Documentation of veterinary practices from Gujjar and Bakarwal tribes of District Poonch, Jammu & Kashmir: A boon for animals from our ancestors
Keywords:Keywords, Ethnoveterinary, Gujjars, Bakarwals, Novelty, Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir
Background: Gujjar and Bakarwal tribal communities are a treasure trove of traditional veterinary knowledge as they have been using plants to keep their livestock healthy and free from diseases for centuries. However, this knowledge is declining day by day due to several factors. The present study was aimed at surveying and documenting the medicinal plants used traditionally by the tribal communities of Gujjar and Bakarwal in the Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), India to treat livestock ailments.
Methods: A systematic ethnobotanical survey was conducted in 12 villages between July 2018-March 2020. Data was gathered from the local inhabitants using semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed quantitatively using use-value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC), informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL).
Results: A total of 31 medicinal plant species belonging to 30 genera of 24 families, with herbs as the dominantly used plant habit (70.97%) were encountered. Roots were most frequently used for remedy preparation (35.14%) followed by leaves (32.43%), with oral administration as the main application mode. Use-value and Relative frequency of citation ranged from 0.03-0.72 and 0.03-0.48 respectively. Based on these values, Rumex nepalensis was found to be the most important ethnoveterinary species used. The reported Informant Consensus Factors were very high (0.81-1.00), indicating a very broadly spread knowledge about ethnoveterinary plants in the communities. The use category with the greatest number of plant species (10 spp.) was gynecological / andrological problems.
Conclusion: In the present study, novel ethnoveterinary uses for seven plant species, Aconitum violaceum, Arisaema jacquemontii, Bistorta amplexicaulis, Clematis grata, Ranunculus bulbosus, Ulmus villosa and Viburnum grandiflorum were recorded. The reported information can be used to standardize active principles which can further lead to the development of more efficient veterinary medicines.
Keywords: Ethnoveterinary, Gujjars, Bakarwals, Novelty, Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir
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