Factors influencing the effectiveness of galactogenic recipes in Borgou cows reared in a real environment in Benin

Zénabou Agani Agani, Cyrille K. Boko, Adam Dourossimi Adenile, Guénolé C Akouedegni, Guy Appolinaire Mensah, Joseph Dossou, Séverin Babatounde

Abstract


Background: Ethnoveterinary medicine is an integral part of the cultural heritage associated with traditional medicine in Africa, where plants and natural products treat the ailments suffered by animals. Many plants are used to improve the dairy performance of local cows. The study assesses factors that influencing the effectiveness of galactogenic recipes administered to Borgou cows raised in real conditions in Benin.

Methodology: A survey was carried out in the middle of the rainy season (April to September 2019), using a "focus group" to classify the plants involved in galactogenic recipes. The results obtained were subjected to a Factorial Correspondence Analysis (AFC) followed by a multiple regression carried out on qualitative data in particular, the organs of the plants used, the modes of use, the additives used and the administration route of recipe.

Results: The Factorial Correspondence Analysis (CFA) carried out on the methods of choosing the plants given relative to the zones showed that the correlation between these two variables was explained at 66.69% (Figure 1) by the first two axes. Therefore, the involvement of species in revenue depends on their availability in the study area. Indeed, the correspondences resulting from the projection of the different plants used in galactogenic preparations and the different assessment methods of agro-breeders (Efficient, moderately efficient, and fair) in the AFC axis systems (Figure 1) showed that in the communes of Gogounou and Kalalé, Arachis hypogaea (L.) and Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton were the most effective species. On the other hand, in Djidja, the most efficient plant was Gardenia aqualla Stapf & Hutch.

For each species, the results of the multiple regressions carried out with the organs involved in the preparation of galactogenic recipes are shown in Table 1. The organs exhibiting a positive coefficient and a probability less than 0.05 are those which positively influenced milk production. Note that for the species presented in the above table, one or more organs can be used in recipes presumed to be galactogenic by traditional breeders. But the effectiveness of the recipe depends on the type involved in its constitution. It is interesting to note that in certain species: Aganope stuhlmannii (Taub.) Adema, Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn, Calotropis procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali, Khaya senegalensis (Desv.) A.Juss, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Gardenia aqualla Stapf & Hutch, Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe) Clapier. Et Dalziel, Saba comorensis (Bojer ex A.DC.) Pichon and Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn, several organs positively impacted milk production. However, for the same recipe, the association of several organs in its constitution has a depressive effect on milk production. Apart from the number of organs involved in the constitution of the recipes, the method of preparation associated with each plant species impacted the milk production of the cows. Out of the thirteen species (19) which had significant effects with milk production, the results of Table 2 indicate that the modes of use were successively ranked as follows (Table 2): Maceration> decoction> powder> infusion were cited. Among the species which have undergone maceration: Budgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) JHKirkbr. & Wiersema, Arachis hypogaea (L.), Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton and Curcubita maxima (L.) have been mentioned. Species such as: Gardenia aqualla Stapf & Hutch, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and Vittelaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn could only be effective if used as a decoction. The effectiveness of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp on milk production could only be obtained by trituration for one hour. As for Saba comorensis (Bojer ex A.DC.) Pichon, the method of use was only very effective by infusion (P <0.001).

Among the ingredients involved in the recipes, only salt and potash appeared to be significant (P <0.05) on the milk production of cows. In addition, the results of the work indicated that the administration of oral preparations positively influenced milk production (P <0.05).

Conclusion: The study shows that agro-pastoralists have a perfect knowledge of the different factors that influence the effectiveness of galactogenic recipes. However, some plant species involved are becoming rare because of the development of crop fields to the detriment of forest cover. Most effective recipes involve the roots. This poses real problems for the ecology of the environment and the development of the species involved. Experiments are underway to confirm the results of the surveys.

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge; Galactogenic; plants; affecting; production; milk; organs; Bénin.


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