following parameters: Frequency of citation, relative frequency of citation, reports on the importance of using to family, parts used and their use.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The ethnomedicinal study revealed that a total of 128 plant species belonging to 104 genera and 51 families were reported. The study showed that Asteraceae was the dominant family with 14 species. The life form showed that herbs were the leading group (82 species), while fruits (42 species), were the most commonly used plant parts. <em>Berberis lycium</em> is the most commonly medicinal plant in this area. Other plants were also used for the treatment of different diseases. Fifty two (52 species), are commonly used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The RFC values ranges from 0.05 to 0.29. Asteraceae showed the highest FIV value (183.13), followed by Rosaceae (180.6). <em>Papaver somniferum</em> has the highest usage report (UR-16), indicates that, in a specific ethnobotanical study, this plant was cited for the most diverse applications among all the plants documented.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: The identified plants showed strong therapeutic properties and this research will be the basic guideline for the preservation of ethnomedicinal knowledge, heritage and crude drug practices in the context of the development of new herbal medicines.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Traditional Knowledge; Importance value; <em>RFC</em>; Use report; Koh Valley</p> Zahid Fazal, Lal Badshah, Muhammad Nauman Khan, Alevcan Kaplan, Amjad Ali, Wahid Husssain Copyright (c) 2024 Zahid Fazal, Lal Badshah, Muhammad Nauman Khan, Alevcan Kaplan, Amjad Ali, Wahid Husssain Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The importance of elephant forage plants for indigenous people around the elephant corridor in Bukit Tigapuluh Landscape and the future development to support the conservation of Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maximus Sumatranus) <p><em>Background</em>: Datuk Gedang Wildlife Corridor (DGWC) has been designated as a vital area to support a conservation program for Sumatran Elephant (<em>Elephas maximus</em> Sumatranus). Indigenous Talang Mamak, Anak Dalam, and Malay people living in the area depend on natural resources to support their necessities. This study aimed to identify and to assess the importance of elephant forage plants utilized by indigenous people to evaluate potential human and elephant conflict in DGWC.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The data were collected from 41 informants through semi-structured and in-depth interviews. Research plots were installed to identify and collect elephant food plants, and the samples were sent to herbarium for identification. The importance of forage plants for indigenous people was quantitatively evaluated using the index of cultural significance (ICS) analysis.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> This study identified 139 plant species consumed by elephants and also utilized by the indigenous Talang Mamak, Anak Dalam, and Malay living around DGWC. Talang Mamak people mostly utilize the forage plants among the others. The ICS of the plants are categorized as follows: 2 species with very high ICS, 11 species with high ICS, and 34 species s with medium ICS, and 91 species with low ICS.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Indigenous people around the corridor depend of plants as sources of food, medicines, building materials, equipment, firewood, fodder, and culture which can potentially create resource of conflicts between humans and elephants. Based on the importance and the availability of the plants, this study recommended 11 species that are important to be enriched in DGWC.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Elephant Corridor; Ethnobotany; Forage plants; Index of cultural importance (ICS); Indigenous people.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Rospita Odorlina Pilianna Situmorang, Wanda Kuswanda, M. Hadi Saputra, Hendra Helmanto, Parlin Hotmartua Putra Pasaribu Copyright (c) 2024 Rospita Odorlina Pilianna Situmorang, Wanda Kuswanda, M. Hadi Saputra, Hendra Helmanto, Parlin Hotmartua Putra Pasaribu Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Barangay Garden Plants during COVID-19 General Community Quarantine in Baguio City, Philippines <p><em>Background</em>: Initiatives on gardening and the use of garden plants in barangays were observed especially during the declaration of community quarantine and lockdown in Baguio City, Philippines due to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study primarily aimed to determine the types of plants (vegetable, ornamental, medicinal, and fruit-bearing), frequency of occurrence, parts used, benefits and importance based on use-categories (as raw food, processed or preserved food, forage, condiment or ingredient, decoration, offertory, medicinal). </p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Descriptive research design and method were utilized. The collection of data was done through an online survey and interview of key informants per barangay from February to April 2021. Descriptive statistics were applied to the data gathered. Ethnobotanical indices such as use value, informant consensus factor and relative frequency of citation were calculated.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: A total of 178 plant species were found belonging to 62 families. Vegetables are the most widely cultivated plants. The plants provide many benefits such as economic enterprise, food security, help in saving money, and improved health among others. Tomato is the most common food plant eaten raw, used as a condiment or ingredient and processed or preserved. Meanwhile, ‘sayote’ as forage for animals, strawberry for offerings, orchid tree for decoration. Oregano was utilized as medicine to treat cough and sore throat which are common symptoms of COVID-19.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Overall, the different kinds of vegetable, fruit-bearing, and medicinal plants found in the different barangays are essential and helpful in the community during the pandemic.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: barangay garden, use value, garden plant, community quarantine, new normal</p> Racquel Chua-Barcelo, Clarize Kanah Alhomon, Shannah Mae Dao-wan, Carmella Ramos, Roseann Mae Tiago, Dana Thea Ganiban Copyright (c) 2024 Racquel Chua-Barcelo, Clarize Kanah Alhomon, Shannah Mae Dao-wan, Carmella Ramos, Roseann Mae Tiago, Dana Thea Ganiban Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An ethnoecological study on plant conservation in Jering Menduyung Nature Recreational Park of West Bangka (Indonesia) <p><em>Background</em>: The communities around Jering Menduyung Nature Recreational Park (NRP) have local wisdom for utilizing and managing natural resources. Nature management, which is done and influenced by the implementation of local wisdom, can be studied through ethnoecological studies. This research aimed to record the plant species protected by local wisdom that supports the conservation of trees in the lowland forest of Jering Menduyung NRP through ethnoecological studies.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: This research was conducted in January-July 2023 in the traditional Jering Menduyung NRP and Air Menduyung Village. Ecological data were collected through vegetation analysis using the quadrat method with 21 plots and analyzed by calculating the Important Value Index. Local wisdom was collected through interviews and observation, which were analyzed descriptively and by calculating the Index of Cultural Significance.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: There were 37 tree species found in 24 families. The main uses of these tree species are for building boats and houses, being utilized as traditional ritual materials, and being the source of natural honeycomb. Based on the ICS values, the most important species in the local culture are <em>Calophyllum lanigerum</em> Miq., <em>Dipterocarpus gracilis</em> Blume, <em>Ficus sundaica</em> Blume, and <em>Dipterocarpus grandiflorus</em> (Blanco) Blanco. These tree species are protected by the local wisdom in managing landscape units, a ban on cutting trees in the <em>rimba</em>, belief in <em>pulong kayu</em>, <em>sapon</em> honey, the taboo of <em>melayuk</em>, and traditional rituals.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Local wisdom of the community around Jering Menduyung NRP supports tree conservation in those areas.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: <em>Jerieng</em> Tribe, Local ecological knowledge, Local wisdom, Traditional ecological knowledge, Tree</p> Jely Jeniver, Eddy Nurtjahya, Wawan Sujarwo Copyright (c) 2024 Jely Jeniver, Eddy Nurtjahya, Wawan Sujarwo Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Traditional uses and pharmacological activities of Sterculia villosa Roxb. - an underutilized tree of south east Asia <p><em>Background</em>: <em>Sterculia villosa</em> Roxb., is a multipurpose, fast-growing, underutilized tree species. Almost all parts of the trees are traditionally used across its geographically distributed regions by ethnic communities to treat a variety of human ailments and for ethnoveterinary purposes.</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: Despite extensive ethnomedicinal and pharmacological investigations on <em>S. villosa</em>, there is a notable absence of a comprehensive article consolidating reviews of published literature. So, herein, we designed this review article to provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the current research progress on S. villosa, to provide new insights and a broad field of view for future research. Extensive literature searches using “<em>Sterculia villosa</em>," “ethno-veterinary use," “ethnomedicinal use," “phytochemicals," and “pharmacological” were performed on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: This plant contains a wide variety of phytochemical constituents (alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, saponins, and terpenoids). Flavonoids such as Diosmetin, Chrysoeriol and its glucosides derivatives, triterpenoids such as lupeol and cyclopropenoid fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid are beneficial to human health, and are responsible for their antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is widely reported for treating skin ailments, rheumatism and urinary problems, seminal weakness, impotency, and gastric troubles.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: <em>S. villosa</em> can be a potential raw material for pharmaceuticals, plywood, pulp and paper industries, and waste water treatment, besides its significant ethno-medicinal uses. Henceforth, the socio-cultural, economic, and ecological values of <em>S. villosa</em> enhance the livelihood of local inhabitants and achieve sustainable developmental goals.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Diosmetin, palmitoleic acid, antioxidant, premature ejaculation, impotency</p> Akoijam Benjamin Singh, Puyam Devanda Singh, H Vanlalmalsawmropuia, Suresh Kumar, Vinod Prasad Khanduri, Kewat Sanjay Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Kewat Sanjay Kumar, Akoijam Benjamin Singh, Puyam Devanda Singh1, H Vanlalmalsawmropuia, Suresh Kumar, Vinod Prasad Khanduri Wed, 19 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnopharmacological importance of commonly used folk medicinal plants among the Malayali tribal community in Jawadhu Hills, Tamil Nadu, India: A review <p><em>Background</em>: The Malayali tribal community residing in the hamlets of Jawadhu Hills in Tamil Nadu, India, is known for their exceptional knowledge of traditional medicine. This ethnobotanical review provides a comprehensive analysis of the diverse array of commonly used folk medicines used by Malayali tribals to address various health ailments and promote well-being using ethnomedicinal plants. </p> <p><em>Methods</em>: An extensive investigation on key words ethnobotanical/ Jawadhu Hills/ Malayali tribe regarding literatures were collected for a period of 1990 to 2024 from various databases viz., PubMed, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct with search terms, Malayali tribes, Malayali tribals, tribes, Jawadhu hills, Javvadhu, ethnobotanical study, ethnobotanical survey, ethnobotanical explorations, and medicinal plants were used for the retrieval.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: The present review reports a sum of 178 common traditional medicinal plants belonging to 69 families and 146 genera utilized by the Malayali ethnic community. The majority of the plants used are from the family Fabaceae, and they are used to treat various ailments. </p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The folk medicinal plants recorded in the present report are identified with distinct and unique bioactive compounds responsible for various therapeutic effects. With this insight, herbal formulations from these plants can be prepared for vital usage and further suggested for the discovery of novel drugs in treating various diseases.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: Herbal medicine, Jawadhu hills, Medicinal practitioners, Traditional knowledge</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> An extensive investigation on ethnobotanical/ Jawadhu Hills/ Malayali tribe regarding literature was collected from 1990 to 2024 from various databases namely PubMed, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct with search terms, Malayali tribes, Malayali tribals, tribes, Jawadhu hills, Javvadhu, ethnobotanical study, survey, ethnobotanical explorations, and medicinal plants were used for the retrieval.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> A sum of 178 common folkloric medicinal plants belonging to 69 families and 146 genera utilized by ethnic communities were documented in the present study. Among these, the majority of the plants are domesticated from the family Fabaceae for treating various ailments.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The folk medicinal plants recorded in the present study are identified with distinct and unique bioactive compounds responsible for various pharmacological actions. With this insight, herbal formulations from these plants can be prepared for vital usage and further suggested for the discovery of novel therapeutic drugs.</p> Moses Sam Arul Raj , Muniappan Ayyanar Copyright (c) 2024 Moses Sam Arul Raj , Muniappan Ayyanar Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000